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# ME 603: Applied Elasticity and Plasticity

STRESS FUNCTION
Polar coordinates

Prof. S.K.Sahoo

dz

z

dz
z
z
r
zz

rr
r

dz

zz

zr

z
d

zr
dz
z

rz rz dr
r

rz z
zr
z

r
d

r
dr
r

rr

zz

rr
dr
r

## Differential stresses acting on an

element shown in positive
directions

## Let R is the component of body force in radially outward direction.

Considering equilibrium in radial direction we have

rr
rz
dr

dr r dr ddz rr rddz rz
dz rz r ddr d
rr
r
rz
z
r

d
d
dr

r r d r drdz cos
R r drddz 0
z
r
2
2

drdz sin

we have,
rr drddz r

or

d d
d
sin

& cos
1
2
2
2

rr

r
rz
r

rr rr 1 r rz

R
0

r
r
r r
z

F 0

## Let is the component of body force in tangential direction.

dr

r r dr r dr ddz r .rd .dz z z dz z r ddr
r
z
2

d
dr

r d .dr.dz 0
d drdz cos r r .d r drdz sin
r
2
r
2
2

or r drddz r
Putting
we have,

r
z

r r
2 r r z 1

0
r

r
z
r

zz
dr
zr

dz

dr

.
dr
zz

zr
r dr ddz zr rddz
zz
z
2
r

dr

or

zz

z
r

r
r
rZdrddz 0
r

or

zr zz zr 1 z

r z r r Z 0

## Incase of plane stress system the equilibrium equations reduce to

rr rr 1 r

R 0

r
r
r

2 r r 1 0
r

r
r
Incase of plane strain systems

zz zr z 0

zr z zr z 0
zz 0

rr rr 1 r

R 0

r
r
r

2 r r 1 0
r

r
r

zz 0

## Figure shows an element subjected to displacement as indicated. There

are three normal strains rr, , zz & three shearing strain r, z, zr

Considering the displacement in the r direction, u, we see from fig (a) that
u (u / r )dr u u
r

dr
r

## From fig(a) it is also clear that pure radial displacement yields a

strain in -direction, since the fibers of the element have elongated in
- direction. The length of element ab was originally rd , but after
radial displacement, u, ab become (r+u)d.
The tangential strain due to this radial displacement is. Therefore,

r u d rd
rd

u
r

## From Fig(b), the tangential displacement v gives rise to a tangential

strain equal to, (v / )d 1 v
2

rd

1

u 1

r r

z
z

## The shearing strain is given by the

difference between the angle Cab &
Cab (fig c) values shows are in angle

as in rectangular
coordinates.
1 u v v

r r r

The first term comes from the change in the radial displacement u in
the tangential direction; the second term comes from the change in
the tangential displacement v in the radial direction, and the last term
appears since part of the scope change of the line ac
comes from the rotation of the element as a solid body about the axis
through O. Similarly other two shearing strains maybe obtained
d v z dz 1 V
z
rd 1 v / dz 1 / z r z
u z dz w r dr u
and , zr
dz 1 w z dr 1 u r dr z r
If we assume that angles are equal to their tangents & that the rate of
change of displacement with length is small compared to unity.

## Strain displacement relationships in

cylindrical coordinates
u
u 1 v

,

,
z
r
r r
z
v 1 u v
1 v

,
z
,
r r r
r z

r
r

zr

z r

## Where, u,v,w are the velocity/displacements in r, , z-directions

For two dimensional case
u
u 1 v
r ,
,
r
r r

v 1 u v

r r r

r
x2

## Polar Coordinate Formulation

r
d

r
dr
r

Strain-Displacement

Fr

rd

r
dr
r

1 1 u v v

2 r r r

dr

Hookes Law

r
r

x1

Equilibrium Equations
( r )
r 1 r

R 0
r
r
r
r
2 r
1

0
r
r
r

Airy Representation
1 1 2

r r r 2 2
2
2
r
1
r

r r

u
1
v
, u

r
r

Plane Strain

Plane Stress

1
r (r )
r ( r ) 2G r
E
1
( r ) 2G
( r )
E
z ( r ) ( r )

r 2G r , z rz 0 z (r )
(r )
E
1
1
r
r , z rz 0
E

2 1
1 2 2 1
1 2

0
2

r r r 2 2 r 2 r r r 2 2
r
4

r

u
.....a
r

u 1 v
1 u v v

.....b r
.....c
r r
r r r

## Differentiating equation (b) w.r.t . r and putting relationship of Eq. (a),

u
r
We get,
r
u
2
2

v
1
1
u
1

v
1 v

2
2 rr 2
2
r
r
r r r r
r
r r r

1
1 u 1 v 1 2v 1
1
1 2v
rr
rr

r
r r r r r r
r
r r

2v
rr r

............................... A
r
r

Differentiation
Eq. (c) w.r.t. r

v
r v
r
1 u 1 2u 2v
2

2 r2
r
r r r r
r
1 2u 2 v 1

2 r
r r r
r
2u
r
2v

r
r r 2
r
r
r

2
2

v
We have,
r r r r 2
r
r
r
rr
2u

## Differentiation Eq. (a) w.r.t. , we get,

r
r
rr
2v
r
r r 2 ......( B )
This two expression gives:
r
r
2

rr
3v
Differentiating (A) w.r.t. r, we get
r
2
2
2
r
r
r
r

we have,

2 r r
2 rr
3v
r

r 2
2

## Eliminating v from above two equations we have, Compatibility

equation in 2D:

2 1 2 rr 2 1 rr 1 2 r 1 r
2

2
2
2
r
r
r r
r r
r r r

## Stress function in cylindrical coordinates

Since problems concerning cylindrical bodies, such as shaft, gun,
barrels, rotating, disk can be easily solved by means of stress function
equation, it is frequently, admissible to have these equations in the form
of cylindrical rather rectangular coordinates. Considering Z is the
cylinder axis, following equation holds good,

y
1 y
r x y , tan , tan
x
x
2

r x
r y
cos ,
sin ,
x r
y r

y
sin
x cos
2
,
2
x
r
r
y r
r

Considering stress
function as a
function of r & ,
we have,

r
y
x

r
sin

cos
x r x x r
r
r
cos

sin
y r y y r
r

2
sin
sin

cos

cos

2
x

r
r

r
r

2
2 2
1
2
1 2
2
2
2
2 cos
sin cos
sin 2
sin cos 2
sin
.........1
2
r
r r
r r
r
r
2
cos
cos

sin

sin

2
y

r
r

r
r

2
2 2
1
2
1 2
2
2
2
2 sin
sin cos
cos 2
sin cos 2
cos
.........2
2
r
r r
r r
r
r

## from equation (1) & (2)

2 2 2 1 1 2
2 2
2
.......... .3
2
2
x
y
r
r r r

In Cartesian
4
4
4 2
2 2 2
4
coordinate, x 4 2 x 2 y 2 y 4 x 2 y 2 x 2 y 2 .......... .4

## Similarly, in cylindrical coordinates,

2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2
2
.................5
2
2
2
2
2
r r r r
r r r
r
4

## This indicate, for 2-D problem without body force, in Cylindrical

Coordinates, we will take airy stress function such that
2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2
2
0..........6
2
2
2
2
2
r r r r
r r r
r
4

## it will identically satisfy the equilibrium and compatibility conditions

rr 1 r rr

0,
r
r
r

1 r 2 r

0 Equilibrium eqn.
r
r
r
(7)
2

2 1 rr 2 1 rr 1 r 1 r
2

2
2
2
r
r
r r
r r
r r r

When is bi-harmonic,
Stresses in cylindrical coordinate system will be,

Compatibility eqn.

1 1 2
rr
2
r r r 2
2
2
r
1 1 2
1
r 2

..................8
r r r
r r

## Cylindrical coordinates with body force- Plane strain

Let us consider that the only body
force acting is that in radial direction
or R. This will cover most cases of
practical interest.
The equilibrium equations are then

r 1 r r

R0
r
r
r
1 r 2 r

0
r
r
r
z
0
z

The body force R can be expressed in terms of the two body force
y
components X & Y so as: R 2 X 2 Y 2
Y
R
The body force can be expressed by a
potential function , so that;
r

cos
However, we
x
r x r
may write, r

.
sin
y
r y r

X
x

R X 2 Y 2
2

R

x y
2

2
2
R
cos

sin

## Since we assume that body force

R is a function of r only, does
not depend on . So,

X
, Y
x
y

## The Equilibrium equations

then become:
These equations are
identically satisfied by a
stress function defined as,

r 1 r r

0
r
r
r
r
1
r
2 r
z

0,
0
r
r
r
z

1 1 2
2

r r r r 2 2 , r 2 r r

2
1 r 1
1

r r 2 r r rr

r
r

1 2 2
4

0,

## The compatibility equation

for two dimension in plane
strain case:
Using cylindrical function eqn (4) & eqn (5)

2 1
1 2 2
1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1
2

2
0.......11

2
2
2
2
2
1
r r r r
r r r 1 r
r r
r
4

## In addition, there will be present a z stress acting in the axial direction

which will be determined by the restrictions on z as given by the
following equations; z 1 z r K cons tan t
E

From Which,

z KE r

## Cylindrical coordinates with body force- Plane stress

r 1 r r

0
The equilibrium equations are:r
r
r
r
1 r 2 r

0
Which are satisfied by the stress
r
r
r
2
1
r

equations :
r
2
r r r 2
2

2 r
r

r
r
1 1 2
1
2

r r r
r r

## The compatibility equation that is derived from rectangular

coordinates, i.e.,
4 1 2 0
In cylindrical coordinates:
2 1
2 1
1 2 2 1 1 2
2
2
1 2
0
2
2
2
2
r r r
r r r
r r
r
r

## Biharmonic Governing Equation

2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1
2
2

2
0
2
2
2
2
r r r r
r r r 1 r
r r
r

Plane Strain

2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2
2 1
2
2
1 2
0
2
2
2
2
r r r
r r r
r r
r
r

Plane Stress

2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2
2
0
2
2
2
2
2
r r r r
r r r
r
4

## Airy Representation for stresses

S

1 1 2
2
1
r
2
,

r
2
2
r r r
r
r r

Boundary Conditions

R f r ( r , ) , f ( r , )

## Stress distribution symmetrical about an axis

Conditions for these cases are:The ends are unrestricted i.e., Plane-stress condition. zz 0
It is not rotated or gravity is neglected i.e., NO body force.
Stress distribution will be a function of r
Equation of compatibility (without body force) becomes: d 2 1 d d 2 1 d
2
2 .
r dr dr
r dr
dr

d 4 d 1 d 2 1 d 1 d 3 1 d 2 1 d
4

. 3 2
2
3
0
2
2
dr
dr
r
dr
r
dr
r
dr
r
dr
r
dr

d 4 1 d 3 1 d 2 1 d 2 2 d 1 d 3 1 d 2 1 d
4
2 2 2 2 3

2 2 3
0
3
3
dr
r dr
r dr
r dr
r dr r dr
r dr
r dr
4
3
2
d 2 d 1 d 1 d
4
2 2 3
0
2
3
1 d
d
dr
r
dr
r
dr
r
dr
r
, 2 , r 0

Stress are:
r dr
dr
This is a homogenous differential equation that can be transformed
into a linear differential equation with constant coefficients by a
t
change of variable r e .
This equation has, as a general solution, 4 constant of integration, which
must be determined from boundary conditions,
2
2
By substitution, the general solution is A log r Br log r Cr D

1 A
2 B1 2 log r 2C
r r r
2
A
If there is no hole at the origin of 2 2 B3 2 log r 2C
r
r
coordinates i.e., if the cylinder is
r 0

&

components are:

## unless constants A & B vanish/zero.

Hence, for a plate without a hole at the origin & with no body forces,
only one case of stress distribution symmetrical w.r.t. the axis may exist,
namely, that r 2C cons tan t
& plate is in a condition of uniform tension or uniform compression in
all directions in its plane.
If there is a hole at the origin other solutions, than uniform tension or
compression can be derived, taking B as zero, for instance.
It become,
A
r 2 2C
r
A
2 2C
r

## Application: Thick cylinder under uniform pressure

Consider a long, hollow, circular, cylinder having its
axis coincide with Z-axis subjected to internal pressure
Pi , external pressure Po , Internal radius = a, External
Boundary Condition are:
rr=- Pi at r = a , rr=- P0 at r= b
If the ends are unrestrained, zz=0 i.e., Plane stress case
at r = 0 r & ,
A. When it is a solid cylinder: a= 0
So A & B must be zero to avoid impracticality. Thus for solid cylinder
r 2C cons tan t
and if that solid cylinder is subjected to an
external pressure Po, We have Boundary Condition r Po
at r = b from which we can say that,
r Po
throughout the body.
The sign is ve since a positive pressure (as normally measured with
a gauge) will give rise to compression stress (-ve stress) in the body.

## B. When it is a hollow cylinder:

Stress components are:
Equilibrium equation is
we have,

1 d
d 2
r
, 2 , r 0..............1
r dr
r
d r r
as r=0 & stress is

0......(2)
dr
r
r
a function of r only.

A
B 1 2 log r 2C
2
r
A
2 B 3 2 log r 2C ,
r

rr

r 0 .......... 3

## In the above expression for stress compression we have three constants

of integration, whereas we have only two boundary conditions. For
determining the third constant, we have to examine the displacement:
du
u
The strain Components are:
r , .............4
dr

The stress-strain
relationships are:

du
1
rr .......... 5
rr

dr
E
u
1
rr .......... ... 6
r
E
or , E .u r rr
B r 3 2 r 1 log r 2 C 1 r A 1

1
r

du 1
rr
rr
We have,
dr E
Integrating, u 1 .Br 1 3 21 r log r r 2C 1 r A1 1 K
E
r

## E.u B r 1 21 r log r r 2C 1 r A1 K K is the integration

r

constant

In order that above two expression for u to be the same, we must have,

1
1

2
C
1

A
1

So that,
E
r
A
rr 2 2C
r
A
2 2C
r

## A & C now can be determined from the

boundary condition: gives,
rr Pi at r =a,

rr Po

at r=b

B 0, K 0

Pi a 2 P0b 2
2C
b2 a2
a 2b 2 Po Pi
A
b2 a2

## Putting the value of 2C & A

we will get, Lame solution
Which Indicate that
rr

a 2b 2 Po Pi 1 Pi a 2 Pob 2
rr
2
2
2
b a
r
b2 a 2
a 2b 2 Po Pi 1 Pi a 2 Pob 2

. 2
2
2
b a
r
b2 a 2

2 Pi a 2 Pob 2

cons tan t
2
2
b a

i.e., independent of r.

zz

rr

= Constant

## So it also satisfy the Plane-Strain condition.

We can use the rr , & u equations to find force & displacement
in shrink fit condition.

## Most common problems to which the above equations apply is that of

the stresses in a gun barrel due to explosion pressure of change. For
the simple-tube barrel, P0 =0 & Pi 0 ; and the only pressure
involved is that inside barrel, or Pi. So r and will be reduced to,
Pi a 2
r 2
r

r 2 b2
2

2
b a
Pi a 2 r 2 b 2

2 2
2
r b a

2a 2
Pi 2
b a2

max

r max Pi
occur at r=a
a2 b2
Pi 2
b a2

a 2 b2
Pi 2
b a2

i.e.,

Pi

Pi

max Pi

## Pi when b becomes very large or a becomes very small.

It indicates, no matter how much material can be added to gun barrel
the tangential stress can not be reduced less than internal pressure.

In order to decrease
the common practice is to install shrink bands on the gun barrel.
They are fitted in hot & when cool they provide compressive Po at
outside of barrel.
One or more bands are used depending amount of internal pressure
similar stress pattern on outer fiber can be generated by proper heat
treatment to induce compressive stress.

P0

## So r and will be reduced to,

P0b 2 r 2 a 2
r 2 2 2
r b a
Pb
0 2
r

r a
2

2
b a
2

When b= or b>>>>>a
a2
r Pi 2
r

a
b2 a2
P0 2
b a2

2b 2
P0 2
b a2

and P0 =0 & Pi 0 :

P0

Shrink Fit
Let is the Fit allowance, ie,
internal radius of outer cylinder is
less than outer radius of inner
cylinder before fitting by an amount
of .

## After fitting by heating and cooling

there will be shrink pressure, Let = Pc.
The contact pressure Pc acting on the outer surface of the inner
cylinder reducing its radius by u1
On the other hand, the contact pressure Pc acting on the inner surface of
the outer cylinder increasing its radius by u2
The sum of these two quantities, ie, (-u1 + u2 ) =

We know,

1
1

2
C
1

A
1

E
r

1 Pi a 2 Pob 2
1 a 2b 2 Pi P0
Putting the value of
u
r

2
2
2
2
E
b a
E b a
r
A & C, we have,
For inner cylinder: P0 = Pc , Pi =0 , b=c, a=a
1 1 Pc c 2
1 1 a 2c 2
u1
c
2
2
E1 c a
E1
c

cPc
Pc
2

(1 1 )c 2 (1 1 )a 2
2
2
2
E1 (c a )
c a

## For outer cylinder: P0 =0 , Pi = Pc , b=b, a=c

1 2
u2
E2

Pc c 2
1 2 b 2c 2
2 2 c
E2
c
b c

As (-u1 + u2 ) = ,
we can get,

Pc

cPc
2
2
Pc
(
1

)
c

(
1

)
b
2 2
2
2
2
2
E
(
b

c
)
b

c
2

1 (b 2 c 2 )

1 (c 2 a 2 )
1
2

2
2
2
2
E1 c a
E2 b c

Let E1= E2 , 1= 2
ie, same material

E (c 2 a 2 )(b 2 c 2 )
Pc

c 2c 2 b 2 a 2

## For a=0 ,ie, inner cylinder is solid one

2

E (b c )
Pc

c
2b 2
Stresses in inner cylinder:
Pc c 2 a 2
r 2 2 1 2 ;
c a r

Pc b
r 2 c 2 2 1;
b c r

a< r <c
Pc c 2 a 2
2 2 1 2
c a r

c< r <b

Pc b
2 c 2 2 1
b c r