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Flow control is a function for the control of the data flow within an OSI layer or between adjacent layers. In other words it limits the amount of data transmitted by the sending transport entity to a level, or rate, that the receiver can manage. Flow control is a good example of a protocol function that must be implemented in several layers of the OSI architecture model. At the transport level flow control will allow the transport protocol entity in a host to restrict the flow of data over a logical connection from the transport protocol entity in another host. However, one of the services of the network level is to prevent congestion. Thus the network level also uses flow control to restrict the flow of network protocol data units (NPDUs). The flow control mechanisms used in the transport layer vary for the different classes of service. Since the different classes of service are determined by the quality of service of the underlying data network which transports the transport protocol data units (TPDUs), it is these which influence the type of flow control used. Thus flow control becomes a much more complex issue at the transport layer than at lower levels like the datalink level. Two reasons for this are: • • Flow control must interact with transport users, transport entities, and the network service. Long and variable transmission delays between transport entities.
Flow control causes Queuing amongst transport users, entities, and the network service. We take a look at the four possible queues that form and what control policies are at work here. The transport entity is responsible for generating one or more transport protocol data units (TPDUs) for passing onto the network layer. The network layer delivers the TPDUs to the receiving transport entity which then takes out the data and passes it on to the destination user. There are two reasons why the receiving transport entity would want to control the flow of TPDUs: • • The receiving user cannot keep up with the flow of data The receiving transport entity itself cannot keep up with the flow of TPDUs
When we say that a user or transport entity cannot keep up with the data flow, we mean that the receiving buffers are filling too quickly and will overflow and lose data unless the rate of incoming data is slowed. Four possible ways to cope with the problem are:
• • • •
Let it be and do nothing Refuse any more TPDUs from the network service Use a fixed sliding-window protocol Use a credit scheme
There are different issues to be considered with transport flow control over different levels of network service. The more unreliable the network service provided the more complex flow
control mechanism that may be needed to be used by the Transport Layer. The credit scheme works well with the different network services although specific issues need to be addressed as with a Reliable Nonsequencing Network Service and an Unreliable Network Service. The credit scheme seems most suited for flow control in the transport layer with all types of network service. It gives the receiver the best control over data flow and helps provide a smooth traffic flow. Sequence numbering of credit allocations handles the arrival of ACK/CREDIT TPDUs out of order, and a window timer will ensure deadlock does not occur in a network environment where TPDUs can be lost.
Session Layer Performing message synchronization. Message
synchronization is the coordination of the data transfer between the sending session layer and the receiving session layer. Synchronization prevents the receiving session layer from being overrun with data. This transfer is coordinated with acknowledgement messages (ACKs). ACKs are sent back and forth between both ends of the transfer and notify of the state of the receiving buffer to accept additional data. OR Another service that is offered as a part of the Session Layer might include data synchronization. Checksums may also be included at the Session Layer as a part of data synchronization. A checksum is performed after each packet is transmitted to see if applying the data from the packet to the file or stream being moved or transmitted would cause it to have the same checksum as the file on the remote location up to that point. If it is, then the new data may be added to the local machine being transferred from the remote site. This is a form of error correction for transmitted data. A familiar form of checksums in use can be seen in Z-modem transfers as part of communications or terminal software. The wonderful part of zmodem transfers is that it becomes possible for an interrupted z-modem download to be resumed where it left off with a minimal amount of retransmitted data. This may not be a method used at this layer, but it shows how using a system of synchronization with each part of the data being transferred can allow for interruptions to limit the problems associated with having to start the whole transmission over again.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SWITCH N HUB:HUB works on Physical layer where as SWITCH works on data link layer,HUB based networks are on one collision domain where as in Switch based network switch divides networks into multiple collision domains.Switch also maintains MAC address tables. A Simple Similie Hub - Think of a postman with a letter to deliver in a row of houses, none of the houses have numbers so he has to visit each house and ask the owner if the letter is for them. Switch - All the houses are numbered, so the postman knows where to go, and doesn't have to bother any other home owners. What is the difference between a hub and a switch?
Hubs and switches are different types of network equipment that connect devices. They differ in the way that they pass on the network traffic that they receive.
The term ‘hub’ is sometimes used to refer to any piece of network equipment that connects PCs together, but it actually refers to a multi-port repeater. This type of device simply passes on (repeats) all the information it receives, so that all devices connected to its ports receive that information. Hubs repeat everything they receive and can be used to extend the network. However, this can result in a lot of unnecessary traffic being sent to all devices on the network. Hubs pass on traffic to the network regardless of the intended destination; the PCs to which the packets are sent use the address information in each packet to work out which packets are meant for them. In a small network repeating is not a problem but for a larger, more heavily used network, another piece of networking equipment (such as a switch) may be required to help reduce the amount of unnecessary traffic being generated.
Switches control the flow of network traffic based on the address information in each packet. A switch learns which devices are connected to its ports (by monitoring the packets it receives), and then forwards on packets to the
appropriate port only. This allows simultaneous communication across the switch, improving bandwidth. This switching operation reduces the amount of unnecessary traffic that would have occurred if the same information had been sent from every port (as with a hub). Switches and hubs are often used in the same network; the hubs extend the network by providing more ports, and the switches divide the network into smaller, less congested sections.
When Should I Use a Hub or Switch?
In a small network (less than 30 users), a hub (or collection of hubs) can easily cope with the network traffic generated and is the ideal piece of equipment to use for connecting the users. When the network gets larger (about 50 users), you may need to use a switch to divide the groups of hubs, to cut down the amount of unnecessary traffic being generated. If there is a hub or switch with Network Utilization LEDs, you can use the LEDs to view the amount of traffic on the network. If the traffic is constantly high, you may need to divide up the network using a switch. When adding hubs to the network (to add more users), there are rules about the number of hubs you can connect together. Switches can be used to extend the number of hubs that you can use in the network. Hub In general, a hub is the central part of a wheel where the spokes come together. The term is familiar to frequent fliers who travel through airport "hubs" to make connecting flights from one point to another. In data communications, a hub is a place of convergence where data arrives from one or more directions and is forwarded out in one or more other directions. A hub usually includes a switch of some kind. (And a product that is called a "switch" could usually be considered a hub as well.) The distinction seems to be that the hub is the place where data comes together and the switch is what determines how and where data is forwarded from the place where data comes together. Regarded in its switching aspects, a hub can also include a router. 1. In describing network topologies, a hub topology consists of a backbone (main circuit) to which a number of outgoing lines can be attached ("dropped"), each providing one or more connection port for device to attach to. For Internet users not connected to a local area network, this is the general topology used by your access provider. Other common network topologies are the bus network and the ring network. (Either of these could possibly feed into a hub network, using a bridge.) 2. As a network product, a hub may include a group of modem cards for dial-in users, a gateway card for connections to a local area network (for example, an Ethernet or a token ring), and a connection to a line (the main line in this example). Switch In telecommunications, a switch is a network device that selects a path or circuit for sending a unit of data to its next destination. A switch may also include the function of the router, a device or program that can determine the route and specifically what adjacent network point the data
should be sent to. In general, a switch is a simpler and faster mechanism than a router, which requires knowledge about the network and how to determine the route. Relative to the layered Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) communication model, a switch is usually associated with layer 2, the Data-Link layer. However, some newer switches also perform the routing functions of layer 3, the Network layer. Layer 3 switches are also sometimes called IP switches. On larger networks, the trip from one switch point to another in the network is called a hop. The time a switch takes to figure out where to forward a data unit is called its latency. The price paid for having the flexibility that switches provide in a network is this latency. Switches are found at the backbone and gateway levels of a network where one network connects with another and at the subnetwork level where data is being forwarded close to its destination or origin. The former are often known as core switches and the latter as desktop switches. In the simplest networks, a switch is not required for messages that are sent and received within the network. For example, a local area network may be organized in a token ring or bus arrangement in which each possible destination inspects each message and reads any message with its address. difference between switch and router?? A switch sorts and distributes the network packets sent between the devices on a local area network (LAN), while a router is a gateway that connects two or more networks, which can be any combination of LANs, wide area networks (WAN), or the Internet. In addition, a router uses tables to determine the best path to use to distribute the network packets it receives, and a protocol such as ICMP to communicate with other routers. A router is a significantly more complicated device than a switch--essentially a specialized computer--and more advanced models may use a reconfigurable operating system such as Linux, rather than firmware coded directly into the hardware. Both routers and switches operate on layers 2 and 3 of the OSI model. In an enterprise environment, routers and switches are separate physical devices dedicated to their specific tasks. However, typical "broadband routers" for the home and small office are actually multifunction devices that combine the capabilities of a router, a switch, and (usually) a firewall into one box. In addition to routing traffic between the Internet and the LAN, they also handle switching for packets between devices on the LAN, and often add additional features such as port forwarding and triggering, a DMZ, a DHCP server, a DNS proxy, and/or network address translation. In addition, "wi-fi routers" add a wireless access point. Note: A hub is even simpler than a switch. Instead of inspecting the packets that it encounters and sending them to the correct destination device, it just forwards them to all connected devices. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.Switch to be L3 2.Switch device. 3.Switch Device. are said to be l2 device only but Router are said device. is said to be H/W Device.Router are said to be S/W perform faster than the router because it is a H/W
----------------------------------------------------------------Switch are basically layer2 device and it works on Hardware technology with map the mac addresses and it works with switch table.
Router is known as layer3 device and works alos on hardware technology and map the mac addresses. it basically connects two different networks or netids to each other.it works with routing table. ----------------------------------------------------------1] Switch is separate collision domain. single broad cast domain. this breakup collision domain. Router breakup broadcast domain. 2] Switch hardware oriented. L2 devices. packet transferred through mac address Router Software oriented. L3 devices. packet transferred through ip address 3] Switch connected between same network Router connected between different network. ----------------------------------------------------------1)switch is considered to be an intellengent device because there is rare chance of collsion 1)router is an important device because it work in network layer third layer of the open system interconnection layer 2)switch works on data link layer of the osi reference layer,it works depond on mac address(media access control) 2)router is used to communicate two or more different network 3)when a switch is connected to the host each time it send a broadcast ip address and mac address router is consider to be a software device 4) but swich is considered to be a hardware device because it uses a special chip call asic(application specific integrated circuit)
ENCAPSULATION IN OSI MODEL:When a car is built in a factory, one person doesn't do all the jobs, rather it's put into a production line and as the car moves through, each person will add different parts to it so when it comes to the end of the production line, it's complete and ready to be sent out to the dealer. The same story applies for any data which needs to be sent from one computer to another. The OSI model which was created by the IEEE committee is to ensure that everyone follows these guidelines (just like the production line above) and therefore each computer will be able to communicate with every other computer, regardless of whether one computer is a Macintosh and the other is a PC. One important piece of information to keep in mind is that data flows 2 ways in the OSI model, DOWN (data encapsulation) and UP (data decapsulation). The picture below is an example of a simple data transfer between 2 computers and shows how the data is encapsulated and decapsulated:
Explanation : The computer in the above picture needs to send some data to another computer. The Application layer is where the user interface exists, here the user interacts with the application he or she is using, then this data is passed to the Presentation layer and then to the Session layer. These three layer add some extra information to the original data that came from the user and then passes it to the Transport layer. Here the data is broken into smaller pieces (one piece at a time transmitted) and the TCP header is a added. At this point, the data at the Transport layer is called a segment. Each segment is sequenced so the data stream can be put back together on the receiving side exactly as transmitted. Each segment is then handed to the Network layer for network addressing (logical addressing) and routing through the internet network. At the Network layer, we call the data (which includes at this point the transport header and the upper layer information) a packet. The Network layer add its IP header and then sends it off to the Datalink layer. Here we call the data (which includes the Network layer header, Transport layer header and upper layer information) a frame. The Datalink layer is responsible for taking packets from the Network layer and placing them on the network medium (cable). The Datalink layer encapsulates each packet in a frame which contains the hardware address (MAC) of the source and destination computer (host) and the LLC information which identifies to which protocol in the prevoius layer (Network layer) the packet should be passed when it arrives to its destination. Also, at the end, you will notice the FCS field which is the Frame Check Sequence. This is used for error checking and is also added at the end by the Datalink layer. If the destination computer is on a remote network, then the frame is sent to the router or gateway to be routed to the desination. To put this frame on the network, it must be put into a digital signal. Since a frame is really a logical group of 1's and 0's, the Physical layer is
responsible for encapsulating these digits into a digital signal which is read by devices on the same local network. There are also a few 1's and 0's put at the begining of the frame, only so the receiving end can synchronize with the digital signal it will be receiving. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------It is a process of adding a header to wrap the data that flows down the OSI model.
Wrapping up of data into a protocol is also known as encapsulation.
1. The Application layer, Presentation layer and Session layer create data from user's input. 2. Encapsulation actually starts at layer 4 of the osi model where the Transport layer convert the data into segments by adding a header containing source and destination port numbers. 3. The Network layer convert the segments into packets (or datagram) by adding a header containing source and destination IP address. 4. The Data link layer convert the packets into Frames by adding a header containing source and destination MAC address and a trailer containing the Frame check sequence(FCS)used for verifying the data integrity. 5. The Physical layer convert the frames to bits and it is transmitted through the physical medium which can be a UTP, 6.
OSI Reference Model :-
Open Systems Interconnection ( OSI ) is a standard reference model for communication between two end users in a network. The model is used in developing products and understanding networks. Also see the notes below the figure.
Illustration republished with permission from The manual Page .
OSI divides telecommunication into seven layers. The layers are in two groups. The upper four layers are used whenever a message passes from or to a user. The lower three layers are used when any message passes through the host computer. Messages intended for this computer pass to the upper layers. Messages destined for some other host are not passed up to the upper layers but are forwarded to another host. The seven layers are: Layer 7: The application layer ...This is the layer at which communication partners are identified, quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy are considered, and any constraints on data syntax are identified. (This layer is not the application itself, although some applications may perform application layer functions.) Layer 6: The presentation layer ...This is a layer, usually part of an operating system, that converts incoming and outgoing data from one presentation format to another (for example, from a text stream into a popup window with the newly arrived text). Sometimes called the syntax layer.
Layer 5: The session layer ...This layer sets up, coordinates, and terminates conversations, exchanges, and dialogs between the applications at each end. It deals with session and connection coordination. Layer 4: The transport layer ...This layer manages the end-to-end control (for example, determining whether all packets have arrived) and error-checking. It ensures complete data transfer. Layer 3: The network layer ...This layer handles the routing of the data (sending it in the right direction to the right destination on outgoing transmissions and receiving incoming transmissions at the packet level). The network layer does routing and forwarding. Layer 2: The data-link layer ...This layer provides synchronization for the physical level and does bit-stuffing for strings of 1's in excess of 5. It furnishes transmission protocol knowledge and management. Layer 1: The physical layer ...This layer conveys the bit stream through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier.
The TCP/IP model
TCP/IP is based on a four-layer reference model. All protocols that belong to the TCP/IP protocol suite are located in the top three layers of this model. As shown in the following illustration, each layer of the TCP/IP model corresponds to one or more layers of the seven-layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model proposed by the International Standards Organization (ISO).
The types of services performed and protocols used at each layer within the TCP/IP model are described in more detail in the following table.
Layer Description Protocols
Application Defines TCP/IP application protocols and how host programs interface with transport layer services to use the network.
HTTP, Telnet, FTP, TFTP, SNMP, DNS, SMTP, X Windows, other
application protocols Transport Provides communication session management between host computers. Defines the level of service and status TCP, UDP, RTP of the connection used when transporting data. Packages data into IP datagrams, which contain source and destination address information that is used to forward the datagrams between hosts and across networks. Performs routing of IP datagrams.
IP, ICMP, ARP, RARP
Specifies details of how data is physically sent through the network, including how bits are electrically signaled Ethernet, Token Ring, by hardware devices that interface directly with a FDDI, X.25, Frame Relay, network medium, such as coaxial cable, optical fiber, or RS-232, v.35 twisted-pair copper wire.
For more information about ARP, IP, ICMP, IGMP, UDP, and TCP, see Understanding TCP/IP. Note
• The OSI reference model is not specific to TCP/IP. It was developed by the ISO in the late 1970s as a framework for describing all functions required of an open interconnected network. It is a widely known and accepted reference model in the data communications field and is used here only for comparison purposes.
TCP/IP Reference Model
The TCP/IP model does not same as OSI model. There is no universal agreement regarding how to define TCP/IP with a layered model but it is generally agreed that there are fewer layers than the seven layers of the OSI model. TCP/IP model define 4 layers that are as follows: 1) Internet layer : Packet switching network depends upon a connectionless internetwork layer. This layer is known as internet layer, is the linchpin that holds the whole design together. Its job is to allow hosts to insert packets into any network and have them to deliver independently to the destination. They may appear in a different order than they were sent in each case it is job of higher layers to rearrange them in order to deliver them to proper destination. The internet layer specifies an official packet format and protocol known as internet protocol. The job of internet layer is to transport IP packets to appropriate destination. Packet routing is very essential task in order to avoid congestion. For these reason it is say that TCP/IP internet layer perform same function as that of OSI network layer. 2) Transport layer : In the TCP/IP model, the layer above the internet layer is known as transport layer. It is
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol By using TCP, SMTP sends email to other computers that support the TCP/IP protocol suite. SMTP provides extension to the local mail services that existed in the early years of LANs. It supervises the email sending from the local mail host to a remote mail host. It is not reliable for accepting mail from local users or distributing received mail to recipients this is the responsibility of the local mail system. SMTP makes use of TCP to establish a connection to the remote mail host, the mail is sent, any waiting mail is requested and then the connection is disconnected. It can also return a forwarding address if the intended recipient no longer receives email at that destination. To enable mail to be delivered across differing systems, a mail gateway is used. Simple Network Management Protocol For the transport of network management information, SNMP is used as standardized protocol. Managed network devices can be cross examined by a computer running to return details about their status and level of activity. Observing software can also trigger alarms if certain performance criteria drop below acceptable restrictions. At the transport layer SNMP protocol uses UDP. The use of UDP results in decreasing network traffic overheads. 4) The Host to Network Layer: Below the internet layer is great void. The TCP/IP reference model does not really say such about what happen here, except to point out that the host has connect to the network using some protocol so it can transmit IP packets over it. This protocol is not specified and varies from host to host and network to network.
A firewall is a part of a computer system or network that is designed to block unauthorized access while permitting authorized communications. It is a device or set of devices configured to permit, deny, encrypt, decrypt, or proxy all (in and out) computer traffic between different security domains based upon a set of rules and other criteria. Firewalls can be implemented in either hardware or software, or a combination of both. Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private networks connected to the Internet, especially intranets. All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria. There are several types of firewall techniques:
1. Packet filter: Packet filtering inspects each packet passing through the network and accepts or rejects it based on user-defined rules. Although difficult to configure, it is fairly effective and mostly transparent to its users. In addition, it is susceptible to IP spoofing. 2. Application gateway: Applies security mechanisms to specific applications, such as FTP and Telnet servers. This is very effective, but can impose a performance degradation.
3. Circuit-level gateway: Applies security mechanisms when a TCP or UDP connection is established. Once the connection has been made, packets can flow between the hosts without further checking. 4. Proxy server: Intercepts all messages entering and leaving the network. The proxy server effectively hides the true network addresses.
A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a large computer network that usually spans a city or a large campus. A MAN usually interconnects a number of local area networks (LANs) using a high-capacity backbone technology, such as fiber-optical links, and provides up-link services to wide area networks and the Internet. The IEEE 802-2001 standard describes a MAN as being: A MAN is optimized for a larger geographical area than a LAN, ranging from several blocks of buildings to entire cities. MANs can also depend on communications channels of moderate-to-high data rates. A MAN might be owned and operated by a single organization, but it usually will be used by many individuals and organizations. MANs might also be owned and operated as public utilities. They will often provide means for internetworking of local networks. Metropolitan area networks can span up to 50km, devices used are modem and wire/cable }}
What Is a MAC Address? The MAC address is a unique value associated with a network adapter. MAC addresses are also known as hardware addresses or physical addresses. They uniquely identify an adapter on a LAN.
MAC addresses are 12-digit hexadecimal numbers (48 bits in length). By convention, MAC addresses are usually written in one of the following two formats:
The first half of a MAC address contains the ID number of the adapter manufacturer. These IDs are regulated by an Internet standards body (see sidebar). The second half of a MAC address represents the serial number assigned to the adapter by the manufacturer. In the example,
indicates the manufacturer is Intel Corporation. Why MAC Addresses? Recall that TCP/IP and other mainstream networking architectures generally adopt the OSI model. In this model, network functionality is subdivided into layers. MAC addresses function at the data link layer (layer 2 in the OSI model). They allow computers to uniquely identify themselves on a network at this relatively low level.
MAC vs. IP Addressing Whereas MAC addressing works at the data link layer, IP addressing functions at the network layer (layer 3). It's a slight oversimplification, but one can think of IP addressing as supporting the software implementation and MAC addresses as supporting the hardware implementation of the network stack. The MAC address generally remains fixed and follows the network device, but the IP address changes as the network device moves from one network to another.
IP networks maintain a mapping between the IP address of a device and its MAC address. This mapping is known as the ARP cache or ARP table. ARP, the Address Resolution Protocol, supports the logic for obtaining this mapping and keeping the cache up to date. DHCP also usually relies on MAC addresses to manage the unique assignment of IP addresses to devices. OR
Short for Media Access Control address, a hardware address that uniquely identifies each node of a network. In IEEE 802 networks, the Data Link Control (DLC) layer of the OSI Reference Model is divided into two sublayers: the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) layer. The MAC layer interfaces directly with the network medium. Consequently, each different type of network medium requires a different MAC layer.
On networks that do not conform to the IEEE 802 standards but do conform to the OSI Reference Model, the node address is called the Data Link Control (DLC) address.
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