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CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This part of the research is focused on the analysis of the primary data findings
which were collected by administering questionnaires to employees and conducting
interviews with the management of Vue Entertainment.
QUESTIONNAIRE ANALYSIS

Job Satisfaction

Figure 10: Job Satisfaction Levels

Figure 10 above shows the length of service of the employees surveyed in relation to
the level of job satisfaction. While no one attested to being very dissatisfied, the
majority of those that are satisfied are those who are relatively new and have been
working with Vue for less than a year. Overall, majority seem to be neutral about job
satisfaction.

but motivators need to be put in place to move them to the level of job satisfaction. one can begin to understand why he claims that lack of job dissatisfaction automatically leads to job satisfaction. and with keen interest too. it should be a bit worrying for the management. one may be tempted to say that the figures are not so bad or one could even say they are good. from the perspective that less than half of the employees are satisfied with their job. For the 15% who are dissatisfied. as employees are crucial for a firms‟ success (Martin and Fellenz. One could even assume that these low levels of job satisfaction have a lot to do with the tenure as well. The 40% that attested to being neutral in terms of job satisfaction are most likely the group that have hygiene factors in place. In order for Vue Entertainment to be more successful. 2010). some changes would need to be made to improve on overall job satisfaction levels of its employees. . Looking at it from the point of view that 85% of the employees have not attested to being dissatisfied with their jobs. it raises issues about employee loyalty. they would first and foremost be in search of hygiene factors according to Frederick Herzberg‟s Two-factor Theory. But. Vue Entertainment might need to make some changes to address this issue to be more successful. The reasons as to why employees are not staying with Vue Entertainment for longer periods should be looked into.With almost half of the employees surveyed saying they had been working with Vue for less than a year. Going back to Hertzberg‟s „Two-factor Theory‟ (1964). Also considering that recruitment and training cost companies a lot of resources in form of time and money.

Again. exactly 50% of employees surveyed attested to being motivated sometimes.Motivation Figure 11: Motivation Figure 11 is a comparison between length of service and motivation. these figures could be interpreted as being „okay‟. as majority of them say they are sometimes motivated. 30% indicated to always being motivated and 15% replied said they are not motivated. . even the relatively new employees are not always motivated. but the question is could they be better? Could the percentages of employees who choose the options „sometimes‟ and „no‟ be reduced? Would the reduction lead to better success of the organisation? If the answer to all of these is yes. Unlike the job satisfaction levels. then it will be a good idea for the firm to identify the gaps that are resulting in employees not being motivated to work and then fill them up.

it means that meeting the individual needs of people in question would trigger the willingness to put in the effort needed to achieve the organisational goals. it becomes the responsibility of managers to identify what employees need and try as much as possible to provide. the company can see some of the major reasons for lack of motivation springing up. change leaders could apply Maslow‟s Hierarchy of Needs Theory. Figure 12 below shows the reasons why employees say they are unmotivated or sometimes motivated Reason Behind Lack of Motivation 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Dissatified with the pay Don't like the I just don't like I don't like my I don't like the management the job colleagues atmosphere team around here Other Figure 12: Reasons Behind Lack of Motivation Being dissatisfied with the pay is one of the major reasons why employees say they are unmotivated or sometimes motivated. . with 77% attesting to that.In order to address this issue. managers have to identify the reasons for lack of motivation and address them. Therefore. Simply put. Using this graph. Another 46% say the reason for this is because they just do not like the job. which explains that employees have different levels of needs and going by the definition of motivation given. However. this theory should also be used with caution by taking into account its major criticisms.

Significance is 0.30 .309 10 1. Deviation Std.556 Table 3: Group Statistics From the above.Further analysis on motivation issues were carried out.300 9 2.600 9 1.928 . The tested hypotheses were the following: H0: µmale = µfemale H1: µmale ≠ µfemale At the 95% level of significance the output is as follows Group Statistics Gender Motivation Why not motivated? Male Female Male Female N Mean Std.667 .44 1. Error Mean 10 2. there was no statistically significant difference between male and female on motivation factors.11 .949 .05 as seen in the table below.897 . .7772 > 0.60 1. A comparative analysis for male and female was carried out using a t-test.

431 -. (2- Mean Std.865 .893 .190 16.719 Equal variances not assumed Table 4: Independent Samples Test .570 1.851 .189 .721 1.772 t df Sig.818 -1.156 .667 .087 .721 1.667 .134 .881 Equal variances not assumed Equal variances assumed why not motivated .852 .438 16.099 .156 .Independent Samples Test Levene's Test for t-test for Equality of Means Equality of Variances F Equal variances assumed motivation Sig.099 .438 17 . .431 -.582 1. Error tailed) Difference Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper .189 17 .994 .824 -1.189 .

the question was not applicable to a large number of those surveyed and there were no significant findings. In addition to that. it may still be appropriate for the firm to reduce employees nonchalant attitude towards change or perhaps. Employees are assets to the organisation and must be treated as such says Johns et al (2005). The reason he gave for this was the fact that managers like to be in control and if a certain change threatens that. although not many said „I don‟t care. they just accept it. towards the organisation as a whole. But. This might actually be true. no one indicated that they resist change. as one of the managers interviewed revealed that employees actually embrace change a lot more than managers do (middle level managers). In order to get them performing as well as getting them to put in their best towards achieving organisational goals. . While one might find it hard to believe that employees do not resist change. they continued. Majority of the employees claim to welcome change and surprisingly. then they resist. considering that employees are not in control. The follow-on question from that was to find out the reason for resistance to change. I just accept change‟. but considering that no employee said he/she resists change. it is important that they feel like they are part of the organisation and are not just being exploited.Reaction to Change Figure 13: Reaction to Change The graph above shows the reaction to change.

In order to increase the number of those that genuinely welcome change. Employee Involvement in the Change Process 20% 10% Yes No 70% Sometimes Figure 14: Employee Involvement in the Change Process The pie chart above shows how much employees feel the management involves them in the change process. Majority of employees surveyed felt that they were only involved sometimes while a small minority said the management does not involve them at all. This is done by analysing the answers of two separate questions. Clarity on the Need for Change 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No Figure 15: Clarity on the Need for Change Sometimes . Vue Entertainment needs to keenly look into what can be done to ensure that employees always feel involved in the change process.Change Implementation Process This part of the report would focus on the analysis of what employees feel about the change implementation process at Vue Entertainment.

Organisational changes can be particularly difficult to implement and manage. change leaders or managers need to unfreeze the current situation or equilibrium state. but using Lewin‟s „Three-step Model of Change‟ could be a very useful tool at such times (McMillan. They could do this by making employees see that the equilibrium state is no longer beneficial to them or explaining that the change will be more beneficial to them. At this stage. Only a small number of people answer „no‟ to the question regarding that. throwing more light on how that is beneficial to employees or anyone that would be affected by the change. which is also one of the major recommendations made by employees as will be seen in the latter part of this analysis. the graph above analyses employees‟ clarity on the need for organisational change. After this. change leaders need to do a good job of explaining the change. As discussed earlier this model advises that before changes are made. signals to employees that they are being involved in the change process and it helps them to understand the need for change. this is a more gradual approach to implementing change.Still on the change implementation process. with just 15%. 2008). This singular act alone. but not just that. Also. they should proceed to make change and refreeze to prevent them from returning to the former state. depending on the intensity or level of change. .

then more people would be inclined to state better pay as one of the benefits of organisational change. more pay had been one of the incentives.Change Benefits None Better pay More motivated to work Easier for me to carry out my work Better patronage from customers 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Figure 16: Change Benefits The analysis of the benefits of change which employees have witnessed shows that majority of employees surveyed claim to witness better patronage from customers after organisational changes have been implemented and changes have also made it easier for work to be carried out. Going back to the motivation section in this chapter. figure 12 shows that one of the major reasons employees sited for lack of motivation was dissatisfaction with the pay and it shows in figure 17 above that nothing has really been done about it. If during all the changes that have occurred in the company in the past. .

Once employees have learnt to do things in a certain way. An astounding 80% find it difficult to stop doing things they way they were previously done. habits could become less of a primary source of resistance to change (Hellriegel and Slocum. 2008) . From the secondary data gathered. it is hard for them to change. it was discovered that habits are one of the main reasons for individual resistance to change. refreezing is very important to prevent employees from retreating back to the equilibrium state (McMillan. 2007). This implies that habits are a major issue for employees.Challenges of Change 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% It becomes difficult to carry out my duties It's difficult to stop doing things the way I used to do them I'm less motivated to work I feel as if the Multi-tasking company does and no time for not care about breaks me Figure 17: Challenges of Change Figure 17 above shows what the major challenges employees face when changes are implemented. Once the managers understand that this is a major challenge that employees face. whether or not the new processes or methods are more efficient. As seen from this. it is still the prerogative of the manger to communicate the advantages and benefits of change to employees in other to reduce resistance. but this could very well apply to any individual. depending on the number of perceived advantages the change would give. habits could keep employees in their comfort zone. But. Also taking a closer look at Lewin‟s „Three-step Model of Change‟. then it becomes easier for them to resolve the issue. According to Hellgriel and Slocum (2007).

This shows that employees would like to see a two-way process in change implementation by suggesting that management should always get feedback from them to know how they feel. Also. . the leader). the leader is not in a position to just apply whichever suits him/her (i. The main idea behind this theory is that whatever approach is applied by the leader should be determined by what is more appropriate for the employee in question and not what the leader desires (Shriberg and Shriberg. the 10% that indicated to be interested in management having one-on-one discussions with them will probably prefer a different leadership style to the others.e. On the other hand. Employee who recommend one-on-one would probably desire a different leadership style to those who advocate for more regular team meetings.Recommendations from Employees 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Make it more gradual One-on-one Have more Always get Get us more discussions regular team feedback from involved in the with us about meetings to us to know how change process chnages to be discuss changes we feel made Figure 18: Recommendations Figure 18 gives a pictorial view of the recommendations employees had for the management of Vue Entertainment as regards making organisational change in the future. Hersey and Blanchard‟s Situational Leadership Theory show the different approaches to leading and even though there are four different approaches. 2009). only 10% of those surveyed would like management to have one-on-one discussions with them about changes to be made. Most people seem to be interested in more gradual change implementation process and also recommend management to get feedback from them to know how they feel.

then Vue would struggle a lot more to remain successful. in terms of site layout. Below are the analyses. in order to give allowance for any other information that the managers would be privy to and will help in answering the research question. Considering that Vue is relatively new when compared to Odeon and Cineworld. strategies and many others. As each manager seemed to have their personal process for managing change. one of organisation? the branch managers interviewed had a very long pause before answering this question. one of the general managers interviewed said. In their words “You just have one guy that has an idea and wants to introduce something new. changing the traditional culture of cinemas as an evening business. In addition it is also changing the industry with its early opening and late closing hours. As a matter of fact. the team say that to? Vue Entertainment‟s existence is a result of change when SBC created Vue and bought 38 Warner brother cinemas. What is Vue‟s present The management seem to be unanimous on the fact that organisational success is attributed change has played a huge role in its success. one of the managers believe that if other cinemas become more aggressive in terms of opening and closing hours. Warner Brothers were a film company and had a rather different approach. however.INTERVIEW ANALYSIS This was conducted as a semi-structured interview. In his words. Standard change The management team agree that there is no standard change management process management process in place in the organisation. so when Vue took over they had to make quite a lot of changes. In fact. It is just a matter of accessing the change and seeing what approach is more appropriate. he believes that peoples‟ buy-in is a very important factor for him and tries his best to make sure people understand the change in other to get . The interviews which lasted for about 15minutes each have provided quality data in furthering this research. Interview Questions Responses Is Vue a successful 100% of the management team interviewed said yes. “I think the success is going to be very short-lived because it doesn‟t build any loyalty. then he just gives out the information to every manager. the management team say this is very advantageous to them because it is “new and clean” cinemas stands it out from the crowd. then the TLs (team leaders) and they tell the employees”.

the team is in charge of anything related to running the actual film.it‟s quite hard sometimes to get managers to change. Another challenge which they say they would be having soon is the „disappearance‟ of the projection unit. different from that of the traditional cinema.. some major benefits of the changes include: The to Vue Entertainment company had made some changes in order to build employee loyalty and that had worked very well.their full cooperation and reduce resistance. they were expecting a huge amount of customers when this cinema opened. Employees are more willing to do it. Benefits of Having mostly agreed that organisational change had a huge impact on organisational change Vue‟s success. When it opened. when an email comes through for a major change in the company. In addition to that. which is the correct Vue alignment for the amount of admits it does and complexity it has (whether it has a bar and things like that). but it never did that. Are all managers good After the previous question where it was found out that there is no at managing change? standard change management process. The cinema used to have a management team of seven from when it opened in 2007 and now it is a management team of five. “. In fact. the management say that they do not believe that all the managers are good at managing change. but a very recent and prime example would organisational change be what is currently happening at Thurrock site where I am the general manager. as “employees are not as quick to moan or complain more. So to realign back to five has been quite difficult. a little bit happier”. it poses to be a big challenge as every now and then. Challenges of “There are several of them. They are a little bit more salient. you find that 95% of managers would actually resist it. Although they refused to disclose how this job will now be absorbed. technical difficulties occur even whilst a film is running. one of the management team said “most times. because they are not in control” he finished off. it is very difficult for them to understand and this is actually affecting its goals”. In having longer opening hours. and this is the natural growth it‟s been growing every year for the last 5years. At the moment. this has given it an edge over other cinemas from the onset. So. The same guys that used to work in a team when it was seven are now doing more workloads and we‟re actually busier than we were. In response to this. the employees currently filling up those job roles will have to .. then it became necessary to ask this question.

“They are bad at customer and employee loyalty. They are persecuting everybody else just for those few people who are stealing.999 customers.000 people. it is really. you want prices cheaper. not those people that might rob them here and there”.become guest assistants. Another important recommendation that was made is that Vue needs to build more customer and employee loyalty.000 customers. When there is one thief in every 10. What other factors can In response to these one of the general managers say that “definitely be attributed to Vue‟s looking after every penny” is one of Vue‟s success factors. we would knock them down and work it like that‟. It has got to lose that mentality of making customers uncomfortable. This site does 14.000.000 a week when it is busy but the actual demographics is really like 750. just to prevent theft. compared to what it used to be in Warner brothers when I worked there and also from what I know from my colleagues who have worked in Cineworld and Odeon and now work here” he continued. “The success? tolerance is very. another of the management team seems to see this as an issue for Vue. But within that. “Did you know that Vue as state of the art digital technology?” he asked. “See. He says “Vue spends its time worrying about whether people are stealing or whether it is being robbed of a couple of thousands of pounds. Table 5: Interview Questions and Responses . “I‟m not too sure where we‟re going forward with things like that. We are the most expensive cinema chain in general. very small. in an interesting twist. It has also been recommended that Vue should communicate a lot more about its unique features such as its state of the art technology. Vue needs to communicate these things” he finished off.000-20. It needs to get better customer loyalty. However. really bad” said the branch manager. making the process for them to get what they want difficult and hard. you‟ll pay less in up North for instance than you would down here in the South. So they should be worried about the other 9. I still worry about our pricing strategy at the moment”. So if you take out that 20k a week out of a million. where they can have a rapport with them and say „okay. Having said that. so technically they will be losing their jobs and these will have psychological impacts on the employees.000-1. we offer a huge amount of discount and everything is based around the cost of living index. Recommendations There seems to be a concern with its pricing structure.

Organisational Success The first couple of questions affirm the meaning that can be deduced from the research topic. before going on to implement them. but no significant finding were recorded as seen in the graph below. Going by Hiam‟s (1997). it gives a process that should be followed which at the moment seems to be lacking in Vue Entertainment. It was revealed that there is no standard change management process in place and the members of the management team interviewed also say that not all managers are good at managing change. One of the more significant findings as seen from the table above was that managers resist change more than employees do. For example. Change Management From the responses above. with most employees within the age of 21-25 being the ones who claim to understand change „sometimes‟ (see graph below). and some of the members of Vue‟s management team are said to lack this. further analysis were carried out to find out if age had anything to do with employees‟ clarity on the need for change. The research topic implied that Vue is a successful organisation at the moment and was confirmed by managers. Going back to the change implementation section in this chapter. in other to prevent loopholes (Burnes. One is forced to believe that this attitude also reflects in the fact that some managers are said to be bad at managing change. a reoccurring theme is change management. while Lewin‟s Three-step Model of Change does not state what exactly should be done in change situations. This act can pose a huge threat to increasing resistance to change. one can see that change management has become a pre-requisite skills for 21st century managers. Even though planned change theories also advocate that there is no one best way to implementing change. considering that its managers supposedly just use any method in making change and these methods may not be appropriate. . one can still see that there are processes that must be followed and these processes should be standardised. There are a lot of issues here which needs to be resolved if Vue Entertainment is to continue to remain a success. This may be because they won‟t be patient enough to understand the change themselves. which is: „How has organisational change led to organisational success of cinema chains in London? The case of Vue Entertainment‟. 1996).

the team is having issues with taking on more workload. resistance is reduced and the aim of change is realised. Other Success Factors One of the general managers believes that one of the other success factors for Vue Entertainment lies in its ability to look after every penny. make them involved in the change process.Age versus Clarity on Need for Change Figure 19: Age versus Clarity on Change Challenges of Change There were a couple of challenges which managers could recollect. The remedy for this again could be found in employees recommendations to make changes more gradual. In a site like the Thurrock branch were the current general manager said they were having challenges with the management team which had just being realigned from seven to find. which automatically leads to employees being clear on the need for change. in the event of dissolving the projection role. although. this was one of the factors raised as an issue by one of the other managers. these may even cause more problems because already as it is. But surprisingly. the challenge they might face while dissolving the projectionist roles is only being envisaged and has not yet occurred yet. . That way.

but this excludes cases were customers try to steal from the company and as expected. improving upon employee loyalty and very important..there is one thief in every 10. These recommendations would be critically discussed in the next couple of chapters. They range from a review of its pricing strategy. . As the branch manager said. in preventing these thefts or frauds as he called them. there should be a limit to how much Vue makes others customers feel uncomfortable..000 customers”. But at the same time. “. Recommendations from Managers There were three main recommendations.There is a popular business orientation that „customers are always right‟. customer loyalty. Vue frowns at this very much.