Abstract In order to examine the relation between the
height of disk friction losses and the geometry of disks
in real centrifugal pump housing disks without and with
modified outlet sections with various numbers, angles and
widths are investigated. Disks with modified outlet sections
were examined to approach a real impeller in real centrifugal
pump housing. The outlet channels of this impeller are
formed out, the rest of channels is replaced by firm material.
Experimental results of disks without modified outlet sections
show that the disk friction coefficient decreases with
the increase of the Reynolds number, but becomes smaller
with small values of the disk width and high values of the
gap. The inset of the volute has only small influence on disk
friction coefficient. Experiments on disk friction conducted
with and without the cover of the impeller shroud show that
the cover has more influence for high values of the axial gap.
Experimental results of disks with modified outlet sections
show that the disk friction coefficient don’t changes with the
Reynolds number, but generally the number and the angle of
the outlet sections of disks have an important influence on
the disk friction coefficient.

© All Rights Reserved

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Abstract In order to examine the relation between the
height of disk friction losses and the geometry of disks
in real centrifugal pump housing disks without and with
modified outlet sections with various numbers, angles and
widths are investigated. Disks with modified outlet sections
were examined to approach a real impeller in real centrifugal
pump housing. The outlet channels of this impeller are
formed out, the rest of channels is replaced by firm material.
Experimental results of disks without modified outlet sections
show that the disk friction coefficient decreases with
the increase of the Reynolds number, but becomes smaller
with small values of the disk width and high values of the
gap. The inset of the volute has only small influence on disk
friction coefficient. Experiments on disk friction conducted
with and without the cover of the impeller shroud show that
the cover has more influence for high values of the axial gap.
Experimental results of disks with modified outlet sections
show that the disk friction coefficient don’t changes with the
Reynolds number, but generally the number and the angle of
the outlet sections of disks have an important influence on
the disk friction coefficient.

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 9

DOI 10.1007/s10010-006-0045-1

ORIGINALARBEITEN ORIGINALS

with and without modified outlet sections

in real centrifugal pump casings

A. Nemdili D. H. Hellmann

Springer-Verlag 2007

height of disk friction losses and the geometry of disks

in real centrifugal pump housing disks without and with

modified outlet sections with various numbers, angles and

widths are investigated. Disks with modified outlet sections

were examined to approach a real impeller in real centrifugal pump housing. The outlet channels of this impeller are

formed out, the rest of channels is replaced by firm material.

Experimental results of disks without modified outlet sections show that the disk friction coefficient decreases with

the increase of the Reynolds number, but becomes smaller

with small values of the disk width and high values of the

gap. The inset of the volute has only small influence on disk

friction coefficient. Experiments on disk friction conducted

with and without the cover of the impeller shroud show that

the cover has more influence for high values of the axial gap.

Experimental results of disks with modified outlet sections

show that the disk friction coefficient dont changes with the

Reynolds number, but generally the number and the angle of

the outlet sections of disks have an important influence on

the disk friction coefficient.

A. Nemdili (u)

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,

Technical University of Oran,

Oran, Algeria

e-mail: alnemdili@yahoo.com

D. H. Hellmann

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Institute of Fluid Flow and Positive Displacement Machinery,

University of Kaiserslautern,

Kaiserslautern, Germany

D. H. Hellmann

e-mail: hellmann@mv.uni-kl.de

Experimentelle Untersuchungen

der Leistungsermittlung durch Scheibenreibung

von Scheiben mit und ohne Umfangsausschnitten

in realen Kreiselpumpegehausen

Zusammenfassung Um den Zusammenhang zwischen der

Hohe der Scheibenreibungsverluste und der Geometrie der

Scheiben in realen Kreiselpumpengehause zu u berprufen,

werden Scheiben mit und ohne Umfangsausschnitten mit

verschiedener Zahl, Winkel und Breite nachgeforscht.

Scheiben mit Umfangsausschnitten wurden u berpruft, um

sich einem realen Laufrad im realen Kreiselpumpengehause

zu nahern. Die Austrittskanale dieses Laufrades werden

heraus gebildet, der Rest der Kanale wird durch festes Material ersetzt. Experimentelle Ergebnisse der Scheiben ohne

Umfangsausschnitten zeigen, dass der Scheibenreibungskoeffizient sinkt mit zunehmender Reynolds Zahl, aber wird

kleiner mit kleinen Werten der Scheibenbreite und hohen

Werten des Spaltes. Der Einsatz von Spiralen hat nur einen

geringen Einfluss auf den Scheibenreibungskoeffizient. Experimente auf den Scheibenreibungsverlusten, die mit und

ohne Radseitenraumabdeckung durchgefuhrt wurden, zeigen, dass die Radseitenraumabdeckung mehr Einfluss fur

hohe Werte des axialen Spaltes hat. Experimentelle Ergebnisse der Scheiben mit Umfangsausschnitten zeigen, dass

der Scheibenreibungskoeffizient sich nicht mit der Reynolds

Zahl a ndert, aber im Allgemeinen haben die Zahl und der

Winkel den Umfangsausschnitten der Scheiben einen wichtigen Einfluss auf den Scheibenreibungskoeffizienten.

List of symbols

b

D

g

width (m)

diameter of disk (m)

gravity (m/s2 )

13

60

k

ks

M

R

Re

s

t

n

hydraulic roughness (m)

friction torque-moment (Nm)

radius of disk (m)

Reynolds number

axial gap between diskhousing (m)

radial gap between disk tip and housing (m),

temperature ( C)

rotational speed (RPM)

angular velocity (1/s)

mass density (kg/m3)

kinematic viscosity (m2 /s)

1 Introduction

Friction losses, which occur during the rotation of disks and

cylinders in closed casings, filled with fluid play in many

cases a decisive role. Their possible exact knowledge constitutes an important step in the calculation of pumps.

Disk friction losses caused by the fluid flow in the clearance between the impeller and the housing are expressed as

a power loss.

Disk friction losses in impeller side rooms of turbomachines have been treated in numerous publications. A number of empirical equations to predict the disk friction losses

were suggested by many researchers, but generally there is

not an exact mathematical model to predict these losses.

Most of the published work on disk friction is concerned

with plain thin disks rotating in close-fitting cylindrical casings and has been generally presented in terms of the nondimensional torque coefficient C M .

The purpose of the investigations reported here is to examine disks with different axial clearances between the

disk and the end walls of real centrifugal pump casings of

different width. Experiments in water are conducted with

modified geometry of disks at outlet by variation of the

Fig. 1 Notation for the

description of disk friction loss

13

sections of the disk.

Other experiments on disk friction are conducted with

and without the cover of the impeller shroud in order to find

the influence of the radial clearance on the disk friction loss.

Friction losses, which occur during the rotation of disks and

cylinders in housing filled with liquid, play a decisive role

in all turbomachines. Therefore their exact knowledge is an

important assistance for the design of these machines. With

the rotation of the impeller it comes between the exterior

surfaces of the impeller and the liquid energy dissipation

due to the friction called disk friction loss (Fig. 1).

Rotating disks can be divided in two categories:

On the first case, free disks which rotate in a fluid mass of

infinite geometrical expansion. In these models the fluid

is applied axially against the disk, which corresponds to

the incident flow in a radial centrifugal pump and then

radial diverts. Further it is to mention that there is no angular momentum in the flow and the friction torque corresponds to the angular momentum of the boundary layer.

On the second case enclosed disks are used as centrifugal pump models, which rotate in a chamber of limited

geometrical expansion. In this case, a quantity of angular

momentum of the flow is maintained by the disk. It results that the friction moment of these enclosed disks is

smaller than free disks according to the case one.

When a rotating disk in housing filled with liquid (Fig. 1) is

observed, a wall shear stress is formed, which represents

the relationship between the viscous force and the surface

=

dFz

= u 2 = r 2 2 .

dA

2

2

(1)

61

dFz =

2 2

r dA = r 2 2 2 r dr .

2

2

(2)

If this force is multiplied by the lever arm r and the angular speed of the fluid, then the energy dissipation for the

friction surface becomes after integration

D/2

PD f =

D/2

r dFz =

d/2

(3)

The Eq. 3 can be written as follows

(4)

are considered, the following equation can be written for the

fluid friction on the entire inactive surfaces

PD f = u 3 D (D + 5 e) .

MD f = 2

2 r 2 dr .

(6)

disk from

d/2

PD f = u 3 D2 .

R

0

r 4 3 dr

3 D5 .

160

turbulent flows.

From the radial moment equilibrium for the rotor, the

moment M DF transferred by the both sides of the disk to the

flow is

(5)

Pantell [1] in 1949 has stated that from the braking action

of the rotating parts around the flowing medium in turbomachines high losses result. Thus, kinetic energy is dissipated

in heat energy, whereby an energy loss for the process results with a negative influence on the hydraulic efficiency.

Therefore, it is essential to deal with this phenomenon of

disk friction for the optimization of operation conditions of

centrifugal pumps.

For this numerous flow theoretical investigations were

accomplished, which revealed however only fundamental

influencing parameters, but not the exact analysis of the disk

friction phenomenon including the arising losses, due to the

complex three-dimensional flow process.

Daily and Nece [2] conducted their experiments on test

stand with a DC motor of approx. 22 kW and a speed range

from 125 to 2000 RPM. Water was used at first as test fluid.

This was brought in the center, i.e. at the drive shaft of the

test stand, and in other case at the housing outlet diameter.

The radial clearance of disks, the Reynolds number as well

as the flow rate for the centric and/or the peripheral flowing

were constant for each test series. For the tested geometry of

the disk, the flow form of the induced flow between disk and

housing depends only on the Reynolds number and the axial

clearance.

In principle four flow forms are possible for a constant

axial clearance with variable Reynolds number. These will

be classified according to the flow between rotating disk

and housing, and to the geometrical expansion of the flow

boundary layers regarding to the axial gap. The four flow

modes are complete detailed in [2] for different Reynolds

MD f =

1

C M 2 R5 .

2

(7)

Reynolds number and the axial gap.

The best empirical expression of the disk friction coefficient was for the turbulent flow mode with separate boundary layers. In this mode, the flow in the gap between disk

and housing possess a turbulent characteristic. In addition

the fluid boundary layers of the rotating disk and the static

opposite wall are clearly separated from each other.

1/10

0.0102 Rs

CM =

(8)

Re1/5

Re is the Reynolds number formed with the peripheral speed

u and the radius R of the rotor

Re =

uR

R2

=

.

(9)

equations for the disk friction coefficient C M , one for hydraulically smooth disk, the other for a rough disk:

For hydraulically smooth regime, k S = k S,crit

s

t

C M = 0.075 Re0.2 1 + 0.75

+

.

(10)

R R

For rough regime, k S = k S,crit

1 + 0.75 Rt

CM =

0.25 2 .

3.8 log10 kRS 2.4 Rs

(11)

k S,crit =

150

.

R

(12)

The parameter k S is described as effective hydraulic roughness and must be interpreted as roughness characteristic

value of the flow-guiding surfaces of a centrifugal pump.

Geis [4] accomplished investigations on hydraulic pumps,

where the efficiency is affected by a multiplicity of parameters, for example the Reynolds number, the design mode of

the disk and/or the impeller, the fluid flow in the gap and the

size of the axial gap between rotating disk and housing.

13

62

the regime of turbulent flow with separate boundary layers,

which is the more likely to occur in centrifugal machinery.

According to Poullikkas, the empirical correlation of Daily

and Nece determined for the above mentioned flow form

best describes the disk friction losses of a real centrifugal

pump. Poullikkas studied the effect of the surface roughness

on the disk friction loss. He proposed a new approximate

solution using the principles of dimensional analysis based

on theoretical and experimental results. This takes into account the effect of the surface roughness and appears to be

convenient

0.25 s 0.1

kS

CM =

R 0.2 .

(13)

R

Re

Gulich [6] presented procedures to calculate the friction

losses of rotating disks with various friction factor definitions obtained from different references. A procedure allowing the calculation of disk friction, fluid rotation, leakage

and axial thrust, was developed. This procedure agrees well

test bench

13

with test data. The Author demonstrated that the main uncertainties in predicting disk friction losses are related to the

roughness and the inlet swirl.

3 Experimental procedure

The experimental installation for the identification of the

power demand of disk friction in water tests is shown in

Fig. 2. The torque is measured by means of a torque meter

mounted on (8) and the rotational speed by means of a stroboscope lamp in (9). The mechanical seal is cooled with

water, which is regulated by the valve (11). The ball valve

(14) is used to air escape of the trial equipment. The pump

(10) is filled with water by means of the shut-off slide (12).

The inlet and the outlet of the pump are direct connected

with socket (15 and 18), which at the same time support

the resistance thermometers (16 and 17). The temperature

difference between (16) and (17) is measured by means of

a precision temperature measurement device (21). The heat

tests.

Figure 3 gives details drawing of disk assembly. It is to

note that the axial gap s is the same at the front side and the

back side of the disk for a constant considered disk width

b2 . To all used disk widths, the radial clearance t is constant

(t = 1 mm).

To evaluate the disk friction, experiments are conducted

without the assembly of the disk and without filling the

pump with water for various values of the rotational speed,

in order to obtain the mechanical power PM due to bearingand mechanical seal friction.

The influence of the diffuser device will be investigated through the inset of three different volutes. The rotational speed will be varied by means of an electronic handadjustable speed control integrated in the motor.

Other experiments in water are conducted with modified geometry of disks at outlet by variation of the width

(axial clearance), the number (z = 4; 6 and 8), and the angle

(2 = 20 and 28 ) of the modified outlet sections of the

disk (Fig. 4).

Table 1 gives width of tested disks with the corresponding axial gap and surface roughness.

63

Table 1 Geometrical

parameters of tested disks

Width

Axial gap Roughness

b2 (mm) s (mm) k S (m)

18

13.5

5.45

23

11

6.46

29

8

5.26

36

4.5

8.62

parameters:

Axial clearance between disk and end wall of the casing

in term of s/R ratio of 0.004; 0.071; 0.098 and 0.12.

Tip clearance t/R ratio of 0.09.

Outlet volute width b4 (38; 48 and 54 mm).

Rotational speed n from 900 to 1800 RPM.

The state of zero delivery of the pump is simulated; the impeller is replaced by a disk, i.e. the complete blade passages

are filled up with material.

Power due to disk friction PDF is determined as follows

PDF = PS PM

(14)

torque M S and the rotational speed n:

assembly a with the cover

b without the cover;

13

64

PS = M S

2n

60

(15)

non-dimensional torque coefficient C M according to the following equation is used

CM =

PDF

2n 3

60

R5

(16)

The density and the kinematic viscosity of test fluid

are evaluated according to Lunzmann [7]

(t) =

Cn t n ;

(t) = e

110

110+t 3,152

106

(17)

n=0

with:

C0 = 999.84 ;

C2 = 9.106 10

C1 = 6.7983 2 ;

3

C4 = 1.12676 106 ;

C3 = 1.005273 104 ;

C5 = 6.5918 109 .

It is to note that the temperature is measured when a stationary temperature level for each rotational speed and each

disk width appears. It takes approximately 5 to 10 minutes.

A main value of the temperature t between the inlet and the

outlet of the pump is used.

Non-dimensional torque coefficients C M for disks without modified outlet sections and C MU A for disks with modified outlet sections are evaluated using Eq. 16 and drawn

versus the Reynolds number Re.

4 Experimental results

4.1 Analysis of results obtained for disks

without modified outlet sections

Influence of the axial clearance on C M . Figures 5 and 6

show the experimental results obtained for various clearances and the volute with width of 54 mm.

It can be seen from the curves C M = f(Re) that:

For each volute, the curve corresponding to the high

value of the axial clearance s = 13.5 mm (disk width of

b2 = 18 mm) lies below others curves (Fig. 5).

The disk friction coefficient C M declines approximately

steady in the same form with increased values of axial

clearance s and increased values of Reynolds-number Re

(Fig. 6).

By increasing of the s/R ratio the disk friction coefficient

C M decreases.

13

b2 /D2 )

the geometry of the volute is obtained in Fig. 7. The analysis of the curves shows that small differences between the

three curves for disk friction coefficient versus Reynoldsnumber appear. Therefore the inset of the volute has only

small influence on disk friction coefficient.

Influence of the radial clearance on C M . The radial clearance between the impeller and the casing was poor investigated. Consequently experiments on disk friction are conducted with and without the cover of the impeller shroud

according to Fig. 3 above.

The corresponding experimental results are shown

in Fig. 8

The analysis of the results shows that the cover, i.e. the

radial clearance t, has more influence for high values of the

axial gap s.

Additional experiments in water are conducted with

modified geometry of disks at outlet by variation of the

Fig. 7 Influence of the width of the volute on the disk friction coefficient

65

Fig. 8 Influence of the inset of the cover on the disk friction coefficient

sections of the disk.

4.2 Analysis of results obtained with disks

with modified outlet sections

Experiments are conducted with disks with modified outlet sections, by variation of the width (axial clearance),

the number of modified outlet sections (z = 4; 6 and 8)

and the angle of modified outlet sections (2 = 20

and 28 ).

Influence of the disk width b2 and the axial clearance s on

C MU A . The influence of the disk width, i.e. the axial clearance on the disk friction coefficient C MU A is shown in Fig. 9.

Examples of experimental results of disks with a number z

(4 and 8) and an angle 2 (20 and 28 ) of the modified

outlet sections running in volute of width b4 of 38 mm are

presented in this Fig. 9.

the disk friction coefficient becomes smaller with the decrease of the disk width b2 and the increase of the axial

clearance s.

Influence of the number of modified outlet sections z on

C MU A . The influence of the number of the modified outlet

sections of disks representing the impeller blade number z

on the disk friction C MU A is shown in Fig. 10. An example

of experimental results of disks with width b2 = 36 mm, an

angle 2 = 28 of the modified outlet sections running in

volute of width b4 = 48 mm is presented.

The analysis of the curves indicates that the disk friction

coefficient increases with the increase of the number of the

modified outlet sections of disks in all examined cases.

Influence of the angle of the modified outlet sections 2 on

C MU A . The influence of the angle of the modified outlet sections of disks representing the impeller blade outlet angle 2

on the disk friction C MU A is shown in Fig. 11.

13

66

The comparison of the results shows that the best approximate equation, which can predict with minimum error

the corrected experimental results by taking into account

the factor indicated in Eq. 5 and Fig. 6 above, seems to

be Eq. 13 given by Poullikkas [5]. However certain deviations are found, because the experiments are done using

a real centrifugal pump casing.

The correlation 8 given by Daily and Nece [2] appears to

be not accurate, because there was an error in the original

work about the factor 0.0102, which must be equal to 0.102

according to Poullikkas [5].

36 mm, a number z of 8 of the modified outlet sections running in volute with width b4 of 48 mm are represented.

For all values of the axial clearance s and for every volute

with corresponding width b4 , the disk friction coefficient increases with the increase of the angle of the modified outlet

sections of disks.

4.3 Comparison of measurement results with correlations

In order to examine the quality of the introduced approximate equations by the different authors and to reveal

the effects of a real centrifugal pump geometry on the

qualitative and quantitative development of the disk friction losses, a comparison of the established experimental results with these approximate Eqs. 8, 10, 11 and 13

was conducted. An example of the results is shown in

the Fig. 12.

experimental results with those

using different correlations

13

5 Conclusions

Friction losses, which occur during the rotation of disks and

cylinders in closed casings filled with fluid, play in many

cases a decisive role. Their possible exact knowledge constitutes an important step in the calculation of pumps.

Disk friction losses caused by the fluid flow in the clearance between the impeller and the housing are expressed as

a power loss. This power absorbed by disks rotating in a volute pump casing is measured.

Investigations with disks with and without modified outlet sections and different geometrical parameters in real centrifugal pump housing of different width are conducted.

The obtained results of disks without modified outlet sections show that:

The disk friction coefficient C M declines approximately

steady in the same form with increased values of axial

clearance s and increased values of Reynolds-number

Re.

By increasing the s/R ratio the disk friction coefficient

C M decreases.

friction coefficient.

The radial clearance t has more influence for high values

of the axial gap s.

From the analysis of experiments of disks with modified

outlet sections, following conclusions can be drawn:

The disk friction coefficient C MU A doesnt change with

the Reynolds number.

The disk friction coefficient decreases for small values

of the disk width and high values of the axial

clearance.

The disk friction coefficient increases with the increase of

the number and the angle of the modified outlet sections

of disks.

The influence of geometrical parameters of disks (disk

width, axial clearance, number and angle of the modified

outlet sections) means that all these factors affect the acceleration of the developed return flow due to friction. The

return (back) flow depends on the number and the angle of

the modified outlet sections of disks and causes an increase

of the temperature of fluid by dissipation.

The comparison of the results with correlations shows

that the best approximate equation, which can predict with

minimum error the corrected experimental results, seems to

be, by chronological order of appearance, the equation given

by Poullikkas [5], in 1995.

Certain deviations are found because the experiments are

done using a real centrifugal pump casing, while the uncertainties encountered during measurements do not

exceed 5%.

67

References

1. Pantell K (1949/1950) Versuche u ber Scheibenreibung. Forsch

Geb Ingenieurwes 16(4):97108

2. Daily JW, Nece RE (1960) Chamber Dimension Effects on Induced Flow and Frictional Resistance of Enclosed Rotating Discs.

ASME J Basic Eng 82(1):217232

3. Nixon RA, Cairney WD (1972) Scale effects in centrifugal cooling water pumps for thermal power stations. NEL Report 505,

April 1972

4. Geis H (1988) Pumpen optimieren. Berechnen und minimieren

der Radseitenverluste von hydraulischen Machinen. Maschinenmarkt / Forsch Konstruktion 54(20):7882

5. Poullikkas A (1995) Surface Roughness Effects on Induced Flow

and Frictional Resistance of Enclosed Rotating Discs. Trans

ASME J Fluids Eng 117:526528

6. Gulich JF (2003) Disk friction losses of closed turbomachine

impellers. Forsch Ingenieurwes 68:8795, DOI: 10.1007/s10010003-0111-x

7. Lunzmann H (1995) Einflu des Spaltstroms bei Spiralgehausepumpen mit glattem Kegelspalt und mit Bauchschaufeln. In: Mitteilungen des Pfeilderer-Instituts fur Stromungsmaschinen, Verlag

und Bildarchiv W. H. Faragallah, Heft 2, Januar 1995

8. Nemdili A (2000) Einzelverluste von Kreiselpumpen mit spezifischen Drehzahlen n q = 1535 min1 . SAM Forschungsberichte,

Band 1, Dissertation, Marz 2000, Verlag Universitat Kaiserslautern, ISBN 3-925178-45-7, ISSN 16156587

9. Nemdili A, Hellmann DH (2004) Experimental study of the influence of geometrical parameters on disc friction loss of a centrifugal pump. In: Proceedings of 22nd IAHR Symposium on

Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, June 29July 2 2004, Stockholm, Sweden, Volume B, B10-2.doc, 1(10)10(10)

10. Nemdili A, Hellmann DH (2004) Development of an empirical

equation to predict the disc friction loss of a centrifugal pump.

Scientific Bulletin of the Politehnica University of Timisoara,

Trans Mech 49(63):235240, Special issue, ISSN 1224-6077

11. Nemdili A (2005) Elaboration of calculation procedure of stresses

acting on turbine impeller disc due to its non uniform heating.

12`emes Journees Internationales de Thermique, Tanger, Maroc du

15 au 17 Novembre 2005, pp 311314

13

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