You are on page 1of 56

17/09/2013

Seismic Design of Confined Masonry 
Buildings Using the Strut‐and‐Tie 
Method
Dr. Svetlana Brzev   
British Columbia Institute of Technology
Vancouver, Canada
Dr. Juan José Pérez Gavilán
UNAM, Mexico
1

Topics
‰ Background (key concepts)
‰ Applications 
Applications ‐ reinforced concrete structures
reinforced concrete structures
‰ A proposal  for application ‐ confined masonry 

buildings
‰ Applications ‐ unreinforced and reinforced 
masonry structures
‰ Design example
‰ Additional resources
2

1

17/09/2013

Strut‐and‐Tie Metod (STM): Background
‰ A truss analogy approach, similar to that used 

for shear design of concrete and masonry 
for
shear design of concrete and masonry
structures
‰ The concept developed by engineers Wilhelm 
Ritter (Germany) and Emil Mörsch
(Switzerland) in the late 1890’s
‰ Seminal work at the end of the 20th century by 
Jörg Schlaich (Germany) and his collaborators 
(1987) – extended the truss analogy for design 
of entire structures
3

Truss Analogy

A reinforced concrete beam carries loads in a series of tensile and compressive forces
Source: Brzev and Pao (2013) 
4

2

17/09/2013

The Concept
Visualize a structure subjected to external loading 
like a truss‐like system where:
1) Compressive forces are resisted by concrete 
“struts”
2) Tensile forces are resisted by steel “ties”
3) Struts and ties meet at “nodes” 

5

P

P
2

P
2
6

3

17/09/2013

P
Strut

C

C

Fill

Fill
Fill

C

C
T

P
2

T
Nodal
Zones

Tie

P
2
7

STM: Reinforced Concrete Structural 
Components
‰ Concrete and reinforcement idealized as an 

assembly of axially loaded members
assembly
of axially loaded members
‰ Reinforcement becomes active after concrete 
cracks
‰ Redistribution of internal stresses occurs after 
concrete cracks
‰ The struts develop between parallel inclined 
The struts develop between parallel inclined
cracks
After cracking, concrete structures behave the 
way they are reinforced!
8

4

17/09/2013

Key Design Assumptions 
‰ Ties yield before struts crush (for ductility)
‰ Reinforcement adequately anchored
Reinforcement adequately anchored
‰ Forces in struts and ties are uniaxial
‰ Tension in concrete is neglected
‰ External forces applied at nodes
External forces applied at nodes

Very important: equilibrium must be maintained!
9

Applications to Reinforced Concrete 
Structures
‰ Used for design applications in regions of 

concentrated forces and geometric discontinuities 
to determine concrete proportions and 
reinforcement quantities and patterns
‰ Valuable tool for regions where the plane 

sections assumption of beam theory does not apply

10

5

 Vancouver – Dr.17/09/2013 Examples of Strut‐and‐Tie Models – Reinforced  Concrete Structures 11 University of British Columbia. Perry Adebar 12 6 .

 Perry Adebar 13 14 7 . Vancouver – Dr. Perry Adebar University of British Columbia.17/09/2013 University of British Columbia. Vancouver – Dr.

 then select a STM  to “model” the stress flow. ‰ Some researchers suggest to use a finite  element analysis first to determine stress  flow (stress trajectories). 16 8 . Perry Adebar 15 STM: Model Development ‰ In general.17/09/2013 University of British Columbia. Vancouver – Dr. a model that minimizes the  required amount of reinforcement is close  required amount of reinforcement is close to an ideal model.

 followed by Holmes (1961). Stafford‐ Smith (1962).3 – since 1984 ‰ Europe: FIP Recommendations for Practical  Design of Structural Concrete ‐ 1996 Design of Structural Concrete  ‰ Bridges: AASHTO Code   17 Reinforced Concrete Frames with  Masonry Infills: Strut Model  ‰ The strut concept for masonry first applied in  analysis of reinforced concrete frame  l i f i f d t f structures ‰ Strut intended to account for stiffness  contribution of masonry infill panels ‰ The concept originally proposed by Polyakov The concept originally proposed by Polyakov (1956). 18 9 . etc.17/09/2013 STM Code Design Provisions – Reinforced Concrete Structures ‰ American Concrete Code ACI 318 – A i C t C d ACI 318 since 2002 i 2002 ‰ Canadian Standard for Design of Concrete  Structures CSA A23.

 Rai. Rai. IIT Kanpur.17/09/2013 Reinforced Concrete Frames RC frame without masonry infills:  predominant frame action RC Frame with masonry infills:   infills modelled as struts beams and columns need to resist  combined axial load and bending    Source: Kaushik. Mandal. India • Strut defined by width w and length d • Numerous strut models  Numerous strut models proposed in research  publications • Design provisions recently  incorporated in masonry  codes in Canada (2004)  and US (2011) • A comprehensive review  h of various models in  paper by Kaushik. and Jain (2006) 19 Strut Properties d w Drawing: G.  and Jain (2006) 20 10 .

 stress redistribution takes place: tensile stresses drop and  compressive stresses increase – Figure (b) •This redistribution does not affect shear resistance of the wall.17/09/2013 Possible Strut Models for RC Frames  with Masonry Infills Single‐strut model cannot describe properly internal  forces in the frame members: multi‐strut models may be  y used to more accurately simulate masonry behaviour Single‐strut model Double‐strut model Triple‐strut model Source: Crisafulli and Carr (2007) 21 Masonry Behaviour in Post‐Cracking Stage Research studies have shown that at higher load levels a masonry infill could separate from  the surrounding RC beams and columns •Before the separation. both compressive (red) and tensile stresses (blue) exist in a  y Figure (a)  g ( ) masonry infill – •After the separation. but it does affect its  stiffness Source: Torissi. and Pavese (2013)  22 11 . Crisafulli.

17/09/2013 Approaches for Analysis of Confined  Masonry Buildings ‰ Wide Column Model d l d l ‰ Finite Element Method ‰ Plastic Analysis ‰ Strut‐and‐Tie Method (STM) 23 Wide Column Model Source: SENCICO (2006) 24 12 .

17/09/2013 Wide Column Model (cont’d) Source: Juan Guillermo Arias (2005) 25 Finite Element Model Source: Juan Guillermo Arias (2005) 26 13 .

17/09/2013 Plastic Analysis Model Source: Juan Guillermo Arias (2005) 27 Strut‐and‐Tie Model (STM) A possible approach… 28 14 .

 and Vazquez (2004)  Juan Guillermo Arias (2005) 29 Strut‐and‐Tie Method (STM) for  Confined Masonry ‰ NTC‐M permits the use of STM for design of  walls with openings ll ith i ‰ Limited technical resources available to  designers   ‰ Some engineers and researchers do not  accept the idea of STM as a viable design accept the idea of STM as a viable design  approach for confined masonry Let us review behaviour and failure mechanisms of a confined  masonry panel under seismic loading  30 15 . Arias. Which approach is most suitable for practical design applications?  Sources:  Alcocer.17/09/2013 Simulated Seismic Response: Shake‐ Table Testing Questions: 1. Which analysis approach is able to simulate seismic response in  the most accurate manner? 2.

 Brzev. Astroza. et al. and Pavese (2013)  32 16 .17/09/2013 Confined Masonry Panel Under Lateral  Loading: Shear Failure P P P V Vc Vm 1 2 3 Vm' 2 Shear force Vm Three stages: 1‐ Onset of diagonal cracking  2 – Cracking propagated through  RC tie‐columns RC tie columns 3 – Failure  3 1 Vc Σ Vc Vm' Displacement Source: Meli. (2011) Note: internal stress redistribution starts at Stage 1 31 Masonry Behaviour in Post‐Cracking Stage ‰ Principal stresses in a confined masonry panel subjected to  lateral loading: compressive (red) and tensile stresses (blue) ‰ Strut action develops along the diagonal in compression  (red)  Source: Torissi. Crisafulli.

17/09/2013 Separation of Confined Masonry  Panels ‰ Separation may occur at higher load levels ‰ Behaviour in the post‐separation stage similar  B h i i th t ti t i il to masonry panel in a RC frame  Failure of a confined masonry panel  with 40 cm wide columns Source:  San Bartolome. stress redistribution takes place in a confined  masonry panel: tensile stresses (blue) drop and compressive  stresses (red) increase stresses (red) increase  Source: Torissi.  2010 33 Masonry Stress Distribution After Separation After the separation. Bernardo. and Pena. and Pavese (2013)  Source: Maximiliano Astroza  34 17 . Crisafulli.

17/09/2013 Confined Masonry Panel – Bending  Stress Distribution Source: Meli. Brzev. Astroza. et al. (2011) 35 STM for Confined Masonry: Key Concepts ‰ Similar to reinforced concrete: pin‐connected  ttrusses consist of tension members and  i t ft i b d compression members ‰ Compressive forces resisted by masonry or  concrete “struts” ‰ Tensile forces resisted by steel  Tensile forces resisted by steel “ties” ties   (reinforcement in RC tie‐columns and tie‐ beams)  36 18 .

17/09/2013 Strut‐and‐Tie Model for a Confined  Masonry Panel node B B C C strut A D A tie D 37 Experimental Studies on Confined Masonry Panels 20 cm wide tie‐columns 40 cm wide tie‐columns ‰ An experimental study on tie‐ column width in confined masonry  wall panels performed at PUCP.  2010) ‰ Other studies performed in  Mexico and other countries also  show evidence of strut action in  h id f t t ti i confined masonry panels 38 19 . and Pena. Bernardo. Peru  (San Bartolome.

5 Note: Strut action disregarded when panel height/length (H/L) > 1.17/09/2013 STM: Confined Masonry Panels  with Openings (1/3)   Panel Panel H H L L 39 STM: Confined Masonry Panels  with Openings (2/3)   Panel disregarded H/L >1.5 Panel considered H/L <1.5 g p g / g ( / ) H H L L 40 20 .

17/09/2013 STM: Confined Masonry Panels  with Openings (3/3)   Strut Tie 41 Design Assumptions ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ STM can be used to determine internal forces in  a confined masonry structure due to seismic  l di loading Tie forces used to find amount of reinforcement  required for tie‐columns and tie‐beams Diagonal strut forces resisted by masonry walls  – shear resistance provided by masonry and  h i t l i f horizontal reinforcement (if required) t (if i d) Horizontal and vertical strut forces resisted by  RC tie‐columns and tie‐beams 42 21 .

Create an idealized truss model  Fi d Find member forces (struts/ties) due to  b f ( t t /ti ) d t external loading  Tie members:  design reinforcement in RC  tie‐columns and tie‐beams Strut members: a) Check shear resistance for masonry walls b) Check compression resistance of RC tie‐columns  and tie‐beams 43 STM Application to Confined Masonry:  A Design Example ‰ A confined masonry  A confined masonry wall with openings  subjected to seismic  and gravity loading ‰ A detailed solution  provided 44 22 . 3. 2.17/09/2013 Design Approach Using STM 1. 4.

17/09/2013 Confined Masonry Design Example:  STM for Seismic Loading 45 STM: Gravity Loading ‰ The total gravity load in a confined masonry  panel is resisted by RC tie‐columns and the  masonry wall ‰ Gravity loading in a RC tie‐column is proportional  to its transformed section area ‰ Gravity loading  in the masonry wall is equal to  the remaining gravity load (total load minus the  load resisted by tie‐columns) 46 23 .

17/09/2013 P Gravity Loading Example Gravity load in tie‐column AB: PAB= P (ATC/ Atotal) Gravity load in masonry wall ABFG: Gravity load in masonry wall ABFG: PABFG=P‐ PAB‐ PFG where P= total gravity load for confined masonry  panel ABFG PAB= gravity load resisted by tie‐column AB Atotal= total transformed area for tie‐column  AB ATC/ Atotal= gravity distribution factor for tie‐ column AB ATC 47 Atotal STM: Important Design Considerations ‰ Equilibrium must be maintained ‐ a system of  iinternal forces must be in equilibrium with the  t lf tb i ilib i ith th externally applied loads and support  conditions ‰ It must be ensured that the strut and tie  q y members adequately resist the forces  obtained from the analysis 48 24 .

17/09/2013 Strut‐and‐Tie Applications to  Reinforced Masonry Walls ‰ New Zealand Masonry Code NZS 4230:2004  recommends the use of STM for reinforced  recommends the use of STM for reinforced masonry walls with openings ‰ Experimental studies on reinforced masonry  walls with openings performed by Voon and  Ingham used STM to compare experimental  and analytical results and analytical results ‰ A design example included in the User Guide  for NZS 4230:2004 (SANZ. 2004)  49 STM Applications to Reinforced Masonry – New Zealand Research Studies  Source: Voon and Ingham (2005) 50 25 .

17/09/2013 STM Applications to Unreinforced  Masonry Walls Swiss masonry design code SIA 266 prescribes design of  unreinforced masonry walls using the theory of plasticity and  compression stress fields. g p applications Source: Mojsilovic and Marti (2004) 51 STM: Advantages and Challenges Advantages: 1. It may be challenging to develop an appropriate  model in complex cases 52 26 . design charts provided to facilitate code  p . Transparent analysis – easy to identify mistakes 3. Suitable for manual calculations (but it can be  done using computer‐based analysis) Challenges: 1. Simple method (truss analysis) p y 2.

17/09/2013 Conclusions ‰ Strut‐and‐Tie Method can be applied to  confined masonry structures fi d t t ‰ It is particularly suitable for design of walls  with openings 53 27 .

Figure 1.Seismic Design of Confined Masonry Buildings Using the Strut-and-Tie Method by Svetlana Brzev and Juan José Pérez Gavilán STRUT-AND-TIE METHOD: DESIGN EXAMPLE OF A CONFINED MASONRY WALL WITH OPENINGS Consider a four-storey confined masonry wall with openings shown in Figure 1. The wall is subjected to gravity and seismic loading. Properties of masonry and concrete relevant for the design are summarized below. as shown in the figure. A confined masonry wall with openings GIVEN PROPERTIES: Masonry: multiperforated extruded clay blocks 12 cm thickness × 24 cm length × 20 cm height = 3 kg/cm2 masonry shear strength (diagonal tension) = 80 kg/cm2 masonry compression strength Concrete: = 200 kg/cm2 concrete compression strength 1 . Design the wall for combined effects of gravity and seismic loading using the Strut-and-Tie Method.

2. Develop strut-and-tie models for different loading conditions. An inclination of a strut member depends on the loading direction . Figure 2. This is one of the most challenging steps in the design process. while masonry wall panels are always modelled as struts. 3. The nodes are usually created at intersections of longitudinal axes for tie-columns and tie-beams. 5. Strut-and-Tie Model: possible locations of struts and ties 2 . It is required to create one model for gravity loading.Seismic Design of Confined Masonry Buildings Using the Strut-and-Tie Method by Svetlana Brzev and Juan José Pérez Gavilán SOLUTION: 1. plus two models for seismic loading (one model for each loading direction) .5.note X-shaped diagonal struts shown in Figure 2. A few relevant considerations related to the development of a strut-and-tie model are summarized below: 1. RC tie-columns and tie-beams are modelled as either strut or tie elements. It is likely that some tie-columns and tie-beams will remain unloaded (have zero forces) for a particular loading condition. Strut action in confined masonry panels with openings may be considered when panel height/length ratio is less than 1.unless the structure is symmetrical. 6. 4.

J. = 700 ∙ . =∑ = 3(1300 + 1540) ∙ 3. e.5 + (700 + 700) ∙ 3. Gravity loading a) Find tributary load for all nodes. STM for gravity loading b) Find the total gravity loading. and N: Nodes D and M: = = Nodes E. = 2275 kg = 1540 ∙ = 1300 ∙ = = . tie-column line ABCDE: : 1225 kg 3 .g.5 = 34. and P: = Nodes G. = 1300 ∙ Node B: = Nodes C.Seismic Design of Confined Masonry Buildings Using the Strut-and-Tie Method by Svetlana Brzev and Juan José Pérez Gavilán 2. and I: = . = 2695 kg = 2275 kg . L.720kg = 34720kg c) Find the axial loads in tie-columns at various nodes. H. = 1225 kg = (1300 + 1540) ∙ . Start from the top level and proceed downwards. = 4970 kg Figure 3.

d) Perform the final check for gravity loads. FG. Proposed STM for seismic loading (E -->) Strut angles θ1 and θ2: = = .759 = 37. = 0.683 = 0. and KL) must be equal to the support reactions at nodes A.1° = 0. F.796 = 0.934 = 43.605 = 0. Seismic loading (E -->) a) Proposed model Figure 4. 4 . 3.2° = 0.Seismic Design of Confined Masonry Buildings Using the Strut-and-Tie Method by Svetlana Brzev and Juan José Pérez Gavilán : 1225 + 2695 = 3500 kg : 3500 + 2275 = 6195 kg : 6195 + 2275 = 8470 kg A similar calculation needs to be performed for column lines FGHIJ and KLMNP.731 b) Find the strut (S) and tie (T) forces. and K. Internal axial forces in tie-columns at the base (AB. .

605 = 3929 kg Node N TIN = S JN ⋅ cosθ1 = 6495 ⋅ 0.Seismic Design of Confined Masonry Buildings Using the Strut-and-Tie Method by Svetlana Brzev and Juan José Pérez Gavilán Node E S EJ = 5170 kg Node J S JN = 5170 S EJ = = 6495 kg cosθ1 0.796 TIJ = S JN ⋅ sin θ1 = 6495 ⋅ 0.796 = 5170 kg S MN = S JN ⋅ sin θ1 = 6495 ⋅ 0.605 = 7509 kg 5 .605 = 3929 kg Node I TDI = TIN = 5170 kg THI = TIJ = 3929 kg Node D ∑H = S DH ⋅ cos θ1 − 4710 − 5170 = 0 S DH = 12412 kg TCD = S DH ⋅ sin θ1 = 12412 ⋅ 0.

605 + 3929 = 13885 kg 6 .796 ∑V = − S HL ⋅ sin θ1 + S DH ⋅ sin θ1 − THI + TGH = 0 TGH = 6376 kg Node M S LM = S MN = 3929 kg Node L TGL = S HL ⋅ cos θ1 = 16457 ⋅ 0.Seismic Design of Confined Masonry Buildings Using the Strut-and-Tie Method by Svetlana Brzev and Juan José Pérez Gavilán Node C SCH = 3220 kg TBC = TCD = 7509 kg Node H ∑H = S S HL = HL ⋅ cos θ1 − 3220 − 12412 ⋅ cos θ1 = 0 13100 = 16457 kg 0.796 = 13100 kg TKL = S HL ⋅ sin θ1 + S LM = 16457 ⋅ 0.

Internal strut and tie forces in the wall due to seismic loading (E -->) 7 . Figure 5.Seismic Design of Confined Masonry Buildings Using the Strut-and-Tie Method by Svetlana Brzev and Juan José Pérez Gavilán Node G TBG = TGL = 13100 kg TFG = TGH = 6376 kg Node B ∑H = S BF ⋅ cos θ 2 − TBG − 1723 = 0 S BF = 20278 kg TAB = S BF ⋅ sin θ 2 + 7509 = 21359 kg Figure 5 shows the strut-and-tie model for seismic loading (E -->) and summarizes the internal forces.

that is.vertical reaction: VK = S KL = 13885 kg d) Calculate the overturning moment at the base of the wall. Overturning moment at the base (node F) due to seismic forces applied at nodes B.vertical and horizontal support reactions Vertical reaction at node F: VF = 20278 ⋅ sin θ 2 − 6376 = 7474 kg Horizontal reaction at node F: H F = 20278 ⋅ cosθ 2 = 14823 kg Note that HF is equal to the sum of horizontal forces up the wall height.5 + 13885 ⋅ 342. i) Node F .742 ⋅ 10 6 Reacting moment around node F due to vertical reactions at nodes A and K: M o = 21359 ⋅ 342. 8 . ∑ H = 5170 + 4710 + 3220 + 1723 = 14823 kg ii) Node A . Important Checks: 1) Horizontal reaction at the base of the wall must be equal to the sum of applied seismic forces.vertical reaction: V A = TAB = 21359 kg iii) Node K . C. In this case.5 = 12. and E: M o = 5170 ⋅ 1100 + 4710 (1100 − 260 ) + 3220 (1100 − 2 ⋅ 260 ) + 723(1100 − 3 ⋅ 260 ) = 11 .071 ⋅ 106 These moments should be the same. 2) Overturning moment at the base of the wall due to applied seismic forces must be equal to the reacting moment generated by the support reactions.Seismic Design of Confined Masonry Buildings Using the Strut-and-Tie Method by Svetlana Brzev and Juan José Pérez Gavilán c) Find the support reactions. D. the difference is within 3% (acceptable).

Proposed STM for seismic loading (E <--) Strut angles θ1 and θ2: = = .759 = 37.1° = 0.934 = 43. = 0.) a) Proposed model Figure 6.796 = 0.605 = 0.605 = 3929 kg 9 .731 b) Find the strut (S) and tie (T) forces. Node P S IP = 5170 = 6495 kg cosθ1 TNP = S IP ⋅ sin θ1 = 6495 ⋅ 0. Seismic loading ( E <-.2° = 0.683 = 0. .Seismic Design of Confined Masonry Buildings Using the Strut-and-Tie Method by Svetlana Brzev and Juan José Pérez Gavilán 4.

Seismic Design of Confined Masonry Buildings Using the Strut-and-Tie Method by Svetlana Brzev and Juan José Pérez Gavilán Node N TMN = TNP = 3929 kg S IN = 4710 kg Node I ∑H = S SCI = CI ⋅ cos θ1 − 4710 − S IP ⋅ cos θ1 = 0 (6495 ⋅ 0.796 ∑V = T IH − SCI ⋅ sin θ1 + S IP ⋅ sin θ1 = 0 TIH = (12412 − 6495) ⋅ 0.605 = 3580 kg Node C S BC = 12412 ⋅ sin θ1 = 7509 kg TCH = 12412 ⋅ cos θ1 = 9880 kg Node H THM = 9880 kg THG = 3580 kg 10 .796 + 4710 ) = 12412 kg 0.

605 = 13885 kg Node B S AB = 7509 kg Node L SGL = 1723 kg TKL = 13885 kg Node G ∑H = S S AG = ∑V = T GF AG ⋅ cos θ 2 − 1723 − 16457 ⋅ cos θ1 = 0 (16457 ⋅ 0.796 + 1723) = 20277 kg 0.731 − S AG ⋅ sin θ 2 − 3580 + 16457 ⋅ sin θ1 = 0 TGF = 7473 kg Figure 7 shows the strut-and-tie model for seismic loading (E <--) and summarizes the internal forces.Seismic Design of Confined Masonry Buildings Using the Strut-and-Tie Method by Svetlana Brzev and Juan José Pérez Gavilán Node M ∑H = S SGM = ⋅ cos θ1 − 3220 − 9880 = 0 GM 13100 = 16457 kg 0. 11 .796 ∑V = T LM − 3929 − SGM ⋅ sin θ1 = 0 TLM = 3929 + 16457 ⋅ 0.

Seismic Design of Confined Masonry Buildings Using the Strut-and-Tie Method by Svetlana Brzev and Juan José Pérez Gavilán Figure 7. D. Overturning moment at the base (node F) due to seismic forces at nodes B.vertical reaction: VF = TFG = 7473 kg iii) Node K .vertical reaction: VK = TKL = 13885 kg d) Calculate the overturning moment at the base of the wall. C.vertical and horizontal support reactions: Vertical reaction at node A: VA = 20277 ⋅ sin θ 2 + 7509 = 21358 kg Horizontal reaction at node A: H A = 20277 ⋅ cosθ 2 = 14823 kg Note that HA is equal to the sum of horizontal forces up the wall height. and E: 12 . i) Node A . ii) Node F . Internal strut and tie forces in the wall due to seismic loading (E <--) c) Find the support reactions.

a) Design parameters Masonry: = 3kg/cm2 masonry shear strength (diagonal tension) 2 = 80 kg/cm masonry compression strength = 600 = 48000 kg/cm2 elastic modulus .as shown in the following table and Figure 8. the total transformed area of tie-column and the tributary wall area (corresponding to one-half of the wall length) is equal to (note that the calculation has been omitted): Atotal = 2692 cm2 The corresponding axial force due to gravity load is equal to P = 8470 kg (see Figure 3b) This load is to be resisted by the tie-column AB and the wall M1 in proportion to their transformed areas (expressed in terms of the distribution factor Df) .07 ⋅ 106 These moments should be the same.28 0.concrete = = 4.72 1. therefore the design calculations are going to be performed for that panel. Axial load calculation for tiecolumn AB is explained next. wall panel at the ground floor level (ABFG) is considered to be critical.Seismic Design of Confined Masonry Buildings Using the Strut-and-Tie Method by Svetlana Brzev and Juan José Pérez Gavilán M o = 5170 ⋅ 1100 + 4710 (1100 − 260 ) + 3220 (1100 − 2 ⋅ 260 ) + 723(1100 − 3 ⋅ 260 ) = 11 .742 ⋅ 10 6 Moment around node F due to vertical reactions at nodes A and K: M o = 21358 ⋅ 342. the difference is within 3% (acceptable). Seismic design of confined masonry wall panel ABFG. Component Tie-column AB = ATC Masonry wall M1 Sum Df 0. which is referred as M1. 5. In this case. In this case. First.5 = 12. Distribution of gravity loading is proportional to the transformed cross-sectional area.masonry = 12 cm wall thickness Concrete: = 200 kg/cm2 concrete compression strength = 14000 Modular ratio: = 197990 kg/cm2 elastic modulus .0 P (kg) 2336 6134 8470 13 .5 + 13885 ⋅ 342.12 b) Calculate axial forces in tie-columns and the wall due to gravity loading.

referred to as M2). the axial load is distributed to masonry wall M1. and the remaining load is distributed to confined masonry panel FGKL (left tie tie-column framing the opening and the masonry wall panel adjacent to tiecolumn FG .43 0. Component Tie-column FG Tie-column at opening Masonry wall M1 Masonry wall M2 Sum Df 0. A similar calculation needs to be performed for tie-column FG.0 7387 3410 17360 Based on the above calculations.Seismic Design of Confined Masonry Buildings Using the Strut-and-Tie Method by Svetlana Brzev and Juan José Pérez Gavilán Figure 8.16 P (kg) 3750 2813 0. The calculations are summarized in the following table.2 1. Axial load distribution according to the tributary area For example.134 kg. the resulting axial forces are: Tie-column AB: PAB = 2336 kg Tie-column FG: PFG = 3750 kg 14 . the value of distribution factor for tie-column AB was obtained as follows: Df = ATC/Atotal = 0.22 0. tie-column FG. The total transformed area and the axial load are summarized below: Atotal = 4582 cm2 and P = 17360 kg (see Figure 3b) In this case. axial load in tie-column AB due to gravity loading is 6.28 Based on the above calculation.

that is.Seismic Design of Confined Masonry Buildings Using the Strut-and-Tie Method by Svetlana Brzev and Juan José Pérez Gavilán Masonry wall M1: PM1 = 6134+7387= 13522 kg A similar calculation needs to be performed to determine axial forces in tie-columns AB and FG and wall M1 due to seismic loading. Shear force due to seismic loading: V= 14823 kg Required shear strength: Vu = 1. = 10283 13608 where 1.9 as follows: 15 .7 Since = 10283 shear reinforcement must be provided.5 =13608kg Shear strength for steel reinforcement is calculated according to NTCM 5. Note that the masonry shear resistance is less than the maximum permitted value. Axial loads due to gravity loading (per above calculations): PM1 = 13522 kg (compression) Axial loads due to seismic loading (calculations omitted): PE = 13844 kg (compression) Total axial load: Pu = 13522+13844 = 27366 kg Note that load factor for gravity loading is 1.0. Masonry shear strength is calculated according to NTCM 5. based on internal forces shown in Figure 5. c) Find gravity and seismic loads for masonry wall M1.1V = 16300 kg d) Calculate shear strength for masonry wall M1.7 as follows: Note that AT= 4320 cm2 and FR = 0.

we need to determine the required amount of reinforcement. this is slightly less than the required area of 0.Seismic Design of Confined Masonry Buildings Using the Strut-and-Tie Method by Svetlana Brzev and Juan José Pérez Gavilán phfyh = 3.6 and Ash*fyh < 6 OK Therefore = 6169kg The total shear strength (masonry+reinforcement) is + = 10283 + 6169 = 16452 > OK Finally. Conclusion: use 2 bars 3/16" @ 60 cm (fyh = 6000 kg/cm2) e) Design tie-column AB. The total area is 0. 16 . A minimum of two bars are required.41 cm2 but considered to be OK. Let us assume that s = 60 cm It follows that the required reinforcement area is Ash = 0.18 cm2).36 cm2. let us find the amount of vertical steel reinforcement required to resist the tensile load.4 kg/cm2 This is equal to (phfyh)min OK Since η = 0. i) Find the axial load.7 x10-4 Since we can find Ash.41 cm2 Let us use 3/16" bars (cross-sectional area 0. Gravity (see the calculations in Step 5b): PG = 2336 kg (compression) Earthquake (calculation omitted): PE = -21359 kg (tension) Total axial load: PAB=PG+PE= 2336-21359 = -19023 kg (tension) ii) Design the tie-column for tension. Since the tie-column is subjected to tension. Let us use fyh = 6000 kg/cm2 ph = 5.

5 cm2 Use 4 .#4 bars (area 5.Seismic Design of Confined Masonry Buildings Using the Strut-and-Tie Method by Svetlana Brzev and Juan José Pérez Gavilán Assume the following properties: Steel: fy = 4200 kg/cm2 Reinforcement: #4 bars (0. Cross sectional dimensions are: 15 cm length x 12 cm thickness (adequate for this amount of reinforcement). Gravity (see the calculations in Step 5b): PG = 17360 kg (compression) Earthquake (calculation omitted): PE = 6376 kg Total axial load: PAB=PG+PE= 17360+6376= 23736 kg (compression) ii) Design the tie-column for compression. i) Find the axial load.5 in diameter) The required reinforcement area is equal to = = 4. f) Design tie-column FG.07 cm2).85 cm2 Steel yield strength: fy = 4200 kg/cm2 Axial compression resistance for the tie-column can be determined from the following equation = 0. Assume the 20 cm x 12 cm tie-column reinforced with 4-#3 bars.6( ∗ + ∗ = 30222 > 23723 ) OK Conclusion: use tie-column dimensions 20 cm length x 12 cm thickness and 4-#3 bars 17 . therefore cross-sectional area is A= 20x12= 240 cm2 Steel reinforcement area (4-#3 bars): As = 2.

MI. Reinforced Concrete Design: A Practical Approach. Bernardo.M. pp. ed. 40. Hart. Crisafulli. USA. Rai.edu.. T. K. Boston. Canadian Concrete Masonry Producers Association. USA. and Jain. (2007). D.pdf) Paulay..J. Santiago.A. and Marti.69-77.. FIP (1996). 74-150.G. M. Seismic Design Guide for Masonry Buildings.J. Mebarki. and Yamin.. MA. Valdivia-Santiago. Farsi. (http://www. Crisafulli.D. Meli. 242 pp. 18 .M.S. (2013).T. Chile (in Spanish).. UK. USA. Astroza. SETO. Proceedings of the 13th International Brick and Block Masonry Conference.H. 940 pp.nz/shop/downloads/NZS4230UserGuide. Arias.. Earthquake Spectra. Astroza. Curso CI52-H. (1987). (2002). 83 pp.N.C. 1996. Efectos del Peralte de las Columnas en el Comportamiento Sísmico de los Muros de Albañilería Confinada (The effect of column depth on seismic behavior of confined masonry walls). Seismic Design Guide for Low-Rise Confined Masonry Buildings.. Kaushik. pp. 961–983. Chilean Conference on Seismology and Earthquake Engineering. Toronto. CA. Second Edition. FIP Recommendations: Practical Design of Structural Concrete.Seismic Design of Confined Masonry Buildings Using the Strut-and-Tie Method by Svetlana Brzev and Juan José Pérez Gavilán Resources Papers and Reports Alcocer. (2011).A. New York. Amsterdam.F.ca)... K. Departamento de Ingeniería CivilUniversidad de Chile.A. 2130. Proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering.L.. (2010). Master's Thesis.. N.L. New Swiss Structural Masonry Code. (2009). Reineck. No.ccmpa. 3. NZCMA (2004)..org. 32. and Jennewein. 744 pp.. Dai. Arias. Diseño de albañileria estructural. J.G. P. 90 pp.. Farmington Hills. No. John Wiley and Sons...pe/blog/albanileria).D.K.S..M. User’s Guide to NZS 4230:2004 Design of Reinforced Concrete Masonry Structures. New Zealand. UNAM. PCI Journal. M.. Peru (in Spanish) (http://blog. (2004). J. Wellington.cca. Schäfer. 317 pp (free download available at www. No. Anderson.070 “Albañilería. M. Response Assessment of Mexican Confined Masonry Structures Through Shaking Table Tests. pp.T. and Brzev. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. Brzev.. (2006) Code Approaches to Seismic Design of Masonry-Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames: A State-of-the-Art Review. Seismic Design of Concrete and Masonry Buildings. Á. Inc. J. Toward a Consistent Design of Structural Concrete.B. Oakland.J. Examples for the Design of Structural Concrete. J. 1987.. Pearson Custom Publishing. Bulletin of The New Zealand Society For Earthquake Engineering. S. Servicio Nacional de Capacitación para la Industria de la Construcción. S.R. and Pao. Mojsilovic. Vancouver. V. San Bartolome.pucp.confinedmasonry. J. Tomazevic. FIP-Commission 3 Practical Design. SENCICO (2008). Sept.. 2. Brzev. (2005). (2004).org). Canada. Netherlands. American Concrete Institute.. Chile (in Spanish). Canada. and Peña. Comentarios A La Norma Técnica De Edificación E. 2002.F. and Priestley. (2010). Vo... (1992). Schlaich. Boen. Volume 22. 4. Paper No. and Carr.-H. Ensayos en mesa vibradora de un modelo a escala 1:2 de edificio de mampostería confinada de tres niveles. London.. A. Quiun. (www. M. S. Moghadam. New Zealand Concrete Masonry Association Inc. SP-208. S.J. Proposed Macro-Model for the Analysis of Infilled Frame Structures. Mexico (in Spanish). and Vazquez.

1157 pp. CSA Standard A23. Standards Association of New Zealand. Canada. “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-11). 443 pp. Ontario. Sixth Edition. NZS 4230:2004. 2011. Normas Técnicas Complementarias para Diseño y Construcción de Estructuras de Mampostería (Technical Norms for Design and Construction of Masonry Structures). Alberta..F.070 Masonry). 44 pp. Experimental Study of Partially Grouted Concrete Masonry Walls with Openings. Farmington Hills.J. Wight. Swiss Standard. 2003. UBC EERI Student Chapter Committee on Confined Masonry. Peru (in Spanish). (in Spanish and English). Design of Concrete Structures.F. An innovative Model for the In-Plane Nonlinear Analysis of Confined Masonry and Infilled Frame Structures.” American Concrete Institute.S. Portugal. Mexico D. Wellington.K. USA. (2012).3-04.A.K. and Ingham. Technical Standard E.J. NTC-M (2004).G. (2008). Swiss Society of Engineers and Architects (SIA)..Seismic Design of Confined Masonry Buildings Using the Strut-and-Tie Method by Svetlana Brzev and Juan José Pérez Gavilán Torrisi. Zurich. Swiss Standard. 91 pp. and MacGregor. 19 . Development of the Strut-and-TIe Method for Appendix A of the Building Code (ACI 31808).M.070 Albañilería (National Building Code.C. Banff. Voon. 12 pp. 2003. (2013). Reglamento Nacional de Edificaciones.. (2005). Lisbon. Swiss Society of Engineers and Architects (SIA).. UBC (2005) Evaluation of Confined Masonry Guidelines for Earthquake-Resistant Housing. Crisafulli. Toronto.K. “Design of Reinforced Concrete Masonry Structures”.J. Design Codes and Standards ACI Committee 318. Reinforced Concrete: Mechanics and Design.” Canadian Standards Association. Norma Técnica E. and Pavese. Pearson Education Inc. Zurich. NT E. SIA 266. Masonry (in German).J.J. Canadian Standards Association (2004). SIA 266/1. Canada.. Wight.G. Proceedings of the 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Proceedings of the 10th Canadian Masonry Symposium. MI. Masonry – Supplementary Specifications (in German).070 (2006).

3 3100 C D 127. 7400 1800 800 15 C 40 B F J 20 120 kN 70 kN A I E 70 kN (a) Wall Geometry and Loading Condition Figure 19: 30 30 20 300 70 kN K G 50 20 9000 2000 40 1400 20 2000 50 kN 20 15 800 20 50 15 100 kN L H 15 2000 D 15 800 150 kN 2000 20 40 2000 15 80 800 120 kN 70 kN (b) Strut-and-Tie Model for Gravity Loading Limited Ductile 3-storey Masonry Wall with Openings Solution L 127.2 G 300 40 5.8 150 H 473.3 B Level 1 150 H 19 6. It is noted that designers may elect to consider a more sophisticated loading pattern.8 Level 3 300.3 G 150 127.5 127.3 100 0.0 kN 366.8 Strut-and-tie Design of Wall with Opening Figure 19(a) shows a three-storey concrete masonry wall with openings and loading conditions that resemble a design example of a reinforced concrete wall reported by Paulay and Priestley (1992). The concrete masonry wall shown in Figure 19(a) is to be designed for the seismic lateral forces corresponding with an assumed ductility of P = 2.Source: User's Guide to NZS 4230:2004 3.2 kN 234. 7 127. rather than the simple lumped horizontal forces shown in Figure 19(a).7 D 234.2 kN I 234. It is required to design the flexural and shear reinforcement for the wall.0 kN A E 3300 400.7 kN I 300.0 kN 3300 165.5 0 3.3 kN 473. The relatively small gravity loads are approximated by a number of forces at node points given in Figure 19(a). Wall width should be 190 mm.8 50 3000 C 107.8 kN (a) Figure 20: A M E 1900 127. 34 K L 107. 19 Level 2 150 kN 234.7 56 234.8 kN (b) Strut-and-Tie Models for Masonry Wall (seismic loading only) 58 . and f’m = 12 MPa. with horizontal loads apportioned within the wall based upon tributary areas.3 165. 0 F J 250 250 N 127.3 100 kN J F 50 kN B K 34 3. 4 127.3 2800 7 6. and the strut-and-tie model for the gravity loads is represented in Figure 19(b).

can be evaluated as follows: I A si f y  Nn . of I = 0. after considering the effect of axial loads. I = 0.75.Source: User's Guide to NZS 4230:2004 Figures 20(a) and (b) show the strut-and-tie models for the squat wall with openings.8. may eventually reduce the capacity of these vital struts. Such elongations would impose significant relative secondary displacement on the small piers adjacent to openings. In order to ensure that plastic hinges form inside the 1st storey vertical members.3) + 50 x (2.4. Design of Tension Reinforcement in Vertical Members The area of tension reinforcement required in vertical ties. The resulting bending moment and shear forces. the quantity of reinforcement in the 2nd and 3rd storey vertical members should be sufficient to ensure that yielding does not occur in these members.4. which is consistent with the strut-and-tie procedure.3) = 2095 kNm Whilst the use of strut-and-tie analysis is specifically endorsed in section 7. For example. As these members carry only tension. yielding with cyclic displacements may lead to unacceptable cumulative elongations. no advice is given in section 3. corresponding to the seismic lateral forces being considered.6 + 0. Consequently.75 is adopted here for use in strut-and-tie analysis of concrete masonry structure.1 of NZS 4230:2004. particularly those at I-J and A-B. members I-J and E-F in Figure 20(a) represent a good choice for this purpose. a simplified procedure is adopted in this example to design the vertical tie members above 1st storey for 50% more tension force than design levels. From the given lateral forces the total overturning moment at 300 mm below the wall base is: M* = 150 x (8. At the time of preparing this guide. Consequently.8 + 0.3) + 100 x (5. particular tension chords should be chosen to ensure yielding can best be accommodated. This corresponds to the I factor used for shear and torsion. although secondary.7 + 0. Corresponding forces in other members should be determined and hence reinforcement provided so as to ensure that no yielding in other ties can occur. the draft version of the next NZS 3101 has adopted the I factor recommended in ACI 318. For the purpose of limited ductile design.7 for an appropriate I value to be used in conjunction with the analysis.

as this would result . 59 Ti  INi* . § N* · I¨ A si f y  i ¸ ¨ I ¸¹ © Ti Ti Therefore IA si f y Ti  Ni* (8) Figure 21 (on page 60) shows the strut-and-tie model for the squat wall when both seismic and gravity loads are considered. 8 Paulay and Priestley (1992) adopted the procedure of IA si f y in a more conservative design.

1 of the standard requires minimum longitudinal reinforcement of D12 @ 400 crs within the potential plastic hinge zone.8 u 10 3 0.2 kN 304.8 kN 184.3 kN TEF = 565.3 kN 473. 7 97.4.2 u 10 3 0.5 mm2.7 56 A K G 100 30 0 3.3 15 7 6.2 kN Therefore A EF 85.3 B K 150 19 6. total compression force at Node A.0 kN 45. 19 D 112.8 C H 15 107.5 D 473.5 87.3 + 169. including gravity load: Cm = TIJ + TEF + Nn = 241.2 I E 3300 B 0.75 = 757.3 157.5 x 300 = 169. Check moment capacity at wall base: Tension forces provided: TIJ = 804.3 184.8 kN 34 3.6 + 260 0.6 kN 60 .8 100 kN L 67.3 mm2 (taking fy = 300 MPa) Therefore A IJ Try 4-D16 As = 804.8 40 5.6 kN Therefore.2 kN M 15 J 250 E 1900 57. Consequently.2 mm2 (about 2% shortfall) IAEFfy = 85.3 L 20 150 kN 150 H 27.0 kN C 284.75 u 300 = 821.75 u 300 = 378. adopt 5-D12 for Member E-F to give As = 565.7 mm2 Clause 7.3 G 150 204. 4 177.User's Guide to NZS 4230:2004 F J 50 kN 3300 470.3 85.2 x 300 = 241.0 kN 486.7 kN (a) Figure 21: 0 F 250 A 164.5. 34 50 300.7 Source: I 300. N 77.8 kN (b) Strut-and-Tie Models for Masonry Wall (Seismic and Gravity Loads) 1st storey vertical members m Consider earthquake V E as in Figure 21(a) Tie I-J Tie E-F IAIJfy = 184.

4 x 300 = 135.75 x 3395.TMN) + TEF + Nn 260 = 135.9 mm = where Lw = 800 + 2000 + 1800 = 4600 mm < 0. As = 565 mm2.75 u 300 = 2105.6 kN Therefore.4 kNm IMn = 0.4. including gravity load: Cm = TAB + (TMN .3 kNm > M* Therefore o Consider earthquake V E as in Figure 21(b) Tie A-B Tie M-N IAABfy = 77.e.85 u 12 u 190 | 0.Source: User's Guide to NZS 4230:2004 Theoretical depth of neutral axis: c = Cm c u 190 0.8 x 300 = 671.3 + 757. Check moment capacity at wall base: Tension forces provided: TAB = 452.3 = (241.6) x 3.100Lw = 459. it is recognised that the vertical component of strut E-N matches the force in tie M-N.1 of NZS 4230:2004) Moment capacity about the centre of the structure: Mn = (TIJ + Cm) x 3. 61 . Refer to Figure 22 for details.7 u 10 3 0.2Lw (see clause 7. i.1 kN Note that in the above calculation.85 u 0.5 x 300 = 169.4 mm2 (taking fy = 300 MPa) IAMNfy = 473.85 u 0.7 kN Therefore Try 8-D16 and 2-D20 Tie E-F 77.3 = 3296.7 + (671.3 mm2 = 2236.0) + 169.8 mm2 (taking fy = 300 MPa) (note that D20 is the maximum bar size allowed for 190 mm wide masonry wall) Use 5-D12 because member force would be critical when earthquake force m acting in V E direction.6 + 0. total compression force at Node I.6.3 u 10 3 0.0 kN TEF = 565.0 – 671.6 mm2 Therefore As A MN 473.3 kN A AB f y Try 4-D12 As = 452.7 kN TMN = 2236.75 u 300 = 341.85 u fm 757.75 = 652.6 u 10 3 0.7 = 2472.

1 u 10 3 0.1) x 3.85 u 0.9 = (135.086Lw = 395.75 x 3874.8 Theoretical depth of neutral axis: c = Cm c u 190 0.3.9 of the Standard for minimum length of lap splices 7-DH16 5-D12 R6@200 R10@200 4-D12 5-D12 2-D20 8-D16 Figure 22: Reinforcement for Design Example 3.3 + 671.6 kNm IMn 4-D16 = 0.85 u 0.6 = 2906 kNm > M* 62 .Source: User's Guide to NZS 4230:2004 R6@200 R6@200 R6@200 4-DH16 5-D12 R6@200 4-DH12 R6@200 4-DH16 5-DH12 See 6.3 + TMN x 1.8 mm = Moment capacity about the centre of the structure: Mn Therefore = (TAB + Cm) x 3.0 x 1.9 = 3874.7 + 652.85 u 12 u 190 | 0.85 u fm 652.

5 x 204. the design of tie K-L will match that of tie J-K.3 mm2 (take fy = 500 MPa) As = 565.5 mm2 Try 5-DH12 o Consider earthquake V E as in Figure 21(b) Tie B-D IACDfy = 1.2 mm2 (take fy = 500 MPa) As = 804. the 2nd and 3rd storey vertical members are intentionally designed for 50% higher tension forces than the design level tension forces. IAGHfy = 1.3 mm2 (take fy = 500 MPa) As = 452.2 mm2 (about 2% shortfall) (note that DH16 is the maximum bar size allowed in Table 1) Try 4-DH16 Tie F-H A JK For tie J-L. 63 . m Consider earthquake V E as in Figure 21(a) Tie J-L IAJKfy = 1.5 mm2. As = 565.2 u 10 3 0. the force in tie G-H is critical. in order to satisfy spacing criteria. in this example it has been necessary to place a significantly larger quantity of vertical reinforcement than required (i. the design of tie B-C will match that of tie C-D.5 x 112.Source: User's Guide to NZS 4230:2004 2nd and 3rd storey vertical members To avoid the formation of plastic hinges. 168.3.2 kN Therefore 307. Therefore. the amount of reinforcement in the 2nd and 3rd storey vertical members should be sufficient to ensure that yielding does not occur in these members.3 of NZS 4230:2004.7.0 kN Therefore A GH For tie F-H. member E-F). Therefore. there are two equations given that permit a simplified capacity design approach to be used. i.3 = 161.5 kN Therefore Try 4-DH12 Tie F-H A CD For tie B-D.75 u 500 = 449. Design of Tension Reinforcement in Horizontal Members In section 3.0 u 10 3 0.5 x 107.8 = 307. the design of tie F-G will match that of tie G-H. However. Refer to Figure 22 for details.4 mm2 Use 5-DH12 because member force would be critical when earthquake force m acting in V E direction.75 u 500 = 819. 161. Therefore. This has resulted in a concern about relying upon these simplified expressions and instead a full capacity design is conducted below to establish the appropriate horizontal design forces.e.e.75 u 500 = 429. the force in tie J-K is critical. Hence.5 u 10 3 0. the force in tie C-D is critical.3 = 168.

1 u 10 3 1.1 kN Therefore IAckfy = 325.w.25Mn.7) and take fy = 500 MPa = As = 804 mm2 o Consider earthquake V E as in Figure 21(b) Mn.1 0. needs to be calculated: Mo = 1. Mo.provided M* 1.25 u 3296.provided = 3296.4 kNm The overstrength value. is calculated as follow: I o. Io. is calculated as follow: I o.w Mo M* 1.Source: User's Guide to NZS 4230:2004 To estimate the maximum tension force in horizontal ties.provided m Consider earthquake V E as in Figure 21(a) Mn.w = 1.25 u 3874.0 (see 3. the flexural overstrength at wall base.provided M* 1.31 m > Io. 9  10 = 1.1 kN 325.97 when considering VE 64 . Io.6 = 2095 = 2.4.w Mo M* 1. the design force for Member C-G-K is calculated as follow: TCK = 1.1 x 1.25Mn.9  Hence.97 Dynamic magnification factor: Zv For up to 6 storeys n 10 2 = 0.w.25Mn.provided = 3874.6 kNm The overstrength value.2 mm2 Ack Try 4-DH16 I = 1.0 u 500 = 650.4 = 2095 = 1.97 x 150 = 325.

* As VG* and VQu are typically negligible.8 x 4600 = 3680 mm vn 762.w VE* where I = 1.1 Hence.Source: User's Guide to NZS 4230:2004 Dynamic magnification factor: Zv For up to 6 storeys 1 .50 MPa for f’m = 12 MPa 190 u 3680 From Section 10.0 (3.0 u 500 = 1270. i.31 x 250 = 635.7 190 u 0. For other part of the wall structure.4 mm2 Design of Shear Reinforcement It is assumed that shear forces are to be resisted by the bigger wall elements adjacent to openings.4.3 kN Therefore IANJfy = 635.e.6 mm2 = (take fy = 500 MPa) As = 1407. 1st Storey VE* = 300 kN Therefore 1. therefore: IVn t Z v I o.3 of NZS 4230:2004: vn = vm + vp + vs Shear stress carried by vm = (C1 + C2)vbm where C1 33p w fy 300 note that pw = 9bars u D12  8bars u D16  2bars u D20 bwd 3254.3 kN Vn = Check shear stress.7 of NZS 4230:2004) Shear Design.3 kN ANJ Try 7-DH16 635.3 u 10 3 1.07%. use R6 @ 200 crs. such that only these elements require design of shear reinforcement.0046 = 65 . the design force for Member N-F-J is calculated as follow: TNJ = 1.0 = 762.3 u 10 3 = 1. it is only required to satisfy pmin = 0.8 u 4600 = 0. d = 0.09 MPa < vg = 1.31 u 300 1 .1 x 2. bw = 190 mm.1 u 2.

15 and C2 = 0.75 u 3400 4600 .Source: User's Guide to NZS 4230:2004 Therefore C1 = 0.42 u >4  1.

14 .14 Ÿ vm 0.@ = 1.15  1.

31 x 250 = 635.2 % .50 = 0.3 kN Check shear stress.vp Ÿ (take vp = 0 for simplicity) vs = 1. bw = 190 mm. u v bm = 1.67 .vm .42 MPa vs C3 A v fy note that C3 = 0.75 u 4200 4600 .8 u (try fy = 300 MPa and s = 200 mm) Therefore.29 u 0.8 for masonry walls bws A v u 300 190 u 200 Av = 66.42 u >4  1.67 MPa note that vbm = 0.50 MPa Shear stress carried by vm = (C1 + C2)vbm Ÿ fy where C1 and C2 = 0.5 mm2 Ÿ 0.3 u 10 3 = 0.1 x 2.91 MPa < v g 190 u 3680 1.09 – 0.5 190 u 200 0 .5 mm2) and p 78. Shear Design. 2nd Storey VE* = 250 kN therefore Vn = 1.0 = 0.42 0.8 x 4600 = 3680 mm vn 635. use R10 @ 200 crs ( 78.50 MPa for P = 2 Therefore the shear reinforcement required: vs = vn . d = 0.

13 0.@ = 1.01 vm 33p w 300 5bars u D12 300 5bars u DH12  4bars u DH16 500 u  33 u u = 33 u bwd 300 bwd 300 = 0.13  1.03 = 0.10 + 0.01.

70 MPa since outside plastic hinge region) 66 .14 u v bm = 1.70 = 0. u v bm = 1.14 x 0.80 MPa (vbm = 0.

91 – 0.3.Source: User's Guide to NZS 4230:2004 Therefore the shear reinforcement required: vs = vn .11 0. use R6 @ 200 crs ( 28. bw = 190 mm.3 of NZS 4230:2004.vm . 3rd Storey VE* = 150 kN therefore Vn = 1.75 u 3600 4600 .5 mm2 Ÿ 0.80 .54 MPa < vg 190 u 3680 Shear stress carried by vm = (C1 + C2)vbm Ÿ fy where C1 and C2 = 0.07% .11 MPa A v fy where C3 = 0.vp Ÿ vs (take vp = 0 for simplicity) vs = 0.0 = 0.8 u (try fy = 300 MPa and s = 200 mm) 28. Therefore.07% is 190 u 200 the minimum reinforcement area required by 7. Note that p = 0. d = 0.4.31 x 150 = 381.8 x 4600 = 3680 mm vn 381.1 x 2.3 mm2) and p Shear Design.8 for masonry walls C3 bws A v u 300 190 u 200 Av = 17.3 0.2 kN Check shear stress.2 u 10 3 = 0.42 u >4  1.

10 vm 33p w 300 5bars u D12 300 9bars u DH12 500 u  33 u u = 33 u bwd 300 bwd 300 = 0.03 = 0.11  1.11 0.@ = 1.10.08 + 0.

21 u 0.e. 0.70 MPa outside plastic hinge region) = 1. Therefore.85 MPa > vn Since vm > vn.3. the shear reinforcement needed in the 3rd storey pier is governed by the minimum reinforcement area required by clause 7. 67 .4.3. shear reinforcement in the 3rd storey pier can be reduced to R6 @ 200 crs.07% of the gross cross-sectional area.70 = 0. i. u v bm (vbm = 0.