You are on page 1of 4

The Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas (Persian: ‫)سازمان چريکهای فدايي خلق ايران‬

emerged as radical Marxist-Leninist movement in Iran in 1971, formed to overthrow the Pahlavi
regime. The group fought against the governments of Mohammad Reza Shah and after the 1979
revolution, the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The organization was the product of the merger of two smaller groups of revolutionaries, the
Jazani-Zarifi group and the Ahmadzadeh-Puyan-Meftahi group. The Jazani-Zarifi group's
members were former members of the youth organization of the Tudeh Party while the second
group's members were mostly followers of the National Front and its affiliated organizations.
The first meeting was organized in 1963 by Bijan Jazani and his colleagues. By 1966, when
Hassan Zia-Zarifi and Jazani got together, they had reached the conclusion that the powerful
American influence in Iran and the repression against liberal dissidents in Iran had made peaceful
activism entirely ineffective. Armed struggle was therefore viewed as the sole effective way to
Shortly after that, on 19 Bahman 1349 (8 February 1971) nine members of the group launched
their first attack on the gendarmerie post of the small village of Siahkal in the northern Gilan
forests, widely viewed as the turning point in the leftist armed struggle against the Shah. After the
subsequent arrest and death of the guerrilla team, the two groups officially united and the
Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas came to existence.
In the period from 1971 to 1979, Fedaian came under an intense attack by the Shah's regime,
with nearly 300 Fedaian members were killed by the government. In this period the majority of the
organization's members were captured or murdered including its leader Hamid Ashraf whose
death was a major loss to the organization.
OIPFG would pass through various periods of internal divisions. In 1979 Ashraf Dehghani left
OIPFG, accusing it of deviating from the line of guerrilla warfare, and formed a parallel Iranian
People's Fedai Guerrillas. In the same year former OIPFG cadres formed the Organization of
Revolutionary Workers of Iran.
Following the revolution, the Organization public offices were established in most Iranian cities. In
the first election after the revolution, Fedaian received 10% of the votes.
In the meantime, internal discussions on the issues of revolution and regime’s nature were under
way amongst Fedaian which resulted in several break ups in the Organization. Means and
Methods of struggle and policies towards the new government were the top issues. Majority of the
organization members did not believe in armed struggle any more and at the new political
atmosphere recognized the Islamic Republic as an anti-Imperialist state. That majority chose to
pace with the people - masses who were widely the followers of their religious leaders.
These differences caused the separation of the minority of the Organization from the Majority.In
1980, OIPFG was divided into OIPFG (Majority) and Organization of Iranian People's Fedai
Guerrillas (Minority). OIPFG (Minority), which broke away from the main organization, was
pursuing a more radical line. On May Day 1981, thousands of OIPFG (Majority) supporters
gathered in Teheran. At its May Day rally, the organization announced that the group would cease
to conduct guerrilla warfare and was renamed Organization of Iranian People's Fedaian (Majority)
(in Persian: ((‫)سازمان فداییان خلق ایران )اکثریت‬. After a death war between Kurds and Iranian
Islamic regim in 1981, a Kurdish revolutionary group of Ashraf Dehghani's group was formed....
The Organization of Iranian People's Fadaian (Majority) or Fedayan-e Khalq (often mistakenly
called Fedayeen-e Khalq) (Persian: ‫ سازمان فدائیان خلق ایران اکثریت‬Sāzmān-e fedaiyān-e khalq-e

Nevertheless. This event happened after being in the prisons of the Shah for eight years without any second trial. 'Organization of self-sacrificers of the people of Iran (majority)') is a political party that advocates the overthrow of the Islamic regime in Iran. the Organization of the Iranian People s Fadaian Guerrillas was formed by two main groups of the armed movement (remainders of Jazani-Zarify group and Pouyan. But. Ahmadzade-Meftahi). The Party's first congress was opened on 1 August 1945 in the Party's Central Club with the participation of 164 delegates. the majority of the Organization leaders were arrested or murdered. Death of the Communist Party and formation of the Tudeh Party[edit] Taking advantage of the vacuum created after the events of the First World War. During an eight-year period. Its history can be traced back to 1904 with the formation of the social democratic Hemmat group. a large group of political prisoners were released. the idea of armed struggle against the Shah’s dictatorship was recognized as the only path to freedom among revolutionary left groups and circles. the Tudeh Party of Iran was formed in September 1941 to continue the work of the banned Communist Party of Iran under conditions of open activity. The Fadaian played an effective and active role in the February 1979 revolution whose leadership fell under control of Ayatollah Khomeini. from 1971 to 1979. From establishment to the February 1979 Revolution[edit] The first organized steps and practical measures in the revolutionary left armed movement were taken by Bijan Jazani and his comrades in early 1960s. From the Revolution to the Repression Period[edit] . freedom and sovereignty of the people. By attacking a Gendarmerie post in northern Iran Jangles on 8 February 1971. Its secretary-general is Behrouz Khaliq and Hassan Zehtab is its foreign relations coordinator. Eight of the Party's candidates were elected to the Parliament and formed the Tudeh faction. On 29 September 1941. the aggregated struggles of revolutionary left groups with tendency towards armed struggle led to action and shortly after. The party was again banned. Due to this fact. where Bijan Jazani and six of his comrades were murdered secretively in a regime prison. with the new conditions prevailing. and socialism in the country entered the political arena and the critique of the political failure of the Tudeh Party within the last two decades and search for new solutions became the agenda for fresh opposition. the Organization survived. Following the collapse of Reza Shah's regime. a new generation who were pro independence. and its leaders fled abroad or were arrested. The fifties and sixties[edit] From the late 50s and early 60s. In 1944. It was therefore the Party's priority to convene a congress in order to reorganise its structure. and advocated progress. Since that movement was lacking leadership and there was not a reliable party or organization in the political arena. Members of the Tudeh Party who were against the party's close relationship with the Soviet Union slowly distanced themselves from their Party.Irān (aksariat). the struggles of intellectual circles focused on filling that political vacuum. At this time the Party's total official membership was 25. Within these years over three hundred People’s Fadaian were murdered by the Shah’s regime. social justice. During this period. the Party decided to enter the elections to the 14th parliament. having assessed its strength. the Tudeh was blamed for an abortive attempt on the Shah's life. the Fadaian came under intensive attacks and their victims exceeded those of any other opposition organization. One of the deadliest strikes happened on 19 April 1975. in the course of four deadly strikes. in February 1949. The group is banned from activity inside the Islamic Republic of Iran. the founding conference of the TPI was held in Tehran under the chairmanship of Soleiman Mohsen Eskandari.000. This process coincided with ever-increasing student opposition in the Europe and changes in Latin America.

Ayatollah Khomeini ordered mass killings of political prisoners in 1988. OIPFM was principally supportive of the Islamic government's policies in various aspects. At that day. In those years. internal discussions on the issues of revolution and the regime’s nature were under way amongst Fedaian which resulted in several splinterings in the Organization.000. and students three fifths. [1]. The means and methods of struggle and policies towards the new government were the most contentious issues. together with the Tudeh Party. Years of Repression[edit] Despite OIPFM’s policies of trying not to position itself in direct conflict with the government. 33. hundreds. of which women were one third. had a circulation of 100. the Fedaian’s activities.000 to 300. while the Islamic regime of Khomeyni was not yet well established. it was clear that the ruling fundamentalists could not tolerate the Organization's “unity-critique” policy. The majority of the organization's members did not believe in armed struggle anymore and in the new political atmosphere recognized the Islamic Republic as an anti-imperialist state. Among others. In the summer of 1988. and certain aspects of their economic reforms.700 people were executed and buried in mass graves. however it was not legally permitted to pursue its activities. hundreds of thousands of the Fedaian supporters gathered in Azadi (Freedom) Square in Tehran. the Organization's public offices were established in most Iranian cities. anti-American positions. Up to early 1980s. the leadership announced the Organization's new policies. workers one fifth. the Organisation of the Iranian Peoples' Fadaian (Majority) published a joint statement calling for the overthrow of the Islamic Republic. In the course of four years of hard work to build the skeleton of the Organization. That majority chose to make peace with Khomeyni as the Iranian people were at that time devout followers of their religious leaders. The most significant achievement of the Fadaian was organising and mobilising a large group of youth and establishing a major secular political party in an intensely religious society. The overwhelming prosecution and oppression of OIPFM began from the spring of 1983. the Organization was conducting semi-public activities. Fedaian received 10% of the votes and became the only alternative to the Islamists around Khomeini. the number of members reached twenty thousands. but Reza Malek who worked as a former deputy at the Research Division of the Islamic Republic Ministry of Intelligence and Security (MOIS) made a confession in 2008 that during the 1988 political prisoner executions by the mullahs’ regime. During this period. and national movements and the protest movement in the newly established regime. were executed. and their existence. In the meantime. Before his death. the official newspaper of the Organization. .Following the revolution.Majority (OIPFM) and chose the “unitycritique” policy towards the Islamic Republic. and thousands were forced to flee the country. peasant. But several thousands of Fedaian were arrested. at the time the regime completed its intelligence structures and policing networks. Among those executed were hundreds of Fadaian. the Fadaian as a left opposition of the theocratic regime participated in the leadership of worker. several death sentences were given to Fadaian and hundreds of their activists were imprisoned. In the first election after the revolution. But the Islamic Regime did not succeed in destroying a large portion of the Organization's leadership and the leadership was able to exile itself abroad in time. In May 1985. a committee of Islamic Republic representatives visited the Iranian prisons and tried and sentenced to death thousands of political prisoners. During the period of 1981-83. The average age within the OIPFM was less than 24 years among the general membership and 32 years at the leadership level. On 1 May 1981. These differences caused the separation of the Minority of the Organization from the Majority. including eight members of the leadership. KAR. the Organization was formally called the Organisation of Iranian People's Fadaian . The real number of executed prisoners is still unknown. Later those centers developed into gathering places for the secular and socialist Iranian youth. a decision the Organization regretted some years later. Since then. it was announced that the Organization was no longer a guerrilla movement but was a political organization of the Iranian working class. including the conflict with Iraq.

Communists. . Liberals and Nationalists). Some others committed suicide like Soheila Darvishkohan as she was sentenced to be flogged each time she refused to attend daily Islamic prayers. as a major step towards the restructuring of the OIPFM. During 1988-1990 OIPF(M) passed through a period of introspection and critical review of previous positions and evolved from Communism to Democratic Socialism. [1] This crime was called “The National Tragedy” by the Organization and all opposition parties (including Islamists.most of them were murdered in captivity without trial. the right of all members to publicly express or publish their independent and personal views. In the summer of 1988. To see some of the names of the assassinated Fadaian go to [2]. was granted and the way for getting out of the crisis and preparation of the First Congress was paved.