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Lost (Si Found

By Doug Vaughan


n early 1985, a well known pre-Incan archaeolog i c a l s i t e i n Peru — Gran Pajate'n — got
'discovered.' For s e v e r a l weeks, North American
newspapers, radio and televisio n lauded the heroics
of four Colorado adventurers who had gone off on a
two-week v a c a t i o n and found a m y s t e r i o u s ' l o s t
c i t y . ' Yet the only mystery about the 'discovery
was how such reports ended up on front pages across
the United S t a t e s . (As one wag suggested, t h i s
'news' should have been in the classifieds under
'found.') I t was r e m i n i s c e n t of the s t o r y t o l d by
G.K. C h e s t e r t o n about a man who s e t s off from
England i n a rowboat t o find new l a n d s . He g e t s
turned around in a fog and 'discovers' England.
Six months l a t e r , a n o t h e r flood of a r t i c l e s
poured across the pages of Denver's two major newsp a p e r s . R e p o r t e r s d i s p a t c h e d i n t o the ' j u n g l e c o v e r e d c l o u d f o r e s t ' t o cover a follow-up
expedition from the University of Colorado told of
newer, even grander 'discoveries.'

By any measure — column i n c h e s , p r o m o t i o n a l
hoopla, expense — i t was an extraordinary journali s t i c enterprise. Any measure, that i s , save s i g n i ficance. The reports revealed intimate d e t a i l s about
the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , including the
reporters themselves, but failed to provide any new
information about Gran Pajaten or the people who
b u i l t i t . Seldom have so many read so much about so
l i t t l e . As newspaper wars go, t h i s was what Mencken
would have called "a b a t t l e of w i t s between unarmed
Now the entire project i s in danger of collapsing
under the weight of i t s own pretensions. How did i t
happen, and why?
CREW clears ruins i n June 1966 expedition to Gran
Pajaten — Savoy's second t r i p there.
DOUG VAUGHAN, an i n v e s t i g a t i v e reporter and s t r i n g e r
f o r The Washington Post and The New York Ti mes,
teaches journalism in Denver, Colorado.

Brenton. Johnson. . The project would be headed by Drs. "their 61-year-old guide who was part of the f i r s t group to discover Gran Pajaten in 1963. if not from the time of the Spanish conquest. t h e i r travels became more t r e a c h e r o u s and p h y s i c a l l y exhausting.. I t has been the subject of rumors and unsuccessful expeditions since the beginning of this century. rushed in where even gods fear t o tread. When they reached the s i t e . The p r e s s r e l e a s e . . who . On a tight schedule to meet a f l i g h t a t Chagual. he was referred to Lennon. Thomas Lennon and Jane Wheeler. 1984.000-foot mountain pass. and she directed them t o Mariella Leo. She recounted how Boulder p h y s i c i a n Alan Stormo's l u s t for adventure had brought CD t o t h i s h i s t o r i c a l l i a n c e w i t h the government of Peru: During a 1983 vacation to Peru. Johnson embargoed the news u n t i l a January 31. ." When Stormo got back to the States.. .. tenured p r o fessorships. The group l e f t P a t a z w i t h two g u i d e s .. "Re said the p l a c e was so g o d .The l a s t day of t h e f i v e ." The Malmsbury press release continued with quotes from Lennon: The s i t e has a l r e a d y assumed i t s p l a c e in the mythology of P e r u v i a n archaeology as a ' l o s t c i t y ' [ s a i d Lennon. " Lennon s a i d .f o r s a k e n t h e r e had to be e a s i e r a r e a s t o e x p l o r e so he went n o r t h t o continue his adventures. Stormo. Then she used her cachet as an 'awardwinning science w r i t e r ' t o a t t r a c t i n t e r n a t i o n a l coverage of the event.] Making t h e i r way over a 14. the group headed for a second s i t e named for male s t a t u e s adorning t h e b u r i a l towers perched on several sheer c l i f f s surrounding Gran Paj aten.d a y t r i p . CU had signed an exclusive f i v e . unknown people" in n o r t h e r n Peru.y e a r c o n t r a c t w i t h Peru t o study Gran Pajate'n. " w a s t h e hardest. They took a single-engine Cessna to Chagual on the Rio Maranon — "that was 'The people of Pataz are diligent about guarding t h e a r e a .. From Chagual. and they began p l a n n i n g a t r i p t o t h e ruins. [Emphasis added] The press packet contained a second story by publicist Jeannine Malmsbury. " sai d Lennon. two-week trek. now j o i n e d by Boulder businessman John Lovett and Stormo's friend Dr. as quoted i n t h e p r e s s packet]. Grants and j u n k e t s . because the jungle became more mountainous as they neared the 8. The party retraced i t s route back t o Pataz. They photographed p r o l i f i c a l l y .. Nearly two dozen representatives of the p r i n t and electronic media waited t o meet Messrs. There they d i s c o v e r e d p e r p l e x i n g l y w e l l p r e s e r v e d wood c a r v i n g s . r e c a l l i n g the words of American explorer Gene Savoy who accompanied the Peruvians there in the 1960s. one of the c o u n t l e s s fragments of ancient culture that CU archaeolog i s t s and biologists eventually w i l l study. B ut there was no public a i r i n g of these exploits u n t i l CD's announcement six months l a t e r .they continued t o P u e r t a d e l Monte." The four flew to Miami on J u l y 19th. Wheeler joined the CU anthropology department in 1984. . .600-foot elevation of Gran Pajate'n. most of which were overgrown and inaccessible. and bibliographic immortality hang in the balance. I t told of four men sponsored by CU who had explored Gran Pajate'n. Tant a l i z i n g the media with the press packet. Savoy? The perceptive page-skimmer might conclude from this allusion that the Pajaten country was too rugged for t h i s Savoy fellow and infer that Lennon and Co." They rode mules to Pataz where they met Carlos Torrealba. prepared by Diane H. Boulder p l a s t i c surgeon Alan Stormo was intrigued by a travel agent's story of a lost Inca village in an Andean t r o p i c a l cloud f o r e s t . or the race t o the p o l e s . 1985." Lennon and Stormo. "one of the legendary lost c i t i e s of the Andes" b u i l t by "an unnamed. But the competition for discovery is especially acute in South America. [The reader may offer odds on who rode. Stan Brenton. then Trujillo. continued: In the early 1960s a Peruvian expedition managed t o r e a ch Gran P a j a t e n and spent t h r e e weeks there. . the easy part. "and t h a t ' s one of the r e a s o n s the a n t i q u i t i e s have been so w e l l protected. clearing away vegetation to photograph and map the ruins.. Lovett and Lennon. "The d i f f i c u l t y of the t e r r a i n played perhaps the biggest role in discouraging more investigat i o n of the s i t e . the party found pre-Incan mosaic on five of the 18 ancient buildings. "left Denver in mid-July on what was to be a hair-raising. As a r e s u l t of their foray into the wilds. knocking him unconscious and causing a concussion and injured shoulder. [ S a i d Stormo] "I'm an adventurer. ... then to Lima. s i x pack mules and four r i d i n g mules [Malmsbury r e l a t e d ] . "Pre-Incan Find Might Rival Machu Picchu" — So began the p r e s s r e l e a s e passed out by the p u b l i c relations office of the University of Colorado in late January 1985.... so t h i s was j u s t naturally something I wanted to follow up on. press conference. the search for the source of the N i l e . a 'Peruvian zoologist who knew more about the Gran Pajate'n than any other sources they'd found. a t r i p made more gruelling by the onset of r a i n and a mishap involving Brenton. but Gran Pajaten was again abandoned to the jungle and had not been considered for scientific study u n t i l the Boulder group made the arduous t r i p in the summer of 1984. t e n p o r t e r s ..[who] f e l l head over heels on a slippery slope into the creek below.." Lennon said." said Stormo..T he c o n t r o v e r s y over Gran P a j a t e n cannot a p proach the fury of such grand r i v a l r i e s as who discovered the New World.for the f i n a l and t o u g h e s t leg of t h e trip.

on the rigors of the expedition: We went over l o g s . often with unintended irony: Stonno... and we kept getting conflicting stories. . The B o u l d e r i t e s "found evidence of a ' l o s t c i t y ' .. . l o v e t t ' s greatest fear? "We'd go through this major ordeal and walk up and find a Coors beer can. Lennon. Based on a telephone interview with Lennon. President of the University: This i s a major archaeological s i t e involving a c i v i l i z a t i o n that i s l i t e r a l l y unknown and flourished for a thousand y e a r s befor e the fabled empire of the Inca. Television followed in hot pursuit. we wouldn't have made i t . euphemized by Johnson as 'assertively male' — that i s .. This puts the University of Colorado in the mainstream of pre-Columbian studies. Their r e port prompted a brief v i s i t by local archaeolog i s t s .I looked over the edge. Arnold Weber. the t a l e grew ever mere harrowing with the r e t e l l i n g : One of the fabled 'lost c i t i e s ' of the Andes has been found. I don't see how the p o r t e r s got our gear through. But i t i s thought they may have been k i l l e d by disease spread through Peru by early Spanish treasure-hunters.. t h e Times s a i d . Certainly. .. This i l l u s t r a t e s the rule of serendipity'. Many of the reports brimmed with analogies t o a c e r t a i n fedorahatted. with erect penises (although the f a s t i dious newspaper was not so assertive as to describe them).. T he next day."When you walk i n . rushed to meet deadlines and some wrote t h e i r stories from telephone interviews only.I t h i n k t h e r e i s something m y s t i c a l about the Andes... "How could a c i v i l i z a t i o n exist there?" We t a l k e d t o a l o t of d i f f e r e n t people t o t r y t o decide whether or not we should go. on the prospects for future research: These two s i t e s were found by chance. but not for long. and he was on a l l fours. on the quest for adventure: We had no idea if i t was something r e a l . Every day we did something new. he was lucky to be alive." was the well-preserved wooden figures." On Brenton's brush with death: He couldn't have dene i t b e t t e r off a trampoline. " Lennon said. or j u s t something out of a Peruvian newspaper. whip-wielding adventurer-anthropologist of the silve r screen (see sidebar). on his own near-demise: No regrets.Jf we had the weather going in that we had going back... The New York Times repeated the canard that Peruvian archaeologists spent a few days of r e conaissance and then abandoned [Gran P a j a t f n ] again t o t h e j u n g l e . walk off the map. But t h e "most s t a r t l i n g discoverj'.. the peaks and r i v e r s have no names." the Post noted: The site. God. . "Oh.was f i r s t located in 1963 when Peruvian farmers wandered into the area. on the significance of the project: No one has s c i e n t i f i c a l l y addressed t h i s c i v i l i zation. and I thought. They kept saying. then m y s t e r i o u s l y d i s a p peared.' Reporters with reputations for r e l i a b i l i t y and accuracy. . There was blood.) Lovett. .. warming to the camera-lights: Everybody had been so skeptical. Meanwhile. After d e s c r i b i n g t h e r u i n s . This might not change the world. I t also i l l u s t r a t e s the b e s t of the u n i v e r s i t y . He j u s t disappeared.." announced The Washington Post.M. I t l a p s e d back i n t o o b s c u r i t y u n t i l . Brenton.." The . no detailed study was undertaken. p r e v i o u s l y . "you. "A Legendary lx>st City* in the Andes Gives Hint of Mysterious Culture. front-page a r t i c l e s in newspapers from coast t o coast trumpeted the 'discoverj'. We went under l o g s . . t h e s t u f f of legends. And finally." "CU w i l l e x p l o r e ' l o s t c i t y ' found by team in Andes. wonderful. Wheeler.The region i s so remote. . StormcJieard the legend and learned the s e t t l e ment had been found but not studied. Brenton. we w i l l find more. No one knows what happened to Gran Pajate'n's mysterious inhabitants. "Lost City Found in the Andes. You could not ask for a more important project.eagerly embellished the material prepared by Johnson and Malmsbury.." Without q u e s t i o n ." proclaimed The New York Times. 'The e x p l o r e r s a l s o d i s c o v e r e d the s i g n s of t e r r a c e d fields cut into the steep mountainside. exciting — and dangerous." d e c l a r e d The Denver P o s t . The l o s t c i t y was ' l o s t ' again. But because the s i t e i s hard t o reach. (The r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a l i t y and newspaper accounts was s t i l l open t o d e b a t e . ." [The Washington Post] Repeating Lennon's claim that the s i t e had been the " s u b j e c t of rumors and unsuccessful expeditions. I've seen something very few people in the world have seen^. and how to plan our t r i p . but i t i s a perfect example of the university taking the lead in identifying the nature of c i v i l i z a t i o n .

. Lennon's ' r a i d e r s ' would have needed an ark. The Chicago Tribune w i t l e s s l y repeated t h i s gush. whose t r i p a t t r a c t e d l i t t l e s c i e n t i f i c note-Other adventurers may have found i t hard t o reach.b o l d e r Boulder Boys: "We've found an unstudied c i v i l i z a t i o n and an unnamed people. The hometown Colorado Daily made a unique c o n t r i bution to the coverage of Gran Pajaten by singlehandedly increasing the annual p r e c i p i t a t i on by a JOSf SAHAUONDS C. While members of Lennon's team. In 182 f e e t of r a i n a y e a r ..500-2. lost in the jungle.600 feet and receives 1. I t r e s t s above an unnamed r i v e r a t an altitude of 8. T h a t ' s when some Peruvian farmers..... the goal of many unsuccessful expeditions. t h e t r u t h about Gran Pajaten was lost in a blizzard of misinformation based on r e p e t i t i o n of the factoids strewn through the major newspapers by the e v e r ..UBICACION DE LAS RWNAS DEL CJECUTADO Post continued: I t has been l i t t l e explored s i n c e 1963.. [Lennon t o l d Science News] . After the i n i t i a l deluge of p u b l i c i t y came a veritable torrent of magazine coverage.The s i t e has been t h e s u b j e c t of rumors and u n successful expeditions since the beginning of the .I n c a n burial towers.. The remote ruins were revisite d j u s t once in 1964-65 by a group of Peruvian explorers.. stumbled a c r o s s two s i t e s w i t h 18 p r e .. 1968. they are the f i r s t to p a r t i c i p a te in a successful attempt to launch a scientific investigation of the area. APPOB 8RAN ARQTO VICTOR PAJATEN HHfNTtL • PART OF a map o f Gran P a j a t e n f r o m Duccio Bonavia's Las m i n e s d e l A b i s e o .were not the f i r s t people to view Gran Pajaten. The crosstown r i v a l .300 inches of r a i n f a l l annually. has remained v i r t u a l l y untouched for centuries. factor of ten — a rough measure of the exaggeration index readers might use in evaluating subsequent stories: Gran Pajaten.. trod a l i t t l e more cautiously into t h i s forbidden terrain: The f i r s t American look a t Gran Pajate'n was made i n J u l y [1984] by a CU r e s e a r c h e r and t h r e e adventurous Boulder residents. Within a week of the f i r s t f l u r r j . accompanied by a dozen P e r u v i a n n a t i v e s who t r e k k e d through a mountainous rain forest. the Rocky Mountain News.

Buck compiled an 18-item b i b l i o g r a p h y of p u b l i c a t i o n s concerning Gran Pajaten and fired off l e t t e r s t o editors of both papers. We hope to study the bones and see what diseases affected these people. receded once again into obscurity." In 1963. Now the mist may be l i f t i n g . the same day — he was amused. A r c h a e o l o g i s t s and a d v e n t u r e r s have been v i s i t i n g the ruins for the l a s t 20 years. many authorities blame European-borne diseases like smallpox. As we shall see. But he confided more to Science News: I saw dozens of well-preserved human remains a t the burial s i t e s . Lenoon t o the rescue: One of the major questions i s 'what happened?' We think there's a good chance we'll find mummies in the tombs and they may t e l l us whether there were epidemics that swept through the area. but they did not get any indication of the s i t e ' s scope and richness. the standard tour guide to the region. advising v i s i t o r s to check with the t o u r i s t office in Cajamarca for directions. BELOW: P r o f e s s o r s Thomas Lennon and Jane W h e e l e r . well. This was suspiciously reminiscent of the befuddlement at The Washington Post. the l a s t five editions of The South American Handbook. 'This place is so r i c h . century.D. long has been a mystery. An even greater mystery confronted Time magazine: Why the Incan culture declined so quickly remains unknown. " Lennon told the The Washington Post. around 1530 A. his self-assurance was founded on more than h i s own observations. have carried a reference t o the r u i n s . but t h i s is the f i r s t scientifi c study of the area. against which the natives had no defenses. m issing from these elaborate descriptions of the [wonders of the 'lost city* of Gran Pajaten and p e r i l s of the Boulderites were any but the most the pe references to the body of existing s c i e n t i fleeting fic work performed by Peruvian and foreign scholars since the s i t e f i r s t came to the world's attention two decades ago. When Dan Buck read about Gran Pajaten in the The Washington Post and The New York Times — b o t h stories on page one. Not to be outdone. but u n t i l recently they have been more the s t u f f of legend than of science. however. where the cause of the Inca empire's collapse. Archaeolo g i s t s say t h e new s i t e could h e l p e x p l a i n the cause. A Peace Corps volunteer in Peru in the 1960s and a member of the South American Explorers Club. and Gran Pajater. Not.. "there's no doubt in my mind we're going to come up with a l l sorts of new insights about these people. Time d u t i f u l l y r e p e a t e d Lennon's c o n f i d e nt p r e diction. Peruvian archaeologists were able to photograph and map some of the ruins. A l a n Stormo b r e a k i n g the e x c i t i n g news t o the p r e s s . To The Post he wrote: "Is there a fact-famine a t the Post? Must we organize a r e l i e f effort and a i r l i f t history and geography books into the confines of our city's major newspaper?" As for Gran Pajaten being lost. Dis- . without some unanticipated and unsolicited assistance.LEFT: Dp. Newsweek t r i l l e d : A r c h a e o l o g i s t s have long suspected that there were many more 'lost c i t i e s ' of the Andes than the fabled Machu Picchu.

Discovery. he met Douglas Sharon. They were f o l l o w e d i n 1919 by August Weberbauer. O ne of t h o s e i n s p i r e d by Bingham was Douglas Eugene Savoy. But i t a l s o deflected a t t e n t i o n from the less hospitable t e r r i tory further to the northeast. He also met and married a Peruvian s o c i a l i t e . Director of the National Museum of Archaeology' in T r u j i l lo. Savoy founded the Andean Explorers Club in 1957 to pursue the fragmentary t a l e s of advanced cultures in the densely forested region beyond the c o r d i l l e 9 . and books. And. his house and h i s wife in Portland. Antisuyo: The Lost City of the Amazon (1970). A decade l a t e r . the area between Cuzco and Machu Picchu. But the eyebrows thus r a i s e d must have been se t t o t w i t c h i n g when Gene Savoy c a l l e d t h e Associated Press to restake his claim to having been the ' f i r s t [North] American' to v i s i t Gran Pajaten. p r o t e c t e d from the i n v a d e r s by s t e e p . Savoy has always been the f i r s t to admit that he i s not a professional archaeologist. We do know that. published by the Geographical Society of Lima in 1920. in 1876-1877. Omia. the laborers relocated and demoralized. The s e t t i n g was so s p e c t a c u l a r . N o r t i z i . over t h e c e n t u r i e s . They r e ported sighting ruins at Cochamal.' as you might have guessed by now. he wangled h i s way i n t o a b o t a n i c a l expedition t o Peru i n 1957.000 w a r r i o r s . Vidal Seneze and J . f o r e s t e d slopes and r a g i n g r i v e r s . He was fascinated by the Mochica. historians. got 'lost. depicted a road leading from the h i l l t o p s i t e of Puerta del Monte. F i r s t the urban centers. Dolly Clarke. l a s t refuge of the Inca. Antonio Raimondi v i s i t e d San Francisco de la Victoria de Vilcabamba (Vilcabamba the New). and c o n t r i b u t e d t o famine. has no one a t the P o s t beard of F r a n c i s c o Pizarro?" Neither paper chose to p r i n t Buck's l e t t e r s . and Jose' Eulogio Garfido. spread d i s e a s e . Fr. only t o have the venture collapse on h i s a r r i v a l . Oregon. But i t was not u n t i l 1911 that Yale archaeologist Hiram Bingham was led by local peasants t o Machu Picchu. so Machu Picchu entered the imagination of Europe and North America as 'The Lost City of the Inca. Written accounts of the region between the Huallaga and Maranon. Fray Bernardino Izaguirre l e f t a report of missionary work (1619-1621). professional j o u r n a l s . such as Chavfn de Huantar and Kuelap in the north and Tihuanaco in the south. the Chimu. i s as slippery and treacherous a term as the path which launched Brenton i n t o the creek and the Boulder Bunch into stardom. b e l i e v e d by some t o be Gran Pajaten. the conquest severed contact between r e g i o n s . Instead of s t a r t ing over. were sketchy. Anayac and Calca. Peasants were dragooned into the great mines of Huancavalica and Potosi. including the Chachas c i t y of Pfas . the l a s t of the Incas ruled the remnants of the old empire u n t i l defeated by the Spanish in 1572. the Inca empire extended earlier c i v i l i z a t i o n s ' irrigation-based agriculture. Toyora. The invading Spanish disrupted an economy already wracked by the c i v i l war of succession between I n c a s Atahualpa and Huascar. According to the early chronicles. with whom he had a child.s e l l i n g book. food storage and road systems for trade and communications in a way that allowed a substantial population to thrive. A hundred years l a t e r . After Francisco Pizarro executed the Inca Atahaulpa and seized Cuzco in 1533. From the jungle redoubt of Vilcabamba. and other pre-Columbian cultures. The effect of Bingham's work was as much inspirational as s c i e n t i f i c . and more accessible s i t e s in the sierra. [As for the mysterious decline of the Incas]. With an army of some 60. Charles Weiner crossed into Antisuyo and was told of a stone c i t y perched over the Rio Urubamba. the purported domain of the Chachapoyas. attracted the most attention. We know very l i t t l e about what happened t o the Chachas people after the Conquest.cussions and photographs of Gran P a j a t e n have appeared i n numerous periodicals. Eis drawings.000-miles-long and to dominate dozens of d i s t i n c t t r i b e s . American e x p l o r e r Gene Savoy devoted a chapter of his book. travelers and — one would hope — scholars like Lennon. who located ruins along the edges of the forest. and h i s subsequent forays so unproductive. triggering further exploration and mapping of the Urubamba V a l l e y . I t was the s t a r t of a fruitful collaboration. I n c e s s a n t battling over booty by the Spanish warlords gave way to systematic plunder of feudalism. In T r u j i l l o . t h a t he thought he had found the real thing. near the 16th century mining town of Pataz. let us briefly review the h i s t o r y of Gran P a j a t e n . to the ruins a f t e r h i s v i s i t s i n the 1960s [Gran Pajaten] is clearly marked on many maps of Peru. Vilcabamba. So he parlayed h i s limited s k i l l as a photographer and an endless reservoir of charm into free-lance assignments for the Peruvian Times. which i s familiar to many Peruvians. but he had one essential — curiosity — and plenty of bravado. who ranged the upper Huambo. Alvarez de Villanueva gave an account of his travels in the area (1781-1791). the town established by the Spanish after they sacked Vilcabamba the Old. the Spanish deftly exploited the divide-and-rule strategy established by the Incas.' The romance of searching for l o s t c i t i e s lured successive waves of e x p l o r e r s . then the countryside were depopulated. t h e p r e Conquest c i t i e s . Savoy was 30 years old in 1956 when he lost his small publishing company. the Geographic Society of Paris published the reports cf two b o t a n i s t s . e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e hidden i n the j u n g l e s . whatever i t s other faults. a tributary of the Huayabamba. In order to evaluate tbe d i s pute triggered by the CU announcement. in the 148Cs the Inca Tupac Yupanqui b u i l t a m i l i t a r y road across the Maranon River toward t h e Chachapoyas t o c o n t r o l these t r i b e s . into the montana. then a Canadian archaeology student and now with San Diego's Museum of Man. he stormed t h e i r seven great c i t i e s of stone. I t took less than three centuries for the Incas to conquer a t e r r i t o r y nearly 4." a notion furthered by his b e s t . But exploration and archaeology remained c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e g r e a t c o a s t a l c i t i e s of t h e Chimu and Mochica cultures. In 1865.

hacked a hole in the vegetation and wriggled through only to be confronted by a second wall. they followed i t north where i t d i s appeared in dense vegetation.o l d son. a landowner from Huamachuco. Savoy resumed h i s aerial surveys. c o u r t e s y o f th e Andean E x p l o r e r s Club) OPPOSITE: S a v o y ' s p h o t o o f Gran P a j a t e n s t o n e w o r k s h o r t l y a f t e r being c l e a r e d . On September 1 1 . Calixto Rios and Nicolas Garcia — set out from Pataz on August 26. and thence to Victor Pimental. He d e s c r i b e s h i s e x p l o r a t i o n s i n Gran P a j a t e n end o t h e r P e r u v i a n s i t e s i n A n t i s u y o (1970). But on January 10. they drove to Consuso. three million tons of rock and glacier broke off Huascaran. they rode mules up t o Pataz where townspeople advised them not to proceed — the ruins were haunted by s p i r i t s and t o e x p l o r e them would be s a c r i l e g e . J o r g e Valtodano. we labored a thousand feet up the side of the forested mountain. a group of farmers — Carlos Torrealba. then 12 hours of winding road t o Chagual on the Maranbn.. The l o c a l s r e l e n t e d when 10 Savoy agreed t o t a ke on seven p o r t e r s (Escobedo. in search of new land to cultivate. and Carlos Lopez. Ganoza had said that ruins might be found at the base of such a promontory. As n e a r a s I could t e l l we were a t BELOW: Gene S a v o y . Eduardo Pena Mesa. Rafael Flores Resell. Another woodsman. the ruins 'belonged' to those who f i r s t found them. . They reported t h e i r find t o newspapers in Trujillo. k i l l i n g thousands. (Photo by Dale W i t t n e r . Santos Escobedo. first v i 6 i t e d Gran Pajate'n i n 1965. Rios. they plunged into the forest. Sharon. Doug and I sat down trying t o figure our l o c a t i o n . Jamil.p r e s e r v e d circular structure 46 feet wide. decorated in stone r e l i e f with winged figures with human heads. Besides. Veering back to the west. A p i l o t friend. Peru's highest peak. they s p o t t e d a sheer c l i f f j u t t i n g up 500 feet. e x p l o r e r and a u t h o r . Savoy. that linked the northern coast and highlands. mapped by Victor von Hagen i n 1925. 1962. where they hired Manual Crespin and Gerardo Agreda. Six days out they climbed a h i l l t o p and found a w e l l .y e a r . 1964. Soon a f t e r . Savoy learned that road engineers had heard reports from local hunters and farmers that there were ruins in the area of Pajaten. confirmed t h i s t o Savoy. tracing p r e Conquest roadways. Now a party of 13 and taking the route familia r to Torrealba. Next day. drove from T r u j i l lo t o Huamachuco. We snaked around i t .) M eanwhile. claiming hundreds more. a d i f f i c u l t climb under heavy packs and a s t e a d y downpour. Savoy mounted an expedition with the help of the National University in T r u j i l l o and the Archaeological Foundation of La Libertad. (He and Antonio Santander found i t in 1964.300 f e e t we h i t secondary w a l l s . told him that a hunter from Huamachuco named Teodorio Ganoza had followed one such road a few years before in the v i c i n i t y of Fataz. Carl. two woodsmen familiar with the terrain. he went down the eastern slope of the Andes between the Maraiion and the Huallaga. Juan and Americo Villalobos) led by Torrealba. said others. which passed i t to papers in Lima. E d i l b e r t u Aranda.. Typhoid and c h o l e r a followed in the landslide's wake. Gaspar Solon. Spotting one. the colonial v i l l a g e abandoned by the Franciscans. He moved h i s f a m i l y t o the v a l l e y of the Rio Santa in order t o be closer t o the Chavin site. crashed down a gorge and swept through the village s below. Savoy and p i l o t Mirko Ristivojevich flew over the eastern ridge in search of the m i l i t a r y road Garcilaso said Tupac Yupanqui had b u i l t in his campaign against the Chachapcyas. and s p o t t e d r u i n s along t h e way. But a trek to the s i t e would have t o wait three years while Savoy took up BiEgham's search for Vilcabamba. and had noted t h e i r approximate s i t e near t h e Rib Pajate'n on t h e i r map.At 9. i n c l u d i n g t h e Savoys' t h r e e .ra.. Savoy wrote about t h e i r l a s t s t r e t c h into Gran Pajaten: Gritting our teeth. Taking to the a i r in 1962. Assistant Director of Tourism. 1965. This one supported a stone s t r u c t u r e . Ee explored and photographed f o r t i f i c a t i o n s and compared them to descriptions in the old chronicles. His a e r i a l sightings confirmed by the Pataz farmers. One of the men ambled up and t o l d us t h e r e was a b i g c i r c u l a r r u i n a t the crest with carvings. Fifty feet more and we ran into a twenty-foot stone Mrall. On September 9.

1967). This time a h e l i copter f e r r i e d in s c h o l a r s and work crews — 35 people in a l l . 'The Pajaten r u i n s belong t o a h i t h e r t o unknown c i v i l i z a tion.." (Sept. included representatives of the m i n i s t r i e s of education and public works and the army. an abandoned F r a n c i s c a n m i s s i o n some t h r e e or four days' hard t r a i l n o r t h of our position. " announced The Times of London on Oct. a courtyard. The group. Press coverage of these events b e a r s a s t a r t l i n g s i m i l a r i t y t o the 'discovery' 20 years l a t e r . Savoy's group p a r t i a l l y cleared nearly ten acres. also flew in. (Photo Gene Savoy) approximately latitude 7° 45' S. As early as Oct. longitude 77° 18' W. The investigation was planned t o take a month but was limited to 15 days by t o r r e n t i a l rains. 'THE LOST CITY OF PAJATEN: I t was b u i l t on a mountaintop in the midst of clouds — but no one knows when. the crews uncovered eight more buildings." They finished clearing ten acres begun by Savoy's men." declared Horizon (Autumn." Even Esquire got into the act with a p i t c h for t o u r i s t s t o j o i n Savoy on h i s f o r a y s : "WANTED: Paying Guests to Trace the Lost Cities of Penu. 1967). two long stairways and several streets.. revealing eight circula r buildings whose archit e c t u r e and o r n a m e n t a t i on suggested the Huaylas style. In November 1965. 1. with maps and photos. Nevertheless.. The s i t e "rivals anything the Incas b u i l t . including a film crew from the BBC. That put us somewhere in the greater Pajaten t e r r i t o r y between the Apisoncho and a small stream c a l l e d P a j a t e n t h a t e m p t i e s i n t o the Huayabamba." Tajaten: A Lost City Found. led by Pimental and archaeologist Pedro Rojas Ponce.. Their efforts were recorded by the international press. Savoy had already decided to press further east and north in search of additional ruins. [from Antisuyo] Over the next three days. 8. or by whom or why." reported Americas magazine in June 1967. 25. Among other things. they uncovered terraces. Wanting t o salute the missionaries of times p a s t .I n c a p o t s h e r d s and remarkably well-preserved wooden figures for study. Dignit a r i e s .. unveiling eight buildings. mapped 12 square miles of ruins and gathered b o t h p r e ." Oct. a full-scale expedition was organized with government backing.and may w e l l t u r n out t o be an even more important discovery than that of Machu Picchu. 1965. the Patazians guided another group of 14 t o Gran P a j a t e n . 1965. the f i r s t of seven c i t i e s conquered by Inca Tupac Yupanqui n e a r l y 500 y e a r s before. Soon the s t o r y was p i c k e d up i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y : '"Lost City* Discovered i n Peruvian Jungle: Relics of Unknown C i v i l i z a t i o n . Savoy was l a t e r convinced that these were part of the ruins of Pias. "the lower l e v e l s of which extended so f a r down the mountains that there were tropical palms on them. By the time the chopper expedition was landing. While surveying. the 11 . i n c l u d i n g a supposed descendant of Czar Nicholas I I . The b u l l e t i n declared Savoy had returned with "news of what i s probably an even g r e a t e r d i s c o v e r y " than Vilcabamba. 1965)." The following June.RUINS a t Gran P a j a t e n . he t o l d La P r e n s a of Lima t h a t a t least two more c i t i e s lay beyond Gran Pajaten. Rojas Ponce noted "tombs of a kind usually found in the northern Andes. we decided t o c a l l the r u i n s Gran Pajaten in honor of the famous colonial ruins of Pajaten.I n c a n and l a t e . S avoy reported his i n i t i a l t r i p in the Peruvian Times (°EI Gran Pajaten Expedition: A Lost P r eInca Civilization in the Andes.

se Hallan Rodeadas por Siete Colinas Pajaten "Las rufnas del Gran Pa. c n c i a d(1 c f r i : „ n [ del mismo tipo en Ins tres sitios. sc exiienden las ruinas que en su tiempo habrian s. as well as the by-now familiar shots of Gran Pajaten. the road was completely closed and the active veget a t i o n had invaded the whole t e r r a i n . dice Savoy. New York. O ver the next three years. Antique en la foio no se pucrie (npreclar con cbridad. Soon after the Spanish Conquest. they thrived." Lacking cent r a l p o l i t i c a l control and planning. Two centuries l a t e r Raimondi wrote: 'The people have disappeared. who shot the s c a l i n g of the high c l i f f s of La P e t a c a and Diablo Huasi above the Utcubamba to examine tombs. destroying the frag i l e microenvironment so carefully and a r t i f i c i a l l y created.Lima papers were carrying a e r i al photos by Savoy of seven h i l l t o p s i t e s with ruins extending 20 km by 5 km around Gran Pajate"n. usually including Sharon. s e l f . and Dr. seeun Savoy. by Charles Kuralt and David Burke of CBS. Gene Sa\u. Noting that the s i t e was marked improperly on the old highway maps. found 39 additional s i t e s .l. Although the precise sequence and mechanism of decline i s speculative. missionaries found the settlements had r e v e r t ed to autonomous agricultura l u n i t s .snme. que Ocupan Angosto y Largo Valle.tfi a las de Roma. who translated Rojas Ponce's work for the j o u r n a l Archaeology (Vol. a l l signs of the Inca c o n n e c t i o n t o Gran P a j a t e n d i s a p p e a r e d .est an dispti'sa's en siete cnnras.= mil afios". Yicrnes 17 dc Junio do 1966 Las Ruinas del Gran Pajaten.20. ubicadas entre Ins rim Tumac Pajaten y Catenlla. 'La maleza' (rot) invaded the cultivations. Es la conclusion a la que ha llenam cl exjilc „ lor noneamerieano y divr icjnr de las ruinas. B onavia proposed (at the 28th International Congress of Americanists. denomination que les nio ricspuos de su prfmwa experiifidn en cl ano 1965. Peruvian archaeologists Rojas Ponce and Bonavia published more scholarly accounts of t h e i r work a t Gran Pajaten.c a l l e d v i l l a s — r e l a t i v e l y independent. which marked the l i m i t of the Inca empire. and t h e j u n g l e took over. 1967).licuedad de do. whose documentary included more walled tomb inspections with the assistance of German a l p i n i s t Frank Hentschel. y 12 Tiene Siete Colinas Como tlobch fer. Savoy confidently predicted he would find "seven c i t i e s hidden by jungle" in a t e r r i t o r y 100 km by 250 km i n the v a l l e y s of the Pajate'n. 1966) a likely scenario for what happened to the inhabitants: The s i t e f i t s the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the s o . No. las flochas indican las colinas . Here the de anrr. the cultures c o l l a p s e d po- blades por ios Cliachapoyss. es prueba de la concxinn existcme. Savoy himself described these ventures in his book. t r i b e s in t h i s area preserved t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l practices. c . These expeditions were filmed by the German team of Ingo and Eckart G r i l l . .'nine las que.o . Savoy and his group.vromar vistas aereas toma- dns con el sistcma Infra rojo y con telescopic). bu t t h e people carved terraced h i l l s i d e s . linked by precipitous stairways to take advantage of the climatic variation between the chilled heights and the sultry r i v e r v a l l e y . Limn. Catenella and Huayabamba Rivers. Agrefia que las ruinas del Gran PajaU'n.aten so extjenden a LO lorgo'de JO kl/omciros por cir. Bonavia renamed the s i t e Abiseo a f t e r the n e a r e s t r i v e r drainage — a system of nomenclature developed by Donald Lathrop. dpsp.ja de selva ('eyebrow of the jungle'). rain and poor soil conspired a g a i n s t c u l t i v a t i o n . Under Inca por lo mends una ar. So long as they were h i g h l y o r ganized. By 1676. Antisuyo: The Search for the Lost Cities of the Amazon (Simon and Schuster. nature returning to recover i t s ancient dominion. tendrian tambien relacion con las de Vilcabamba hacia el s'ur y row: Gem ea»o7 Roma las de Colombia. hacla r! norL a p ) .i"s de con.. Apisoncho. 1970). Lopez and Carl Landegger of The Explorers Club of New York. i t i s safe to say that the resulting slump in production of domesticated TWENTY-YEAR-OLD newspaper c l i p p i n g n o t i n g th e many a d d i t i o n a l s i t e s s u r r o u n d i n g Gren P a j a t e n . George O'Neill of City College of New York. including what Savoy believed to be six of the seven Chachapoyas c i t i e s .s u f f i c i e nt agricultural communities — that were reported as existing in great profusion by the Spanish a l l along the ce. Meanwhile. They p l a n t e d corn f o r food and t o b u i l d the s o i l .

but only five were l e f t . Brenton and friend Lovett... She lectured a t the Dniversidad Nacional de San Marcos on a Fulbright from 1974-1976 and studied cameloids for the French National Center for Scient i f i c Research in the Junin-Palcomayo area and the Lake Titicaca basin. 1981 and 1982.A 1981 S..) In 1983. archaeologist Jaime Deza Rivasplata explored s i t e s on the periphery of Gran Pajaten. Handbook. one of the l a r g e r t o u r i s t a g e n c i es i n Peru.a N o t ' a . :<•.) All the f i g u r e s had e r e c t penises. a considerable body of work by Peruvian and foreign archaeologists and anthropologists had been compiled and published in Peru and the United S t a t e s ." n . a prominent archaeologist. i g r tn«p cjokl '' i i ' . luir . r r i c ' u i •• ares i •• i i-j. The next year he set up a private consulting firm that compiled archaeological and historica l inventories for proposed s i t e s of mines.' a Quechua word meaning "hot climate..A.oa i>. ask at Tourist O f f i c e in C a i a m a r c a for details Also w o r t h . a Boulder p l a s t i c surgeon. Thus educated. who had spent two years in the northeastern jungles. "Ask a t the Tourist Office in Cajamarca for details. They named their expeditions Ttupa Rupa. ns nu ift>> rh>. t l"i : v. ill lion "•.»./ Iibntlati F I .itiO t h ' f . b u t r a n i n t o a building group with anthroporaorphic sculptures fashioned from wood and tenoned into the frieze-work. •'• .r a ' .. Lennon had come t o Boulder in 1974 after a s t i n t in the Peace Corps i n Ecuador. Arbe confided t o Stormo that there were many more 'lost c i t i e s ' b e s i d e s Machu P i c c h u and gave him a t a t t e r e d c l i p p i n g about Gran Pajate'n.Gut . Guides from Pataz led others t o the main ruins and the s c u l p t u r e s . ' ' I' were few takers.| A r i l l o Casa S t a n d i Jin. after a l l .060 square miles around the major s i t e s . 1970).. they got l o s t . because of encountering heavy early rains and losing the way. t n o s e >' V ' r a ^ n u n r v i i H near A v a i " u c v . (The s i x t h found i t s way t o a c o l l e c t o r i n Lima. concluding they were pre-Incan. a Denver travel club. M ' I H Ctinbi nd Danubio 3 use :•• apvlt. ••••-. Stormo l a t e r met Carlos Arbe. o ^ e a ' ! ^ ^ ' I ' I ^ . The route to Gran Pajaten was familiar enough for The South American Handbook t o advise simply. there . p r e sumably.. a member of the 1965 and 1966 expeditions..ii. ty d '. Kauffman Doig and his team spent five days clearing a t r a i l to another s i t e with four pucullos: one had been decorated with six figures. I r o i n Patar 'tseif ( a b o u t 1 0 0 k m . Giovanni Ellena and two companions t o Gran Pajate'n. a group of Polish kayakers spent a day and a h a l f a t Gran P a j a t e n . * " ' '••::). h u a . On a fourth v i s i t in 1984.. Los Pinchudos ( l i t e r a l l y The Pricks'). • •'• '^ • I b u v o ''• a •••. They studied the wooden figures in d e t a i l . Wheeler l a t e r t o l d t h e Denver P o s t . by an i n c r e a s e i n epidemic i l l n e s s and infant mortality. "I thought he was a nut.t-ir •-. T B l h i l l o b (i M u .-•• -i S a u s a c o c f a t. having taken seven days to get there from Pataz and another week to get out. %ran Pajate'n i s not r e s t r i c t e d to the h i l l t o p ruins. and directions to the ruins appearing in the Last 5 editions of the S. "but is a metropolis of the jungle composed of a large assortment of remains." In the mid-1970s. studied archaeozoology a t Camb r i d g e and P a r i s and spent p a r t s of 12 y e a r s i n Peru. •. with Gianc a r l o Ligabue of t h e Centro S t u d i Ricerche of Venice." When she realized they were d i s c u s s i n g Gran Pajate'n. map showing Gran P a j a t e n . plants (which were. a daub—and-wattle structure that pushed back the evidence of habitation in that part of the Rockies by several hundred years.J "•• " .*yr b a n k •:>' r'ui \ r t a r 3 p 0 n pass '". o . n g c e n t r e s o l a t . a n t h r o p o l o g i s t J a n e Wheeler j o i n e d the f a c u l t y a s an a s s i s t a n t p r o f e s s o r .:i : --•• . Lennon j o i n e d CU's a n t h r o p o l o g y d e p a r t m e n t i n 1982 as a part-time research associate after getting his doctorate. Much of t h i s information was readily available to Stormo. These wooden figures came to the attentio n of Federico Kauffman Doig. About her f i r s t encounter with Stormo.-* i r u •.'i v . Pataz r e s i d e n t Manual V i l l a l o b o s guided a French teacher. v . Two y e a r s l a t e r .r a i s i n g ' j o u r n e y we shall now retrace: D r.H .• • r .-• K l . 21.l n c a ) . i n c l u d i n g I t a l i a n explorer Piero Amighetti and Pierre Abribat and Jaquelin Chambon of France. Suitably inspired.. a preserve of 1." (Apparently. Aug. had begun offering two-week excursions: "8th Day — Trek to the new [sic] discovered 'los Pinchudos' Ruins. from H u a m a c h u c o ) are the u n i q u e circular rums of £! Gran Pajaten ( p r e . He enlisted the aid of Lima Tours and made his own inspections in June 1980. imported to the zone) led to lower levels of n u t r i t i o n accompanied.A. " ' . along w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n s and photos of the s i t e in the popular press. then 54." And Hirca. :oiftCv-vOii J 10 TfU. where t h e r e are wooden idols. enlisted his neighbor Dr. Alan Stormo. K . she l e n t them a book — a p p a r e n t l y Savoy's Antisuyo. One of the de rigeur stops was Machu Picchu. M I h aia/i •• r\> •• • -r p " i v .o : . Lennon's major professional achievement came in September 1981: A work crew uncovered signs of old b u i l d i n g w h i l e d i g g i n g a p i p e l i n e . By 1984. r o o m s la nv clears o a l h i o o i n s l i l t h v r]u. That ' h a i r . Wheeler took her doctorate in 1973 from the Univers i t y of Michigan.te g o o d p r u h a b U oust • '<<*> ' . i ^-apaia . power plants and dams. i. Wheeler also cleared bureau13 . He took a m a s t e r s degree in anthropology in 1975 and went to Peru in 1976 and 1977 as a Fulbright fellow t o study 'preHispanic water management systems' around Titicaca. • r r t a u c h as P a r c o ' . . Meanwhile. thus the nickname given by the locals t o the s i t e .' SS d a j c i m a r c i USS1 10 B J S B ! '• ••).. The s i t e proved t o be very old. Lennon and friends before they l e f t for Gran P a j a t e n i n 1984. The three would-be explorers sought counsel a t the university and were referred t o Lennon. •• rn. therefore. In 1978 the Peruvian tourism bureau sponsored lectures and an exhibition of photos by Jorge Leon Linares.~ . in September 1983. the Peruvian government established Rio Abiseo National Park. •"-• " n e ' e a v. owner of an Iquitos lodge on the jungle leg of the tour. J .' used by Javier Pulgar Vidal t o d e s c r i b e the f o r e s t zone of the Huallaga. Stormo returned home." Savoy concluded (Peruvian Times. l ' v u S S 4 6C ' . Wheeler s t e e r e d t h e t r i o to Mariella Leo. took his f i r s t v i s i t t o Peru in July 1983 on a t o u r organized by P o r t s of C a l l . r:> i.

1985." A week l a t e r The Washington Post reconsidered: "Lost City Well Known.We never said we have se t [sic] on v i r g i n s o i l . And imagine the consternation in c e r t a i n quarters when the South American Explorers Club said i t would present i t s Hoax of the Millenium Award to the Boulder Boys "for their remarkable achievement i n bamboozling the North American p r e s s and t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Colorado.. The News placed the debunking 31 pages deep in t e r r o r i s t bombings and drunk-driving mayhem. CU President Weber wrote a check for i£10." the Rocky Mountain News advised on Feb. the second as farce. who allegedly was disarmed by ample beer. where they were met by a 'suspicious' Torrealba. but no one's done any thorough research. Peruvians and ordinary t o u r i s t s who f e l t slighted or hoodwinked by the academic a r r i v i s t e s . On t h e seventh. they ' d i s c o v e r e d ' Gran P a j a t e n . a r c h a e o l o g i s t s . The Denver Post. and the group was forced t o camp in t h e r a i n . 'surprised' despite a l l their presumed research to find evidence of t h e i r many predecessors. "[T]he mule man was l a t e with the animals. r i g h t where i t was supposed t o be. On the ninth day.000 to cover expenses. quoting Lennon's d e s c r i p t i o n of Savoy and h i s i l k . a l l t h e p o r t e r s jammed i n t o one leaky t e n t .." "Oops" went the media: "CU exploration nothing new. buried the Savoy rejoinder ("Explorer lays claim t o f i r s t s on 'lost city" 1 ) in a remote cloud forest of pulp." R e p o r t e r Boyce Rensburger wrote that Lennon "did not c l a i m the d i s c o v e r y of the . " On t h e e i g h t h day. and Carlos Arbe arranged l o g i s t i cs in Peru. the wooden figures greeted them with an 'assertively male' s a l u t e . When they hiked up to Los Pinchudos on the sixth day. 7. and dropped back to t h e i r campsite at La Playa. "They go charging through the j u n g l e f i n d i n g wonderful things. court e s y of t h e AP w i r e (note t h e use of the v e r b ' c l a i m s . Five days out of P a t a z . Tourist Guidebooks Tout Peruv i a n Ruins. " publicist Diaue Johnson said. then dispatched a r e p o r t e r t o Boulder: "They a r e e x p l o r e r s .. then Chagual on the Rio Maranbn. 10 porters and six pack mules. then T r u j i l l o . 14 Imagine Gene Savoy's i r r i t a t i o n (or was i t mirth?) at the claims by CU. The four l e f t Boulder on July 19. ' which c a r r i e s the connotation of being unsubstantiated). Imagine the derision and outrage of o t h e r e x p l o r e r s . they "hacked and crawled t h e i r way" back to Puerta del Monte. author claims. properly wary of the verac i t y of the wire services. using the familiar route — over the pass at Los Alisos. past the lakes. They l e f t the next day for Gran Pajaten with Torrealba and another guide.m^ ^s c r a t i c t a n g l e s from t h e i r p a t h . Brenton inadvertantly vaulted t o the bottom of a 35foot cliff. advent u r e r s . They rode mules provided by Arbe to Pataz. across the fango to Puerta del Monte. Leimon's charm and fluent Spanish. 1984. they departed. flying t o Lima. A cranky German once quipped that history does indeed r e p e a t i t s e l f : t h e f i r s t time as history.

" Lennon said. thanks t o Dan Buck and o t h e r g a d f l i e s : "In h i s i n i t i a l conversation.f l a g e l l a tion in cases of "significant lapses of fairness. The Peruvian highlands are f i l l e d with ruins a l l the way from Machu Picchu [500 miles t o the south] on up. who r e c e n t l y r e c e i v e d an award from the Committee for Scientific Investigation of Claims t o the Paranormal for h i s diligent work. Position of arras and legs suggest f l i g h t symbolism._Jkit the [CD] announcement suggested that the s i t e had faded i n t o o b s c u r i t y . " Miffed at the South American Explorers Club. " Lennon now t o l d Rensburger. There was a road alright — about 1500 [AX).' Rensburger said in a subsequent interview that he had been 'seriously misled' by Lennon in t h e i r earl i e r telephone conversation: "I was given the impression that t h i s was a poorly known s i t e . had been 'misinformed' by Lennon about p r i o r work a t the s i t e ." Meggers was a l s o quoted i n The Washington Post retraction: "I don't understand why they made such a big deal out of t h i s . "At every opportunity possible we have attempted t o recreate the h i s t o r y of people who have gone t o t h e a r e a and t h e work that has been done there. was not the only good reporter eating crow. A member of the South American Explorers Club. too. he said the club had provided inaccurate information when he sought advice for his sojourn t o Gran Pajaten: 'They told me i t was an easy two-day walk [from P a t a z ] and t h e r e was a road t o t h e s i t e . The p r e s s got c a r r i e d away w i t h t h e I n d i a n a J o n e s theme. John Lovett was especially indignant.) Lovett denied he and h i s compatriots were headline-grabbers: I t wasn't "the point of our expedition to give ourselves notoriety. ' I can't see myself as having said there was no s c i e n t i f i c work before ours. but not anymore. But he l a t e r c a l l e d Montague again. As reporters dug deeper. expressing indignation for the favorable publicity CD was reaping and noting the lack of any public acknowledgement of the valuable advice the Polish group had provided the Boulder vacationers p r i o r t o t h e i r journey. He says he was prepared t o discuss the histor y of the s i t e . Nor did she offer i t . T he South American Explorers Club received only one l e t t e r defending CD — from P i o t r Chmielinski. he said he f e l t a b i t foolish for not having checked further. Malmsbury quoted Sharon's oxymoronic description of the s i t e as " r e l a t i v e l y V i r g i n i a marvelous opportunity for science. Lovett. I'm going to be l e f t for a lifetime with the crap they've said. We never even gave c r e d i t t o o u r s e l v e s most of t h e t i m e . balance or perspective. "I don't deny anything Gene Savoy says. Montague almost c a l l e d off the p r e s s conference. any more than he moved beyond Gran Pajaten because i t was 'god-forsaken. He told Mary Chandler of People he ' f r o z e ' a t t h e p r e s s c o n ference — " i t was not my element. Chmielinski had called club president Don Montague e a r l i e r . I question their integrity. who has a Pulitzer Prize for science writing. Lennon warmed t o t h i s theme of good intentions misunderstood. but no one asked for i t . Lennon said.. must not have happened." Betty Meggers. " Savoy never dished out that p a r t i c u l a r red herring." (Actually.. but I take exception t o the idea that there's nothing l e f t t o do a t Gran P a j a t e n because he d i d i t a l l . Nor did she attempt t o c o r r e c t the m i s x m d e r s t a n d i n g s u n t i l c r i t i c s attacked. added: "A full-scale investigation w i l l be interesting." And Thomas Patterson of Temple University said: " I t ' s curious to me that of a l l the s c i e n t i f i c work done in Peru. t h i s time urging him to c a l l off a scheduled press conference. he light have avoided having gullible reporters jump t o the conclusion t h a t p r i o r v i s i t s . "thejr show no good w i l l t o t h e p r o j e c t . i t was probably pre-Incan. We did not announce the discovery of anything. but nobody in t h e p r e s s seemed t o be i n t e r e s t e d .' [Now Lennon] said that the Peruvian l i t e r a t u r e cannot be ignored. Lennon and Johnson a l l blamed overzealous reporters for the overly good and subsequent bad publicity. b r i e f l y v i s i t e d . said he. She said she had reviewed tapes of the press conference: "In the f i r s t five minutes.) The New York Times r a n i t s c l a r i f i c a t i o n i n a page-two editor's note reserved for s e l f . The MacNeil-Lehrer Report also issued a c l a r i f i cation. Had any one of them stepped out of the national spotlight to describe precisely what research he had conducted before embarking on the venture..Xennon said that future work [by his team] would mark 'the f i r s t s c i e n t i f i c i n vestigation of the area.there were six references t o others who had been on the s i t e . Bruce Bower of Science News likewise backtracked. claiming i t would hurt the project. " he said." She said she brought a bibliography with 15 c i t a t i o n s to the press conference. the main Inca road i s further east. but of predominantly local significance—. t h i s recent expedition captured so much attention-. a member of the Polish kayak team t h a t v i s i t e d Gran P a j a t e n a f t e r running the Colca i n 1983. a s p e c i a l i s t i n South American archaeology at the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n .The knowledge that results from further work c e r t a i n l y won't be revolutionary. " (Rensburger.' he says. But the disingenuousness of the purported ' c l a r i f i c a t i o n s ' by Lennon and his associates — and 15 ." "To have the p r o j e c t c a s t as a hoax h u r t s t h e p r o j e c t i n t h e s h o r t . t h e h e i g h t of c h i l d i s h n e s s ." Bower went on t o quote Douglas Sharon: "In 1963 Gran Pajate'n was a l o s t c i t y . " he t o l d t h e Boulder D a i l y Camera." People went on: 'lennon says he was not in any way trying t o conceal the achievements of his predecessors. [Photo Gene Savoy) site. In deference to Chmielinski's pleas for cooperat i o n .] I t was the Inca highway. " The controversy over who 'discovered' Gran Pajaten was " p e t t y j e a l o u s y . 'John Noble Wilford. so long as t h e y w e r e n ' t mentioned. He got a s y m p a t h e t i c h e a r i n g from reporter Todd Malmsbury. on the other side of the Maranon. armed only w i t h $10. whose wife wrote some of the original CO press releases." QJ publicist Diane Johnson refused t o take the blame.t e r m .000 of the s c h o o l ' s money and a yellowed Peruvian newsclip.STONE HEADS with mosaic crown.

Brennan f e l t vindicated by Chmielinski and Moore's position.. was a Christ-like messenger of God. say. but it wasn't flattering. Brennan declined to look at any of the material listing previous v i s i t s to and research conducted at Gran Pajaten. Brennan recounted Savoy's role as leader of the International Community of Christ.Frankly. "It's my personal belief that the man Gran Pajaten ruin cleared two decades ago." Brennan quoted George Clarke.. "I have to plead for some mercy." she said. It's as if a group of Peruvians came up here for a couple weeks. He also admitted he wanted to go on a junket to Peru A month later. The copyrighted story began on page one of the Rocky Mountain News ("Law snarls cult leader bucking CU") and ran over two full pages inside (headlined "Founder of fait h or fraud: Cult b u i l t on belief i t s leader's son was divine" and ' W s rival explorer branded a fake" and "Savoy: Rituals. Rojas passed out T-shirts emblazoned with the motto "I found a lost city. "cast doubt on the credibility of further work. Instead.We have to rely on people like Leimon who have the word 'expert' tacked over t h e i r heads. flippant." 'The university's conduct. in Reno.' he said." Montague ticked off a l i s t of prior visitors to the site. the brother of Savoy's second wife. P i l t down Maru." Montague told reporters. Brennan finally gave Gene Savoy some attention. told Brennan. Moore said she represented 'only myself." he explained.. I'm baffled." Both he and his companion Moore argued the club should be 'grateful' that CO was embarking on the project... who died of cholera at age three in Peru..' Their comments were gleefully transcribed by Boulder reporter Charlie Brennan of the Rocky Mountain News.. his response to the c r i t i c i s m from Savoy and the South American Explorers Club. "He's crazy. whose wife l e f t him to j o i n Savoy's church." But at the Club's press conference. like the priest who refused to gaze into Galileo's telescope.the hypocrisy of their characterizations of Savoy — persuaded Montague and co-founder Linda Rojas to proceed: "The flim-flam surrounding this project doesn't rise to the level of a good hoax. They should set the record straight so as not to jeopardize what could be significant research. But when I interviewed him at the height of the flap he was apologetic: "We had five hours to slap this thing [the page-one story] together on deadline. At that. (So tough that it became lost again?) "Who does not live in jungle cannot find. Church of the Second Advent for the Establishment of the Religion of Cosolargy." Montague suggested an expedition to the Lost City of the Flatirons to investigate whether intelligent life could be found in Boulder. Another man. claim of divinity disturb many"). "It lacks the creativity of. then ran back home to announce they'd discovered Mesa Verde. ending with mention of the Polish kayakers. The sect's 500 members believe Savoy's son Jamil. Brennan's coverage of the initial announcement had been egregious. Chmielinski and Moore took issue with the club's critique: The trek to Gran Pajaten was 'very tough. Neither mentioned that Moore was under consideration for a job with the project. (Photo Gene Savoy) .

" [emphasis added] I t mentioned. owners of Target and B. El Rey i s s t i l l a t large. " The l e t t e r was not published. Fortunately.. a professor who had made some d i s p a r a g i n g remarks about the project. supposedly worth over $5. team to Everest. Lennon r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r signed by 'El Rey' ( t h e king). would h e r fundraising for research be described as 'fraud*? Savoy blamed the Brennan a r t i c l e for disrupting the funding he expected for an upcoming expedition Wheeler circulated Brennan's piece a t the National Geographic but w r i t e r Loren Mclntyre accompanied Savoy on h i s t r i p anyway. only 'conquer. (No. McGoodwin claimed in a subsequent lawsuit that he also was subjected to a polygraph t e s t that "was used as an attempt to. B y spring. But the strategy of trying t o bar other groups from t o u r i n g Gran P a j a t e n became a p p a r e n t when Lovett got two friends t o pay $10. Soliciting foundation grants takes time and probably would arouse some opposition from skeptical academics." That h i s suspicions were based on the work of others would be tantamount to a confession that funds were being s o l i c i t e d under false p r e tenses." Brennan claimed that the Chief Deputy District Attorney of Beno had stated that Savoy's s o l i c i t a t i o n of donations to find the Inca's House of the Sun at Pitcos was a 'potentially fraudulent' misuse of the church's tax-exempt s t a t u s . Brennan a t t r i b u t e s t o me are denied. a Mormon. short one with a shining head" — apparently meaning Dennis Van Gerven. d i s c r e t i o n a r y funds. f o u r t h .000 from a Boulder bank. Hirca Tours s t i l l o f f e r e d i t s two-week t o u r — through various European and US.000 from his own pocket and l e f t t o run Northwestern University. No charges have ever been f i l e d . Lennon and an advance team l e f t for Gran . inasmuch as none of the accusations and innuendi directed a t Savoy affected his c r e d i b i l i t y as an explorer or the fact that he had v i s i t e d and w r i t t e n about Gran Pajaten long before any of the Boulder Boys knew of i t s existence.000 for the summer.' but she gave no hint of the e x t e n t of p r e v i o u s work or the debt owed Savoy. tents. El Rey warned that the ruins a t Gran Pajaten were sacred and ought not be disturbed.000 r e t a i l .000 w o r th of equipment. the second wave of self-congratulatory releases was in full flower: The CU alumni magazine announced Gran Pajaten "holds the remnants of a pre-Inca c i v i l i z a t i o n that has never been fully investigated. Brenton and a f r i e n d donated Lennon's s a l a r y of $6. the 'world wide media attention' focused on the project. t o l d r e p o r t e r s . Wheeler worshipped vicuna dung i n s t e a d of a p r o p e r d e i t y . Shankman nonetheless figured the reference to Van Gerven "might conceivably be interpreted as a p o t e n t i a l t h r e a t . The bad publicity made CU o f f i c i a l s so anxious that they began looking for conspirators and saboteurs amongst themselves. i n c l u d i n g 25 packs. Chairman of the Anthropology Department. Scoffing a t the need for a warrant.' But Science Digest cancelled i t s financial backing overnight. I believe Mr.S. Johnson wrote in another school publication that Torrealba ' f i r s t found' Gran Pajaten and Teruvian archaeolog i s t s soon followed. according t o Savoy. newly appointed coord i n a t o r for the CU p r o j e c t .coerce a confession. Union Carbide donated f l a s h l i g h ts and b a t t e r i e s . she a g a i n o f f e r e d c l u e s t o more ' d i s coveries': "Although 18 structures are known a t Gran Pajaten. of course. New Balance gave 30 pairs of hiking boots. he d i d no t c l a i m t o d i s c o v e r i t . Lovett also arranged an interest-fre e loan of $25. a Mennonite or member of some o t h e r l e s s c o n v e n t i o n a l m i n i empire of rel igio-f inance. John Lovett knew Lou Whittaker. O r d i n a r i l y a r e a s o n a b l e man. a Denver-based a f f i l i a t e whose p a r t n e r s include Cesar Rojas. Lennon been a Muslim. would have to be used. rather than taxpayers' money. They found one about the time they l o s t t h e i r sense of humor. I n s t e a d . including Trekperu. tour companies. That left c o r p o r a t e s p o n s o r s and r i c h patrons. On Feb.000 budget.000 s h o r t of i t s $200. 'For some reason somebody i s i n business t o embarass the university. the climber who led a U." P a t t i Moore. Van Gerven was set to go t o Peru t o study the remains i n the burial chambers. The counter-offensive continued with an attempt by CD officials t o get the Peruvian government to prohibit 'unauthorized' v i s i t o r s t o Gran P a j a t e n .. and R i l e y f e l t compelled t o w r i t e t h e Rocky Mountain News after Brennan's a r t i c l e was printed: 'The quotations which Mr. i n s i s t i n g he was a 'legitimate explorer. S t i l l . Which raises the question: Did Brennan inspect the religious a f f i l i a t i o n s of the CU crowd? Bad Dr. Brennan should be admonished to be more c a r e f u l i n making q u o t a t i o n s and t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between f a c t u a l and h y p o t h e t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s . the p r o j e c t came up 850. however. the university had t o provide half of the funding.000 each for the privilege of accompanying the expedition: Judson and Lisa Dayton of Minneapolis are h e i r s to the DaytonHudson Corp. upset and frightened him" that he had to seek professonal counseling.l a r g e s t non-food r e t a i l e r i n the country.. a member of South American Explorers Club and husband of Linda Rojas. sleeping bags and clothing.1) Whittaker a r r a n g e d c o n t r i b u t i o n s from two companies for whom he wrorks: JanSport supplied 840." McGoodwin said a l l t h i s "so intimidated. What any of t h i s had to do with Gran Pajaten — other than establishing Brennan's credentials with the University — is speculative. 13. they searched the office of James McGoodwin. Dr. Because the University's budget i s closely cont r o l l e d by the s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e . a skeletal biologist who j u s t happens t o be 5 feet. Somewhat chastened. 4 inches t a l l and bald. but omitted the bad l i g h t in which i t was bathed as a r e s u l t . Dalton stores." But the University's motive in maintaining a p o t e n t i a l l y lucrative monopoly on Rio Abiseo National Park would become increasingly transparent. another arrived a few days l a t e r. and Lennon already was having trouble a t tracting financing. In May. 20 p a i r s of lighter-weight boots and another 20 p a i r s of running shoes for the porters. Further. President Weber gave $1. " So he turned them over t o t h e university police. Lennon suspects the Andean highlands hide many more. Other companies gave prepared food and other equipment a t cost. " I haven't figured out the motive yet. would Brennan have branded him a c u l t i s t ? If Dr.i s a fraud. The l e t t e r made refer ence to "a strange. Lennon took the l e t t e r s t o Paul Shankman.

"the maximum a p o r t e r can carry.000 Baby Ruths. 56 pounds of banana chips. 90 packages of chocolate chips.and I ' d seen one or two of these porters going along barefoot. 22 porters hauled nearly five tons of food and equipment t o the base camp at La Playa. I am neither. The 8. Many of them wear j u s t these thongs. "RDINED CITY RXM) IN JUNGLE IN FEHU.500 packages of pre-cooked vacuum-sealed fare. "nor an experienced camper. the s t a t e tourism bureau. Goods and supplies came from the United States because. 80 miles north of Lennon's crew. at a constant pace. "Americans normally need four days t o make the same trip. Exp l o r e r [Gene Savoy] Says S i t e Covers 120 Square Miles and Contains Thousands of Buildings. which were r e s e r v e d for g r i n g o s ) . "—I don't know a l l the wholesalers in northern Peru" Although Moore supposedly had packed the supplies for 35-pound l o a d s .250 peanut and 1." Savoy..." [Emphasis added. archaeologist from the University of Truj i l l o . radioman Jim Snyder said.American c a n d y . so heavy seams s p l i t on their pack-bags. c a r r i e s t h e weight of gold i n the eyes of the native porters-.500 bags of M & Ms (1. 1. and starved t o death. five and a half days a week.000 r o l l s of Life Savers." The porters were paid $8 a day. photographer Greg Jones related. Supplies also included 1. icy r a i n with winds 25 or 30 mph. a citadel on a ridge overlooking the Rio Maranon. 120 packages of s a l t i n e s . " he ad- 18 An "Assertive" Pi nchudo mitted. .350 r o l l s of t o i l e t paper and 6... "Ihey haul loads equal t o a t l e a s t h a l f t h e i r body weight — stupefying. and Rolando Paredes E u z a g u i r r e of the National I n s t i t u t e of C u l t u r e . three more paying customers had been recruited: Brennan of the News.000 pounds of food included 384 ounces of popcorn.000 Butterfingers. supported by Eauffman Doig's N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of Amazonian Culture and Enturperu." someone apparently miscalculated: As CU." As for the donated running shoes (never mind h i k i n g b o o t s . 1. I n l a t e J u n e . s a n d a l . "I realiz e an experienced trekker probably wouldn't have much trouble with t h i s t r i p . said P a t t i Moore. But the Denver papers and t e l e vision stations were too enraptured by local p r e parations for v i s i t i n g t h e i r very own 'Lost City in the Sky' to even mention Savoy's l a t e s t coup. 1. Other than a piece describing the controversy over CU's i n i t i a l c l a i m s as ' s i l l y ' — a c u r i o u s display of j o u r n a l i s t i c even-handedness — Parsons' chief a t t r i b u t e for the t r i p was h i s lack of e x perience.250 p l a i n ) .e s t a b l i s hed: Both bad become apologists for the CU publicity staff. Before the Denver media could reconnoiter Gran Pajaten. " I t ' s amazing what [the p o r t e r s w i l l ] do. announced the discovery of Gran Vilaya." Brennan divined the secret to the porters' prowess: "It's been said that if the [Peruvian] porters have coca leaves and candy. 45 of oatmeal c o o k i e s . B y then.. on J u l y 7. couldn't relocate i t .000 z i p lock p l a s t i c bags. and 1. 144 b o t t l e s of powdered Tang. . self-described 'couch p o t a t o ' Dana P a r s o n s of t h e P o s t . l e a d e r of a 25-member e x p e d i t i o n ." Later he would write that porters could e w e r "in two hours — w i t h l o a d s weighing as much as 90 pounds — what i t took some of the most physically f i t [North] Americans three or four hours to comp l e t e w i t h no packs on t h e i r backs.] One p o r t e r made the t r i p from P u e r t a del Monte back to Pataz and returned to La Playa with a load of kerosene in j u s t 36 hours." Whether t h i s was a typical case of CU's exaggeration or an equally typical example of reporter's misinterpretation i s anybody's guess: Suffice to say there i s no evidence that anybody has yet died on t h e i r way in or out of Gran Pajaten. The New York Times. They were accompanied by Miguel Cornejo Garcia. Brennan's and Malmsbury's qualifications were w e l l . Moore faced down a s t r i k e by the porters and muleteers for more pay by threatening to replace them. 720 Hershey b a r s . even though Associated Press carried the news around the . and Todd Malmsbury of the Boulder Daily Camera.t y p e t h i n g s t o t a l l y open t o the weather and the cold—We had cold. 48 15-ounce cans of c h i l i with beans. they w i l l dc anything for you. announced. 1985." Parsons' trepidation was not eased by a t a l e from Leimon and Wheeler about another group who had been t o Gran Pajaten: 'Ihey got off the t r a i l .500 Twix bars. 480 packages of chocolate pudding.. They work 10 hour days.Pajaten. 2. 1. 960 Snickers. eye-bulging loads.

he relayed a cryptic radio message to Boulder. "To leave her behind would have been unconscionable and p r a c t i c a l l y c r i m i n a l . however. [T]he new find leads them to believe that they may locate other s i t e s that are as large or even larger. alluding to something exciting. .. . the 'discovery" of a "honeycombed cluster of 100 rooms' near La Playa. flattering profiles of Wheeler and Lennon.t i m e p r o f e s s o r . . This has j u s t been a remarkable t r i p . Lennon has t r i e d t o play down i t s glamour. I t ' s ful l of precipitous dropoffs — c l i f f s which you can't see because of the vegetation. Wheeler said. the l a s t few miles — an ordeal both Parsons and Brennan.They s e t aside this huge. . "This i s what a r c h a e o l o g y i s a l l about. Certainly. like something out of a bad movie.. . "I think i t ' s usually easier (to raise money) when you get results. . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s c i e n t i f i c s e c r e t s t h i s l a t e s t f i n d may h o l d . "New find dwarfs Gran Pajaten. he liked Buckminster Fuller. "There a r e r u i n s everywhere. such personal hardships pale. On Jul y 21. .when faced w i t h t h e awesome a r chaeological finds." Brennan wrote." More 'surprises' were waiting. h a s been found by U n i v e r s i t y of Colorado archaeologists. 'This isn't a new Gran Pajaten. "This i s j u s t another piece of the puzzle. " over P a r s o n s ' c o p y r i g h t e d story: A large.e f f a c i n g ." He's r e a l l y an i n t e l l i g e n t p e r s o n but he's not l i k e a l o t of o t h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l s .With the discovery of Cerro Cent r a l ." Lennon was suddenly humble. i s b i g g e r than b e l i e v e d . They had b r i e f l y been described by a German who was wandering around the area in the early 1900s. "among the f i r s t t o see the s i t e since i t s abandonment several hundred years ago. they s t a r t e d p r o c l a i m i n g . "No one a n t i c i p a t e d a n y t h i n g q u i t e t h i s big. we consider i t a colossal logistical headache t o make sure we don't lose anybody. because] Tom never could stand the stuffiness and p e t t y p o l i t i c s you see in universities. They have never been thoroughly described. . Brennan was impressed too: "Eney believe they've discovered an e n t i r e v a l l ey that once teemed with human activity. But ". ." Lennon said." Said graduate student David Ayres: "It was l i k e a l i f e l o n g dream. the reporters had seen Cerro Central with t h e i r own awestruck eyes. "We are awfully proud of your achievements. . archaeologists now know for c e r t a i n that Gran P a j a t e n was n o t an i s o l a t e d c i t a d e l on a hill. the Post greeted Denver with a banner headline: "CD's dig h i t s i t b i g .s e r v i c e b r i e f w i t h the note t h a t CU officials could not be reached for comment.. a matter of l i f e and death... I n c r e d i b l y . i t may c o n s i s t of b e t w e e n 150 and 200 b u i l d ings. "It was.. By July 31. . Even the presence of t o r r e n t i a l rains has failed to dampen the t h r i l l i n g prospect that a new s i t e ." Said Lennon: "This i s so exquisite I j u s t can't b e l i e v e it. Brennan reported from Miami. i t should a l s o h e l p CD raise money t o continue i t s research. [Lennon wasn't a f u l l . That's what other people would equate with adventure." Lennon said. a large b i r d soon 19 . s e l f .. After the reporters got t o Gran Pajaten on July 25th." Lennon noted. We don't consider i t an adventure.. a s reported by Parsons: Although p l a i n l y e x c i t e d about t h e new s i t e . that while the area i s not recorded. and he's into being more real than a lot of o t h e r people.. Greg Jones had t o drag one participant. nothing of t h i s type has been identified before." Said graduate student Warren Church: "You can't go very far around here without stumbling onto something. On July 27. Lennon r e l e a s e d h i s own news.. On J u l y 13. But i t i s dangerous." Back in Denver. . you've had i t . But they were a v a i l a b l e for P a r s o n s ' l e n g t h y. I t ' s a more appropriate word than adventure. J ust before the reporters arrived in Peril. We knew there were some additional ruins there [Stormo said]. ." E x c i t e d over the new a r c h a e o l o g i c a l find. en route t o Lima. Wheeler discussing the aura of the project: Danger i s the a p p r o p r i a t e word. .. and now we're finding out what's t h e r e — and wow!" By August 2 . .. possibly the find of the summer for t h i s archaeol o g i o c a l p r o j e c t . According to Lennon's wife The much-heralded 'discovery* near La Playa a few days e a r l i e r was g r a c e l e s s l y d e t h r o n e d : " I t was discovered four years ago and includes about 100 houses.„with the news t h a t Cerro Central may contain as many as 250 buildings. " Lennon warned. Professor Shankman.. for a l l of us." Parsons noted. " said new CD President Dr. gloried in r e t e l l i n g . I f you f a l l down. told the He was careful to add. Lennon called h i s boss. 500 feet down. T o m does things like read yoga books. Gordon Gee. You can take one misstep by accident and j u s t be gone. the Post declared.." I t was a n o t h e r rough h i k e through "rampaging w a t e r ..five t o s i x t i m e s l a r g e r t h a n t h e Gran Pajaten site. unknown area. All Ihe Denver Post could muster was a truncated w i r e ." A f t e r 17 days the reporters returned t o Pataz.. . by now hardened veterans of the bush. CU Anthropology Department Chairman. a manufacturer's rep from Brooklyn. i t may have been discovered by previous e x p e d i t i o n s .. previously unrecorded s i t e with at l e a s t 49 b u i l d i n g s . 'This i s a dream come true.

and might influence Peruvian President Garcia's administration.. Jones was "part Peter Pan and part Paul Bunyan. and i t was something a hunch' and sent Ayres to look a t looking a t that s i t e on paper for was a p r e t t y decent bet that there there." Moreover." I n the grand finale to h i s five-part almost an obsession for Lennon. .' He knew how to handle the natives: 'They know that if they steal anything. Some came out of passion. magnanimously said. I t ' s not t h e f i n d i n g of i t that's important. "But so what. He hopes the Gran Pajaten project w i l l dominate his l i f e for the next twenty years-." Lisa Dayton was trying to line up the 3M Company w h i l e L o v e t t was h i t t i n g up h i s pal Robert Bedford. So gun shy a r e p r o j e c t o f f i c i a l s of media attention. charged with dispensing c o n t r o l l ed substances (LSD) from his campus office.[bu t he] does not thump h i s c h e s t over i s o l a t e d v i c t o r i e s .. w i l l help CU r a i s e money for i t s five-year.) By November 1. " Brennan e x plained the 'find' at Cerro Central: Lennon 'played i t .. "For Lennon. ..." Lennon said. "As with any business — and there i s a business aspect to t h i s — you have to l e t people know what you're doing. 'They can talk a l l they want. were not enamored of t h e Boulder Boys. He stormed up h i l l and down despite an injured knee that turned 'putrid yellow. For Lennon.. ." Lennon was portrayed as a tough leader: "Whittaker likened Lennon's pace to a 'gut-shot cougar' and 'a b l i n d dog going through a meathouse.. ." Parsons in The Denver Post was also generous in describing h i s companions: "Some came for business." Lennon said.I would r e a l l y like to see more c r e d i t given i n the American p r e s s t o the Peruvians. as opposed to tourism and exploitation of i t . Back in the States. .The new findings produced the biggest joke of the t r i p when an archaeologist said they reduced Gran Pajaten to a 'one-llama town....." Like c h a r a c t e r s o n G i l l i g a n ' s I s l a n d .If he i s t o continue on the project-Jie needs a guaranteed income. The issue of avoiding big headlines. These guys put your 75-pound pack on 20 t h e i r backs and t r o t off through the mud. I have nothing to gain. Probably bigger. " I t 's the professionalism and the way t h i s i s a l l done for s c i e n c e and the good of the s i t e .000 a crack. 'That's a lot of money. 'That's what certain adventurers do. ". i n c l u d i n g KauffmanDoig.c i r c l e d c l o s e t o u s .000 square m i l e s . a t least temporarily. Moore was out of a job.. the millionaire s o c i a l i t e s "said they didn't want or get special treatment" — a f t e r they'd bought t h e i r way along. and the professional way i t ' s been researched and studied. . " Lennon said.The world is made up of gooders and no-gooders^. feL million project„. By October 1.'" He crossed streams unaided by ropes." By September 1." Lennon said. We're j u s t here t o do our j o b .associated with the project promoting themselves as a d i s coverer. But e a r l i e r criticism had made them cautious: [T]he people connected with the project are uncomfortable with callin g themselves d i s c o v e r e r s .. the indispensable Greg Jones was in j a i l . "We'd been a year. how you i n t e r p r e t i t and analyz e i t . "My work means too much to me." Moore." Then she was off t o Lima t o 'wine and d i n e ' w i t h g e n e r a l s i n order to use t h e i r helicopters next time. we'll blow t h e i r knees off."" "An inquiring seed planted" by the four Boulder men " i s blossoming i n t o an awesome f l o w e r.. The t r i p was "an o p p o r t u n i t y for us t o p h y s i c a l l y ." Lisa Dayton said. "I don't do drugs. But if i t weren't for them I wouldn't be doing anything. but the conc l u d i n g a r t i c l e got t o t h e p o i n t : "Despite the national p u b l i c i ty the project has received [or was i t because of the publicity?] i t i s not financially secure—Asked how much money he expects from CU in the future." (He pleaded guilty in May 1986. He fears nothing. some for pleasure. I t ' s what you do with i t . Wheeler had resigned as co-director of the project. and if we find 50 s i t e s bigger than Pajaten. that Lennon gave the name Cerro Cent r a l to the s i t e only after he realized he had t o name i t something. Stormo said he wants to go back to perform corrective p l a s t i c surgery on misshapen and scarred natives: "I have no u l t e r i o r motives. We're taking the humble approach t o t h i s whole stuff. I'm not a drug dealer..Cerro C e n t r a l . I'd s e l l t h i s project in a minute.a man who could chew coca leaves ( i t ' s p e r f e c t l y l e g a l in Peru) w i t h t h e b e s t of them. e m o t i o n a l l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y push ourselves. Judson Dayton discussed what he sees as the s e l l ing points. . I t was a vulture. Brennan seemed f i n a l l y to capture the purpose of his tagging along: The p r o j e c t was out of money. .." The faded Pepsi sign and warm beer of Pataz were the essence of c i v i l i z a t i o n ." Brennan enthused. the stakes are high.. the flight out of Chagual 'terrifying' but welcome. "but no one else i s going up." he told the Post. some for p r i v a t e r e a s o n s t h a t p e r h a p s even they don't know."The p e r s o n a l sacrifice obviously ends t h i s year..I'm a do-gooder. . I'm dcing a lot of things and that's true. 'There may be hundreds and hundreds and even thousands of s i t e s i n the 1.. that's j u s t part of the job we're doing."' Some prominent Peruvians.. they contemplated t h e i r adventures: "No doubt. Lennon said: *Not a damn penny. " The Parsons series dwelt a t length on h i s personal d i f f i c u l t i e s with the t e r r a i n . each p e t a l representing yet another archaeological jewel..[W]e could see each blink of i t s beady eyes.." said Lennon. " Y o u ' 1 1 never see anybody. T h a t ' s what's going to be our contribution. Lennon prohibited most of the porters from seeing Cerro Central. ' T d rather not name i t ." The Daytons proposed i n v i t i n g some of t h e i r wealthy friends for the next season — a t $10. the work was "an u n q u a l i f i e d success. after recounting how she blustered the m u l e t e e r s out of t h e i r demand for h i g h e r wages.

something i s missing from the presentation: Not once in an hour-long colloquy could Tom Lennon bring himself to mention the name of Gene Savoy. has fueled the I n d i a n a J o n e s depictions of the Peru t r i p and although there shouldn't be any temples of doom or l o s t arks t o worry about. But as of January 1986. . the buildings a t Gran Pajaten cleared by the Peruvians 20 y e a r s b e f o r e . I t sounds l i k e a n o t h e r s e q u e l t o 'Raiders of t h e Lost Axe [ s i c ] . he'd book passage on t h i s one. 41." And." ". the s p i r i t of filmdom's most famous a r c h a e o l o g i s t c a n ' t be t o o f a r behind. Denver Post: "That kind of talk. whether Lennon and Wheeler l i k e i t or n o t . the buildings at Las Papayas noted by Marielle Leo in 1981 and described in the Boletin de Lima in 1982." (7-14-86) "Although Wheeler and Lennon play down the 'Indiana Jones' elements of t h e i r project in favor of t h e i r s c i e n t i f i c goals. But u n l i k e 'Raiders'. Narrating his show. u n d e r s t a n d d e s i r e by others to t a s t e what most can only sample by s h a r i n g an evening w i t h I n d i a n a J o n e s a t the neighborhood movie house. a p r o f e s s o r and a 6 1 . We don't expect any u n t i l March or April. Lovett said the drama of the e x p e d i t i o n was not l o s t on p o t e n t i a l sponsors.did in i t s f i r s t year. Lennon is careful to emphasize p o i n t s of i n t e r e s t n e g l e c t e d the y e a r before: the 'extremely well known camping area' at Manachaqui. ' T h e r e ' s nothing committed." "For in a very real sense.if Indy lived i n Boulder. 38. scaling steep mountainsides and b a t t l i n g with the elements in search of a lost c i t y . like l a s t year.l e v e l archaeological mapping. The World Wildlife Fund has given Peru R25." (5-12-85) . TwstR^? Froflf* test en* Gran p a \aten mM fiFES* ^3 N >%> pero ^ * R ! ^ Charlie Brennan. Then Lennon modestly describes the work his team Keeping up with the J o n e s e s . The Christian Science Monitor: "The story reads like a cross between "Raiders of the Lost Ark' and 'Nova. This year w i l l see a 'modest expansion' t o i n c l u d e more ' l o w . t h i s story is true. I Lennon h i t the road with a slideshow and grant proposals. the 'famous way station 1 at Puerta del Monte with Weberbauer's hut." (2-1-85) "Lennon.' paleo-geological work." (7-14-86) "Brenton acknowledged t h a t t h e P e r u v i a n j o u r n e y — i n t o a land i n h a b i t e d by a s many a s 12 e n d a n g e r e d s p e c i e s — was r e m i n i s c e n t of an I n d i a n a J o n e s e x p l o i t . . the nearby archaeological site 'identified in 1969' by the Pataz guides and mapped by Rivas Plata in the early 1970s.000 to pay for guards to protect the park and to set up a plan for evaluating environmental impacts.. the figures at Los Pinchudos 'made known to the world' by Kauffman-Doig.. the highland lakes 'stocked with trout' and 'noted by every expedition into the area since 1919'. The work i s 'an inventory.. almost r i t u a l i s t i c . . " (2-1-85) #> Arnold Weber.o l d P e r u v i a n guide slashing through the unihabited jungles of Peru with machetes. Indiana Jones and his brimmed-hat visage loom over t h i s expedition. like l a s t year. one businessman. . the pottery studied by Bonavia in the 1960s.. Colorado Daily Camera: "Imagine t h i s : two surgeons. CD President: "It was a hair raising expedition a l a Indiana Jones. Lennon said. .'" (2-5-85) Pamela White." (5-20-86) Dana Parsons..the p r o j e c t ' s co-directors.000 he needs for 1986.' a 'survey* p r e l i m i n a r y t o s a t e l l i t e infrared photographic scanning by NASA. Rocky Mountain News: "Between L o v e t t ' s h a t and t h e w h i r r i n g cameras of t h e P u b l i c Broadcasting System film crew. The r e c i t a t i o n i s obligatory. and J a n e Wheeler. no money has been raised toward t h e $625. the beach at La Playa where so many had camped before. p r e liminary reports on the a r t i f a c t s uncovered thus far and f u t u r e work on t h e b o t a n i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l aspects.y e a r . t h e r e i s t h e b l a c k cave and t h e Gateway to the Jungle t o look for." (1-31-85) Science News: "RAJJJERS OF TflE 'LOST CTIY*" (2-23-85) David Salisbury.