ELECTRO-MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT – SELECTION, BEST PRACTICE AND USE OF CHECKLISTS

CONTENTS

1 2

INTRODUCTION TURBINES

1 2 2 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 14 15 16 17 18 19

2.1 TURBINES TYPE 2.2 ARRANGEMENT 2.2.1 AXIS ARRANGEMENT 2.2.2 BEARING ARRANGEMENT 2.3 NUMBER OF UNITS 2.4 GEARBOX 2.5 EXPECTED ENERGY OF THE PROJECT 2.6 MAIN TURBINE TYPES: DRAWINGS AND PICTURES 3 4 5 6 7 8 GENERATORS GEARBOXES VALVES ELECTRIC PANELS ADDITIONAL REMARKS AND CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES

1

Introduction
The main choices for the SHP electromechanical equipments are related to the following topics. 1. Turbine 2. Gear 3. Generator 4. Gates and valves 5. Control panels 6. Switch boards 7. Transformers 8. Crane 9. Screen cleaner In the present paper we discuss only the first 4 items, which constitute the more relevant ones.

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2

Turbines
The turbines are the heart of the hydroelectric plants, as they transform the hydraulic energy in the mechanical one, which is a more easily usable form of energy. The choice about the turbines is related to: • type; • arrangement; • number of units; • gear; • expected energy of the project: • others peculiar aspects of the designed plant. The table resumes the above mentioned items and the main factors involved in the choice. In the following chapters each item will be discussed more deeply. Factors Type Arrangement Nr. units Gear Expected energy Others H; Qmax; Qmin Power station; maintenance facilities Qmin Rotation speed; cost Total investment Transport facilities; delivery time; waterhammer problems, etc.

2.1

Turbines type In the long history of the hydroelectric technology, a small number of turbine types survived to the field tests, so the choice is practically restricted in a small list, depending from the net head (H) and the rated flow (Q) of the installation. Although each turbine is designed taking into consideration both head and flow rate - which are the nominal data of the machine - a first classification is traditionally given by the head only. Turbine Type High (>50m) Impulse Pelton Turgo Multi-jet Pelton Reaction Head Classification Medium (10-50m) Crossflow Turgo Multi-jet Pelton Francis (open-flume) Francis (spiral case) Propeller Kaplan A more scientific approach comes from the theory of the models which leads to the specific speed function of head and flow rate. Low (<10m) Crossflow

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nc =

n H

P H

Nr. poles 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42

Frequency 3.000,0 1.500,0 1.000,0 750,0 600,0 500,0 428,6 375,0 333,3 300,0 272,7 250,0 230,8 214,3 200,0 187,5 176,5 166,7 157,9 150,0 142,9

where: • n [min-1] • H [m] • Q [m3/s] • P [kW] The choice process starts from the nominal value of the net head and flow rate, and it needs to state the rotation speed of the generator, based on technical/economical considerations. Using the specific speed value, the turbine type comes from the following table Type Pelton 1 jet Pelton multi-jets Low speed Francis Normal Francis High speed Francis Very high speed Francis Kaplan ns 4-20 20-70 50-100 100-200 200-300 300-400 400-900

The same approach is quoted in a graphic form, where nQe is calculated the SI values [1].

10

nQe =

n Q H
3 4
1

Kaplan Propeller Bulb Francis Pelton

0.1

0.01 1 10 Hn = E/g 100 1000

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A general diagram with the utilisation field of each turbine type is quoted in the IEC 1116 International Standard 2.

Very often the turbine manufacturers supply diagrams H/Q of its own production, making it easier to chose the turbine type

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2.2

Arrangement

2.2.1 Axis arrangement Many types of turbine accept the 3 possible arrangements: vertical, horizontal and inclined axis. If there aren’t any constraints (typically from existing civil works or from site geomorphology), the choice depends on the maintenance facilities and on the impact on the power station shape. Vertical
Turbine type Maintenance Power station

Horizontal

Inclined

Pelton; Francis; Kaplan; Pelton (max 2 jets); Francis; Axial Axial; Cross-flow Axial; Cross-flow Difficult Narrow Simple Large Medium Medium

2.2.2 Bearing arrangement The SHP plants allows some simplifications and cost saving solutions in the bearing arrangement and type, while the large hydro machines use only plane bearing oil lubricate (typically with oil injection). The bearing type has a significant impact on the generator, which can be standard if it supports only its own loads, or customized if it must sustain the turbine loads too. Number 2 4 or more
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Generator Special design Standard

Coupling Rigid Elastic
Section 3

Delivery time Longer Standard

Erection Easy alignment Careful alignment
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As regards the lubrication, the small machine can use grease, easier to manage. Installed capacity
Roller Plane Both

Lubrication Grease Oil Oil

< 1.000 kW >3.000 kW 1.000 - 3.000 kW

2.3

Number of units The number of units basically depends of the design minimum flow which we want to exploit in efficient and safe (from the equipment point of view) way. Each turbine type has a typical range. Turbine type Pelton 1 jet Pelton multi-jet Francis Kaplan double regulated Kaplan single regulated Cross-flow Propeller Acceptance of Q variation 20% Qmax 10% Qmax 50% Qmax 20% Qmax 50% Qmax 20% Qmax Qmax Acceptance of H variation Low Low Low High Medium Medium Low

2.4

Gearbox The gear is a device installed between the turbine and generator increasing the rotation speed of the generator in order to reduce its cost. Form the other side, the total unit efficiency decreases of a couple of point at least and the maintenances are more expensive and difficult, especially in the vertical axis arrangement. Moreover the gearbox usually increases the noise of the unit in a significant way. Additional details on the gearbox are presented in the § 0. Expected energy of the project The plant performance, as annual energy production, is directly connected with the unit expected efficiency, which could be a choice parameter. Turbine type Kaplan single regulated Kaplan double regulated Francis Pelton multi-jet Pelton 1 jet Turgo Cross-flow Best efficiency 0.91 0.93 0.94 0.90 0.89 0.85 0.80

2.5

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Moving from the design point (H and Q with the best efficiency), the turbine efficiency decreases following curves which are typical of each machine type [1].

2.6

Main turbine types: drawings and pictures In the following pages are presented drawings and pictures of typical arrangement of the main turbine types.

Main turbines types

Francis

Pelton

Kaplan

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Pelton turbine

[1]

Multi-jet Pelton : vertical arrangement

3

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Multi-jet Pelton: horizontal arrangement

4

Francis turbine: vertical arrangements

5

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Francis turbine: horizontal arrangements

[5]

e6

Pelton inlet flow

Turgo inlet flow
dle nee

t er je wat

[1]

Runner blades

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Francis flow

Cross-flow (Banki)
distributor

runner

blades

water flow

[1]

Francis and Banki horizontal arrangement

[5]

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Kaplan turbine

[1]

Small Kaplan (1 MW) draft tube

[3]

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Small Kaplan (1 MW) spiral case

[3]

Small Kaplan (1 MW) runner

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3

Generators
In comparison with the turbines, the generators of the SHP are usually a more standard product. Nevertheless some option is possible to better adjust the machine to the specific characteristics of the designed plant. The first choice is between the asynchronous (also called induction) generators and synchronous ones. Basically, the induction generators, which are less expensive and easier to manage, don’t have any own excitation device so they are suitable only for plant connected with large electric grid and under additional conditions, quoted in the table, where other options are represented. Type
Asynchronous Synchronous Voltage (V) Free wheel

Pi <500 kW suitable only stand alone 400 not necessary

500 kW<Pi <1.500 kW suitable suitable 600 - 3.200 suggested

Pi >1.500 kW
not suitable

Stand alone
not suitable

suitable >3.200 suggested

suitable mandatory

The expected efficiency depends mainly on the machine size, and on the rotation speed for a little percentage. Rated power [kW] 10 50 100 250 500 1.000 Best efficiency 0.910 0.940 0.950 0.955 0.960 0.970

We presented in the § 2.2 the unit axis and bearing arrangement: referring to the cooling system, the basic option is the forced air arrangement. Nevertheless, the water cooling option (closed circuit) is becoming more usual then in the past, for its advantages from the cooling efficiency point of view and, mostly, to reduce the unit noise, cutting the noise emission and/or allowing the installation of acoustic insulation boxes without affecting the thermal exchange. Air Small power house Interred power house Noise constraints Very high air temperature Standard situation
not suitable not suitable not suitable not suitable

Water c.c. suitable suitable suitable suitable possible

suitable

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4

Gearboxes
The gearbox is an optional chance to reduce the unit cost, which can affect the project feasibility in a significant way, mostly in case of very small plant (so called micro-hydro). The more common kinds of gearboxes are: 1. belt; 2. conical (orthogonal axis) or bevel gears; 3. parallel axis. The choice can be carried out as shown in the table. Type No gear Belt Conical (bevel gear) Parallel axis Capacity > 3.000 kW < 300 kW < 1.000 kW < 3.000 kW Turbine speed > 500 rpm every every every Maintenance = Weekly Expensive Cheap Noise = Low High High

Although the gearboxes allow some money saving, we must not forget that they add an efficiency penalization to the generation unit. Type Belt Parallel Bevel gear Efficiency 95% 98% 96%

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5

Valves
As they are very simple mechanical tools, the valves can play critical roles in the hydroelectric schemes both during the normal plant management and during extraordinary events. The table shows the main criteria in choosing the valves types. Type
Gate Butterfly Globe (only rotation) Rotary (with translation

Head losses 0.2xV /2g 0.6xV /2g 0.05xV2/2g 0.05xV /2g
2 2 2

Diameter [mm] <500 >200 <300 400-1.000

Pressure [m w.c.] <20 <400 no limits no limits

Cost 2 3 1 5

where: 5: more expensive 1: less expensive

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6

Electric panels
Although the electric panels topic isn’t in the index of the present paper, nevertheless we like to spend some words about a special toll which represents a great facility for the micro-hydro plants. We refer to the electronic control load device, that changes dramatically the approach to regulation of the off-grid schemes, but also provides important services to the small plants operating in parallel with a grid. In the isolated installations (off-grid plants), a well known problem is to maintain the frequency and the voltage at their nominal values when the electric loads change. The traditional way, adapting the output power to the instantaneous power request by means of electromechanical and hydraulic devices (so called governors), is quite expensive for the small installations and not so efficient, because of the inertial delay and of the tolerances in positioning of the mechanical actuation. The load control panel works on the loads site by means of electronic devices (very rapid and accurate), adding a ballast load to equilibrate perfectly the output power (kept constant at the rated value of the unit) to the instantaneous load request. In the on-grid plants, the load control device helps a lot to manage the parallel operation of small units, which are strongly penalized in the speed regulation by the low value of the momentum of inertia of the rotating components. The graphic represents in a schematic way the results of a control load regulation.
100

90

80

70

60 Capaciy Dissipation area Load

50

40

30

20

10

0 0 6 8 12 Hours 16 20 24

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7

Additional remarks and conclusions
The Indian sub-continent presents two typical situations, which are at the opposite site for many characteristics. Canal based schemes
Head Flow rate Water availability fluctuation Flood versus rated flow Access facilities Grid connection facilities Operating facilities Maintenance facilities Typical capacity range

Himalayan schemes High Low Large seasonal variation Extremely high Poor/very difficult Expensive/not suitable Difficult Very difficult 10 ÷ 500 kW

Low High Small, with low gradient Significant Good/Excellent Good Good Good 200 ÷ 5.000 kW

Taking into account what we’ve written in the above paragraphs, the more suitable units for the two typical mini-micro hydropower plants in the Indian sub-continent can be summarized as follow. Canal based schemes
Rated flow Head Turbine

> 50 m /s 10 ÷ 50 m /s < 10 m /s < 10 m /s
3 3 3

3

>3 m 3 ÷ 20 m >4m <4m

Kaplan Kaplan/Kaplan derived Kaplan derived Pit/Archimedean screw

The generators can be asynchronous or synchronous depending on the rated power, as we suggested in the § 3 Himalayan schemes
Head Turbine

> 200 m 100 - 200 m 50 - 100

Pelton (single jet or multi-jet) Turgo; Pelton multi-jet Cross-flow, Francis

In the Himalayan schemes, the basic option is the synchronous generators, as these plants generally work off-grid: the load control device is strongly recommended as much as possible.

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8

References
1

Layman’s Guidebook on how to develop a small hydro site - ESHA - 2004 http://www.esha.be
2 3 4 5 6

IEC International Standard - http://www.iec.ch KÖSSLER Ges.m.b.H. - http://www.koessler.com Studio Frosio - http://www.studiofrosio.it Cink Hydro-Energy k.s. - http://www.cink-hydro-energy.com Andriz VA TECH HYDRO - http://www.andritz.com

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