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Theme1 General Physics
Measure Instrument
- Vernier calipers + micrometer screw gauge
Pendulum – one oscillation

***even in a vacuum, T of different l is not the same

Speed: the distance moved per unit time
Velocity: the change in displacement per unit time

Displacement: distance in a specific direction
Acceleration: the change in velocity with time

Addition formula


Air resistance: a frictional force
1. Apply on only moving objects
2. Air resistance↑ when Speed↑ surface area↑ density of air↑

Force: a push or pull that one object exerts on another
Scalar: only magnitude

Vector: direction + magnitude
***For an object with constant velocity or zero acceleration, the
resultant force/net force is zero

Newton’s 1 law
‚Every object will continue in its state of rest or uniform motion in a
straight line unless a resultant force acts on it to change its state‛

Newton’s 2 law
‚When a resultant force acts on an object of constant mass, the object
will accelerate and move in the direction of the resultant force. The
product of the mass and acceleration of the object is equal to the
resultant force.‛


Newton’s 3 law
‚For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction, and these
forces act on mutually opposite bodies.‛

Mass: a measure of the amount of matter or substance in a body
Weight: a force due to gravity
Gravitational field: the region surrounding the Earth where gravity is
Gravitational field strength: the gravitational force acting per unit
mass on an object

Inertia: the reluctance of the object to change its state of rest or
***Inertia depends on only the mass of the object
Density: mass per unit volume


It can be converted from one form to another or transferred from one body to another. but the total amount remains constant‛ 3|Physic . sum of anti-clockwise moment = sum of clockwise moment Principle of Moments ‚When a body is in equilibrium.Moment: the product of the force and the perpendicular distance from the pivot to the line of action of the force ***Taking moments to the pivot. Unstable and Neutral equilibrium (CG remains at the same level when it is tiled slightly) ***Low CG and wide base to increase stability Energy: the capacity to do work Kinetic Energy: the energy possessed by a body due to its virtual of motion Gravitational Potential Energy: the energy possessed by a body due to virtual of its position Principle of Conservation of Energy ‚Energy can neither be created nor destroyed in any process. the sum of clockwise moment about a pivot is equal to the sum of anti-clockwise moment of the same pivot‛ Centre of Gravity: the point through which its whole weight appears to act for any orientation of the object *** A plumb line is used to find CG Stability: the ability of an object to return to its original object after it has been tiled slightly Stable.

*** Barometer is used to measure the atmospheric pressure Theme2 Thermal Physics Temperature: how hot or cold an object is Heat: the amount of energy that is being transferred from a hotter to a colder region Thermocouple – electromotive force ( ) Factors affecting range.Work: the product of the force and the distance moved by the object in the direction of the force (1J=1Nm) Power: the rate of woke done (1W=1J/s) Pressure: the force acting per unit area . sensitivity and responsiveness 4|Physic .

the total force exerted to the inner wall increases. the number of molecules presented per unit volume increases. the particles gain more kinetic energy and move faster randomly. the rate of collision between the particles and the inner wall increases. the rate of collision between the particles and the inner wall is more frequent. the total force exerted to the inner wall increases. continuous and uneven movement of particles suspended in a fluid Boyle’s Law: pressure is inversely related to volume when the other factors are constant Overall formula Key concepts When the container is heated up (temperature increases). the space between the particles is smaller.State s l g Arrangement Closely packed in a regular pattern Closely packed in a disorderly manner spread far apart in a disorderly manner Movement Vibrate about their fixed position Sliding over each other Move rapidly at random Brownian motion: the random. the pressure increases When the volume is decreased. the pressure increases 5|Physic .

Free electron diffusion. metal and non-metal . white surfaces Internal energy: The total kinetic and potential energy associated with the motions and relative positions of the molecules of an object Heat capacity(C): the amount of thermal energy required to raise the temperature of a body by 1K (or 1˚C) Specific heat capacity(c): the amount of thermal energy required to raise the temperature of 1kg of a substance by 1K (or 1˚C) Melting: the process of the change of solid state to liquid state P b. transmitted without the aid of a medium ***Dull.Particle vibration. or vice versa. without a change in temperature 6|Physic . only metal Convection: the transfer of thermal energy by mean of currents in a fluid Radiation: the continual emission of infrared waves from the surface of all bodies.Conduction: the process of thermal energy transfer without any flow of the material medium . without a change in temperature Specific latent heat of fusion: the amount of thermal energy required to change 1 kg of solid to liquid.p. or vice versa. black surfaces are better emitters of infrared radiation than shiny. ***increase pressure increase the melting point of water Latent heat: the energy released or absorbed during a change of state Latent heat of fusion: the amount of thermal energy required to change a body from solid to liquid state.

No bubbles are formed in the 4.Latent heat of vaporisation: the amount of thermal energy required to change a body from liquid to vapour. or vice versa. Quick process 3. Thermal energy supplied by an 5. Takes place throughout the liquid Evaporation 1. or vice versa. Waves and Sound Luminous and non-luminous object Number of imaged formed – always round down Refraction: Bending effect of light as it passes from one optical material to another Refractive index – Snell’s Law 7|Physic . without a change in temperature Specific latent heat of vaporisation: the amount of thermal energy required to change 1 kg of liquid to vapour state. Bubbles are formed in the liquid liquid 5. Thermal energy supplied by the energy source surroundings Theme3 Light. Occurs at any temperature 2. Occurs at a fixed temperature 2. Slow process 3. Boiling: the process of the change of liquid state to gaseous state at a fixed and constant temperature Boiling 1. Takes place only at the liquid surface 4. without a change in temperature .

thinner and cheaper for manufacture _ high quality transmission of information over long distances with negligible loss Laws of Reflection1 1. energy is transferred without the medium being transferred 8|Physic . The angle of incidence in the optically denser medium is greater than the critical angle Optical fibres _ can carry a much higher volume of information over long distances than the electrical wires _ lighter.***light travels from lesser density to higher density Critical angle: the angle of incidence in the optically denser medium for which the angle of refraction in the less dense medium is 90° Total internal reflection takes place only when 1. A ray of light travels from an optically denser to a less dense medium 2. Angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection 2. The incident ray. reflected ray and the normal at the point of incidence all lie on the same plane Lens Periodic motion: motion repeated at regular intervals ***the source of any wave is a vibration or oscillation ***waves move/propagate through the medium ***In waves.

Transverse waves: waves that travel in a direction perpendicular to the direction of the vibration Crests: the highest points of a transverse wave Troughs: the lowest points of a transverse wave ***Compressions & rarefactions in longitudinal waves Phase: any two points that move in the same direction.Types of wave motion 1. have the same speed and same displacement from the rest position Wavelength (λ): the shortest between two points that are in phase Amplitude (A): the maximum displacement from the rest Period (T): the time taken for one point on the wave to complete one oscillation Frequency (ƒ): the number of complete waves produced per second ƒ Wave speed (v) 9|Physic . Longitudinal waves: waves that travel in a direction parallel to the direction of the vibration 2.

They transfer energy from one place to another 10 | P h y s i c .λ ƒλ Wave front: an imaginary line on a wave that joins all points that are in the same phase Refraction of waves *** v & λ decrease from deep to shallow water Reflection of waves .f. Radio waves  microwaves  infrared  visible light*  ultraviolet  X-rays  gamma rays ***red  blue Properties of Electromagnetic waves 1. high λ to high f. v are the same Electromagnetic waves – low f.i = r . low λ . They are electric (horizontal) and magnetic (vertical) fields that oscillate at 90 to each other 2. They are transverse waves. λ.

Organism level: premature aging and shortening of lifespan ***Sound is longitudinal wave ***Sound is produced by vibrating sources placed in a medium ***the series of compressions and rarefactions produced by the shifting of air layers Compressions – slightly higher pressure than the surrounding air pressure Rarefactions – slightly lower pressure than the surrounding air pressure 11 | P h y s i c . They can travel through vacuum. nucleic acid 2. leading to cancers such as leukaemia 4.3. Their ƒ do not change when travel from one medium to another. They carry no electric charge 8. Their v and λ change. damage to proteins. Their ƒ depend only on the source of the wave. do not require any medium 8 4. Their speed in vacuum is 3. A pregnant woman: an abnormal pattern of cell division. They obey the laws of reflection and refraction 7. Molecular level: irradiation of human tissues.010 m/s 5. 2 ƒλ 6. Ionisation: the process of ion formation Ionising radiation: the rejection of one or more electrons from an atom or molecule to produce a fragment with a net positive charge Effects of ionising radiation 1. Sub-cellular level: damage Chromosomes (DNA) 3.

flat surfaces Range of audibility: the range of frequencies which a person can hear ***human ears – 20 Hz-20.000 Hz) Infrasound: sound with frequencies below the lower limit of the human range of audibility (above 20 Hz) Pitch – a music note or sound as ‘high’ or ‘low’ ƒ Loudness: the volume of a sound related to the amplitude of a sound Theme4 Electricity and Magnetism 12 | P h y s i c . T=temperature Reflection of sound Echo: the repetition of the clap ***an echo is formed when a sound is reflected off hard.Wavelength of the sound (λ): the distance between two consecutive compressions or rarefactions Amplitude of the sound (A): the maximum pressure change Medium of transmission of sound  5 =V liquid gas  15 =V solid V solid > V liquid > V V V gas gas √ .000 Hz Ultrasound: sound with frequencies above the upper limit of the human range of audibility (above 20.

4. Induction – 1 metal 13 | P h y s i c .610-19 C -19 6. A negative charged rod is brought near sphere A. Spheres A and B now have equal amounts of opposite charges. Two conductors (metal spheres) on insulating stands are placed touching each other 2. 3. while sphere B has excess positive charges. This causes the electrons in the metal spheres to be replied to the far end of sphere B.2510 electrons = 1 C Electrical insulators: materials where electrons are not free to move about ***they are charged by friction Electrical conductors: materials that allow electrons to move freely within them ***they are charged by induction Induction: the process of charging a conductor without any contact with the charging body Induction – 2 metals 1. separate spheres A and B. Sphere A can be seen to have excess positive charges.Electrostatics: the study of static electric charges ***same charges – repel (repulsive force) ***different charges – attract (attractive force) The amount of charge an e-/P+ has is 1. Spheres A and B have been charged by induction. Without removing the rod. Remove the charged rod.

The human body is a relatively good conductor and will allow electrons to flow into the conductor from the ground. The conductor is now negatively charged. Remove the glass rod. This will stop the earthing process. 4. This will neutralize the positive on this side of the conductor. Without removing the glass rod. The negative charges will be redistributed on the surface of the conductor. The free electrons in the metal will be drawn towards the side nearer the positively charged glass rod. 2. Bring a positively charged glass rod near the metal conductor on an insulating stand. Electric force: a force experienced by charges An electric field: a region where an electric charge experiences an electric force Electric lines of force: imaginary lines. The direction of the field: the direction of the force on a small positive charge ***The strength of an electric field is indicated by how close the filed lines are to each other 14 | P h y s i c .1. showing the path a positive charge would take if it was free to move. 3. With the glass rod still in place. remove your hand from the conductor. earth the positively charged side of the metal conductor by touching in with your hand.

in increased because electric charges gain electrical energy from each cell when they pass through them.m.‛ Cells in parallel 15 | P h y s i c .) of an electrical energy source: the work done by the source in driving a unit charge round a complete circuit Cells in series ‚The combined e.f.An electric current is caused by a flow of electrons Electron flow: movement of electrons from the negatively charged end to the positively charged end Convectional current flow: the assumption that an electric current consist of positive charges flowing from the positively charged end to the negatively charged end An electric current (I): a measure of the rate of flow of electric charge (Q) through a given cross section of a conductor An electric circuit: a complete or close path through which charge can flow from one terminal of an electrical source to the other terminal The electromotive force (e.f.m.

) between two points in an electric circuit : the amount of electrical energy converted to other forms of energy when one coulomb of positive charge passes between the two points Resistance: a property of the material that restricts the movement of free electrons in the material The resistance (R) of a component: the ratio of the potential difference (V) across it to the current (I) flowing through it A resistor: a conductor in a circuit that has a known value of resistance Ohm’s Law ‚The current passing through a metallic conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across its ends. provided the physical conditions are constant‛ ***ohmic conductors – conductors that obey Ohm’s Law *** I-V graph: a straight line passes through the origin Non-ohmic conductors – I-V graph is not a straight line ( constant) Ex. semiconductor diode is not a 16 | P h y s i c .‚The energy required to move electric charges through the load will be contributed equally by each cell.d.‛ Potential difference (p. Thus. Filament lamp. each cell only needs to provide half the energy to move the charges through the circuit. thermistor.

Resistivity (ρ) Series Circuits ‚When similar resistors are connected in series.‛ ‚In a series circuit. the combined resistance is larger than the individual resistance of a single resistor.f. this cause the current in the circuit to be smaller if the e. supplied in the same.m. As a result.‛ Parallel Circuits 17 | P h y s i c . the sum of the potential across each component is equal to the difference across the whole circuit‛ ‚The combined resistance of resistors in series is the sum of all the resistances.

‛ ***Bulbs connected in parallel will glow more brightly than when connected in series ***Another advantage of connecting bulbs in parallel is that when one of the light bulbs blows. the sum of the individual currents in each of the parallel branches is equal to the main current flowing into and out of the parallel branches. the other light bulb will continue to glow – there is still a complete circuit through the other parallel branch for the current to flow ≠ ***When one of the bulbs in series blows.‚In a parallel circuit. the entire circuit will be open and the other bulb will not light up Potential Divider: A circuit with resistors arranged in series ( ) 18 | P h y s i c .

Thermistors. Light-dependent resistor (LDR) Thermistors – Light-dependent resistor (LDR) – Electric heating _ Usually made up of nichrome wire.Transducers: electric or electronic devices that convert energy from one form to another – they respond to physical quantities such as temperature and light Input transducers – convert non-electrical energy to electrical energy Output transducers – convert electrical energy to non-electrical energy Ex. and b. the electric current is decreased and hence the temperature cannot reach the m. _ As it has high resistivity.p. because of its high resistivity and ability to withstand high temperature. _ Thermal energy is generated when an electric current passes through the heating element 19 | P h y s i c .p.

exposing the conducting wires inside _ cause severe electric shock if it is touched Overheating of cables _ an unusually large current flows through the conducting wires 20 | P h y s i c .p. (3400°C) _ Filament is thin (small cross-sectional area – A) ***↑ρ ↑l ↓A  ↑R  ↓I  temperature cannot reach the m. tungsten has high resistivity and m.Electric lighting – filament & fluorescent lamp Filament lamp _ Filament is made of a tungsten coil. _ contains Argon and Nitrogen to prevent the tungsten to burnt Fluorescent lamp _ more efficient than filament lamps (3000 hours vs 1000 hours) _ use less energy than filament lamps _ light produced when passing electric charges between two electrodes _the mercury vapour contained in the glass tube emits ultraviolet light with invisible light which is converted to visible light by fluorescent powder coated on the inner wall Filament Fluorescent Advantages Give cosy and relaxed atmoshere Energy efficient Disadvantages 10%  light 90%  heat Costly & toxic Electric motors _ work on the principles of the magnetic effects of a current _ electric energy  rotational kinetic energy Power: the rate of woke done or energy converted Dangers of Electricity Damage insulation _ electrical insulation crack and break.p.

Fuses: safety devices included in an electrical circuit to prevent excessive current flow _ same function as the MCB 21 | P h y s i c . the circuit breaker will trip. – consists of a main switch and circuit breakers 1. The consumer unit: the distribution point for the household’s electricity supply. an electricity meter and a consumer unit. When this happens. causing the ELCB to trip._ the higher resistance of thinner wires will produce more thermal heat that will damage the insulation and may cause a fire ***thin wires are used for appliances that need less power and vice versa Damp conditions _ as our human body can only withstand a current of about 50mA. the current in the live wire will be greater than the neutral wire.2 Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELCB): detects the small current leakages from the live wire to the earth wire. 2. Circuit breakers: safety devices that can switch off the electrical supply in a circuit when there is an overflow of current 1. the large current will electrocute the person _ R of human body is low. ↓R  ↑I *** Safe use of electricity at home _ electricity is supplied by a cable containing 2 wires – live wire (L) and neutral wire (N) live wire (L) – 240V neutral wire (N) – 0V These 2 wires are connected to a main fuse box. 1.1 Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB): when the current exceeds the current values labeled.

a. Switches _ they break or complete an electrical circuit ‚If the switch id fitted onto the neutral wire. Earthing _ earth wire (E) – green & yellow _ live wire (L) – brown _ neutral wire (N) – blue 22 | P h y s i c . Plugs and sockets _ a cartridge fuse protects the appliance from excessive current flow 5.‛ – wrong _ Switches must be fitted onto the live wire so that switching off dis connects the high voltage from an appliance – correct 4._ A fuse consists of a short thin piece of wire which becomes hot and melts when the current flowing through it is greater than its rated value. the appliance will be ‘live’ even though the switch is ‘off’. Before you charge a fuse. always switch off the mains power supply 3. A fuse should be connected to the live wire so that the appliance will not become charged after the fuse has melted due to the over flow of current c. Anybody who touches the metal casing the appliance would experience an electric shock. Fuses should have a current rating just slightly higher than the current an electrical appliance will use under normal b.

‛ _ the earth wire connected to the metal casing diverts the large current due to the electrical fault to the ground 6. Law of magnetism ‚Like poles repel.1. unlike poles attract‛ Repulsion: the only test to confirm that an object is a magnet Magnetic Induction: the process where ferromagnetic materials become magnetised when they are near or in contact with a permanent magnet 23 | P h y s i c . The poles are where the magnetic effects are the strongest. The internal components are also insulated from the external casing Magnetite: a naturally occurring iron oxide mineral Magnetic/ferromagnetic materials: the materials that are attracted by a natural magnet A permanent magnet: a material that retains its magnetism for a long time Properties of magnets 1.2. 3. When we suspend a bar magnet freely. The electric cable is insulated from the internal components of the appliance 6. 2. Double insulation _ a safety feature which provides 2 levels of insulation in an electrical appliance that can substitute the earth wire 6. the north-seeking pole will point to the North Pole and the south-seeking pole will point to the South Pole.The earth wire: a low-resistance wire which usually connected to the metal casing of the appliance ‚If there is a fault – the live wire touches the metal casing of the appliance – the user could get an electric shock.

Storage of magnets using soft iron keepers 24 | P h y s i c .Theory of magnetism ‚If we take a bar magnet and cut it into three smaller pieces. we will notice that every piece becomes a magnet itself with an N pole and an S ploe. heating.‛ A magnetic domain: a group of atomic magnets pointing in the same direction ***In a permanent bar – the magnetic domains point in the same direction ***In an unmagnetised bar – the magnetic domains point in random direction. mixing up the directions of the magnetic domains. the magnetic effects of the atomic magnets cancel out so there is no resultant magnetic effect Phenomena 1.‛ 3. Magnetic saturation ‚Every magnet has a maximum strength when all the magnetic domains are pointing in the same direction‛ – the magnet is magnetically saturated 2. hammering ‚They cause the atoms of the magnet to vibrate vigorously. Demagnetisation of magnets Demagnetisation: the process of removing magnetism from a magnet Ex.

‛ Ways of making magnets 1. Hammering 25 | P h y s i c .‛ ‚We store bar magnets in pairs by using soft iron keepers across the ends of the bar magnets. Stroking method ***precaution is that the stroking magnet must br lifted sufficiently high above the steel bar between successive stroke. the magnets become weaker after some time as ‘free’ poles near the ends of the magnet will repel one another. weakening the magnets. The poles of the atomic magnets are in closed loops with on ‘free’ poles to weaken the magnetic domains.‚If we store magnets side by side. 2. The magnetic domains will be altered. it produces a strong magnetic field which magnetizes the steel bar. causing the magnetic domains to lose their alignment. Heating ‚The atoms of the magnet vibrate vigorously when heated. Electrical method using a direct current ‚When an electric current flows through the solenoid.‛ ***The poles of the magnet is determined by the right-hand grip rule Ways to demagnetising magnets 1.‛ 2.

‛ 3.‛ A magnetic field: a region in which a magnetic object. experiences a magnetic force Magnetic field lines: invisible lines of force which we assume are emerging from the North Pole and entering the South pole of the magnet _ Magnetic field lines do not cross or intersect one another _ the field lines drawn closer together represent strong magnetic fields _ the field lines drawn further apart together represent weak magnetic fields ***the point between two N poles is the neutral point The earth’s magnetic field A large imaginary magnet within the earth is believed to be caused by convection currents inside the earth’s molten outer core The imaginary ‘S’ pole is at the geographic north pole The imaginary ‘N’ pole is at the geographic south pole Magnetic shielding: a method of creating a region or space that is free of magnetic fields by means of a closed loop of soft magnetic materials _ use thin sheets of soft magnetic materials. causing the magnet to lose its magnetism. The magnet is then slowly withdrawn in the East-West direction with the alternating current still flowing in the solenoid. placed within the influence of the field.‚Hammering alters the alignment of the magnetic domains. they work by diverting the magnetic fields 26 | P h y s i c . Electrical method using an alternating current ‚An alternating current is an electric current which varies its direction many times per second.

‚Magnetic field lines tend to pass through magnetic materials easily.‛ Iron –soft magnetic material _ gain and lose magnetism easily. retain its magnetism ‚A current-carrying conductor produces a magnetic field around it. straight current-carrying wire is stronger when it is closer to the wire or when a large current flows through the wire 27 | P h y s i c . does not retain its magnetism Steel –hard magnetic material _ difficult to gain and lose magnetism. weak induced magnet _ induced magnetism occurs slowly _ does not lose its induced magnetism easily once steel is magnetised _ a permanent magnet.‛ ***using right-hand grip rule to find the direction of the magnetic field around the wire ***the magnetic field of a long. or by a solenoid conducting electricity _ loses its induced magnetism when the inducing magnet is removed _ a temporary magnet. strong induced magnet _ induced magnetism occurs instantaneously either induced by another magnet.

increase the number of turns per unit length of the solenoid 3.To increase the magnetic field strength at the centre of the flat coil 1. the soft iron core concentrates the magnetic field lines. increase the number of turns of the coil To increase the magnetic field strength in a solenoid 1. increase the current 2. thereby increasing the magnetic field strength Uses of electromagnets Circuit breaker 28 | P h y s i c . increase the current 2. place a soft iron core within the solenoid.

_ We can reconnect the circuit by using the reset button. the strength of the electromagnet will increase in accordance. this will pull the soft iron armature towards the electromagnet.‛ ‚The force is reversed when we reverse the direction of the current or magnetic field.‛ Fleming’s Left-Hand Rule _ Thumb – motion _ Forefinger – field _ Second finger – current Combined magnetic field when the wire is placed between the poles of the magnet 29 | P h y s i c . _ As a result. the spring pulls apart the contact and disconnects the circuit immediately. The reset button can be pushed to bring the contact back to its original position to reconnect the circuit._ When the current in a circuit increases. and the current stop to flow. Motor effect ‚The force on the current-carrying conductor in a magnet field acts perpendicular to both the direction of the current and the direction of the magnetic field.

Currents in similar directions cause attraction. insert a soft iron core into the coil to concentrate the magnetic field lines 4.C. increase the current in the coil – lower the resistance / increase the voltage supply 3. motor _ electrical energy  mechanical energy 30 | P h y s i c . use stronger permanent magnet The D. increase the number of turns on the wire coil 2.‛ To increase the turning effect on the wire coil in a magnetic field 1._ the combined field lines acting in the same direction gives a stronger field than the combined field lines acting in the different direction  force Forces between two parallel current-carrying wires ‚Currents in opposing directions cause repulsion.

induced in a conductor is proportional to the rate of change of magnetic lines of force linking the circuit. Split-ring commutator 4.‛ 31 | P h y s i c . the speed inserting the magnet or withdrawing from the solenoid Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction ‚The e.m.f. Permanent magnets 3. the strength of the magnet 3. depends on.f.Components 1. two carbon brushes Split-ring commutator .m.m. Rectangular coil connected in series to a battery and rheostat 2. the number of turns in the solenoid 2.f. to conduct current to flow into and out of the coil Electromagnetic induction: the phenomenon of inducing on electromotive force (e. 1.) in a circuit due to a changing magnetic field The magnitude of this induced e. to reverse the direction of the current in the loop (coil every half a revolution) whenever the commutator changes contact from one brush to the other Carbon brushes .

and hence the induced current in a circuit.m.m.Lenz’s law ‚The direction of the induced e.f. is maximum when the coil in parallel to the magnetic lines of force. is always such that its magnetic effect opposes the motion or change producing it.‛ 32 | P h y s i c .f.f.C.C.m.‛ ***There is no e. current) _ the slip rings ensures that the direction of the induced current flowing in the external circuit changes every half revolution ‚The induced e. The coil experiences the greastest changes in magnetic field.. generated when bar magnet is stationary An A. generator: a device that uses the principle of electromagnetic induction to transform mechanical energy into electrical energy Alternation current generators (A.

using A. generator is preferred over the simple A.m.f. current _ this e. Electrical power transmission 2. Regulating voltages for proper operation of electrical appliances A closed-core transformer 33 | P h y s i c . generator design is more compact and space-saving A transformer: a device that changes a high alternating voltage (at low current) to a low alternating voltage (at high current).m. 1. is zero when the coil in perpendicular to the magnetic lines of force as the coil is not cutting through the magnetic field lines.C.‚The induced e. The coil experiences no changes in magnetic field. generator 1.m. The connection with the slip ring becomes loose when the carbon brush is eroded  increase the resistance at the connecting point  lesser current is generated as it causes unnecessary thermal energy 3.C. insert a soft iron core into the coil to concentrate the magnetic field lines The fixed coil A. increase the frequency of rotation of the coil 3. The fixed coil A.‛ To increase the induced e. Carbon brushes wear and tear easily 2.m.f. use stronger permanent magnets 4.C.f.C. and vice versa _ coil A induces e. increase the numbers of turns on the coil 2. in turn drives an induced current to flow in coil B Function of a transformer 1.f. in coil B.

to D. hysteresis loss caused by the flipping of magnetic dipoles in the iron core due to A.C._ the lamination of the soft iron core reduces heat loss due to induced eddy currents A step-up transformer – Vs > Vp A step-down transformer – Vs < Vp ***100% efficiency Causes of power loss 1. use thicker cables 2. reduce the current I. heat loss due to eddy currents induced in the iron core 4.C. using a step-up transformer ( ) ***Power can be transmitted more efficiently at higher voltages and lower currents Converting A. Reduce heat loss due to resistance 1.C. heat loss due to the resistance of the coils 2. leakage of magnetic field lines between the primary and secondary coils 3. – diodes The diode: a semiconductor device that allows a current to flow easily in one direction only 34 | P h y s i c .

Rectification: the conversion of A.C.C. into D. Half-wave rectification Full-wave rectification – a bridge rectifier 35 | P h y s i c .

at which the electron beam sweeps across the screen horizontally from left to right– by the X-plates _ sawtooth voltage applied to the X-plates 36 | P h y s i c .R.Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope – C.O. _ The electron gun emits a beam of electrons (thermonic emission) – a cathode ray _ The fluorescent screen is coated with Zinc sulphide _ the Y-plates – vary the vertical position _ the Y-plates – sweep the electron beam horizontally Y-gain _ amplifies the Y-deflection so that the small input voltages are amplified before they are applied to the Y-plates Time-base _ controls the speed.

2 Dynamics 2.v Velocity  Time t Diff. Condition: The angle of incidence must be in the less dense medium.1: General Wave Properties 3 g/cm or kg/m3 Force (N) Perpendicular Distance (m) Note: Perpendicular Distance is not always the length of the rod. W (watt) C J v (m/s): Velocity m/s  (m): Wavelength f(1/t): Frequency n = refractive index (ratio) NA. Pa NA J J/s.2: Light W or Energy change Time X  X0 (For Celsius scale only) X100  X0 Q  ml f 4. 2.2 Thermal Properties of Matter  4. V Moments  Fd Newton metre (Nm) Liquids: Pressure  h g h (m): Depth of Liquid  (kg/m3): Density of liquid g: 10N/kg P (Pa): Pressure V (m3): Volume N/m2 .3 Mass Weight Density 2. X100: Steam pt o Q(heat energy)  C C: Heat capacity J Q  mc m: mass c: Specific Heat Capacity l f : Latent heat of fusion J lv : Latent heat of vapourisation J f: Frequency t (sec): Time Hz A Gases (when temp. in Velocity Acceleration  Time Speed  Distance (m) Time (sec) Final unit m/s Displacement (m) Time (sec) m/s Velocity (m/s) Time (sec) m/s Force (N) Mass (kg) Acceleration (m/s2) Mass (kg) g = 10 N/kg Mass (g/kg) Volume (cm3/m3) Newton (N) 2 Condition: Used only when acceleration is constant. angle r must be in the denser medium. is constant) P1V1  P2V2 W (Work Done)  Fd 1 K.1 Principles of Thermometry 3.4 Turning Effect of Forces 2.5 Pressure Resultant Force  Mass  Acceleration F  ma W  mg m  (Density)  .Physics Formula Topic 2. Pa F (N): Force d (Perpendicular dist): m m (kg): Mass v (m/s): Velocity J m (kg): Mass g: 10N/kg h (m): Height Energy change /Work done(J) Time (s) J Theta: Unknown temperature X0: “ice point”. Work. Ratio.1: Kinematics Formula SI unit Distance Time Displacement s . Snell’s Law: o i/r ( ): angle of sin i n incidence/refraction sin r *Set calculator in degree mode. power Newton (N) Q  mlv 1 f  T v f N/m2 . . Force (N) Force F  Solids: Pressure  Area (m2) Area 2.6 Energy..E.  Kinetic Energy   mv2 2 P.E.  Potential Energy   mgh X P  Power   3.

2: Practical Electricity l A 5.2: Light 5.4.f. (V) W: Work done/energy across circuit component Q: Amount of charge R: Resistance (  ) Coloumb.1: Current Electricity Ht of image Real depth c   n v Apparent depth Ht of object c  sin 1 n Q I t  W Q V W Q Ohm’s Law: V  IR Condition: Only for ohmic conductors. (Volts – V) W: Work done/energy of circuit (J) Q: Charge (Columb) V: Potential Diff. C    m) o V. J/C V L: Length A: Cross-sectional Area E  VIt  I 2 RT  P  VI  I 2 R  c (m/s): Speed of light in vaccum (3x108 m/s) v (m/s): Speed of light in medium. I: Current (A) Q: Charge (Columb) t: Time (sec)  : E.m. Ratio. J/C V. V 2t R V2 R J W . R 5.3: Electromagnetic Induction Vs N s I p   Vp N p I s NA. c (o): Critical angle.