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Tanzania /ˌtænzəˈniːə/,[7] officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Swahili: Jamhuri ya

Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in East Africa in the African Great Lakes region. It is
bordered by Kenya and Uganda to the north; Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of
the Congo to the west; and Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to the south. The country's eastern
border is formed by the Indian Ocean. Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain, is in northeastern
The head of state is President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete, elected in 2005. Since 1996, the official
capital of Tanzania has been Dodoma, where the National Assembly and some government
offices are located. Dar es Salaam remains Tanzania's principal port and commercial city and is
the main location of most government institutions.[8][9][10]
Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged in 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanzania
The first wave of migration was by Southern Cushitic speakers, who are ancestral to the Iraqw,
Gorowa, and Burunge and who moved south from Ethiopia into Tanzania.[11]:page 17 Based on
linguistic evidence, there may also have been two movements into Tanzania of Eastern Cushitic
people at about 4,000 and 2,000 years ago, originating from north of Lake Turkana.[11]:pages
Archaeological evidence supports the conclusion that Southern Nilotes, including the Datoog,
moved south from the present-day South Sudan / Ethiopia border region into central northern
Tanzania between 2,900 and 2,400 years ago.[11]:page 18
These movements took place at approximately the same time as the settlement of the ironmaking Mashariki Bantu in the Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika areas. They brought with them
the west African planting tradition, the primary staple of which were yams. They subsequently
migrated out of these regions across the rest of Tanzania between 2,300 and 1,700 years ago.
[11]:page 18[12]
Eastern Nilotic peoples, including the Maasai, represent a more recent migration from present
day South Sudan within the past 1,500 to 500 years.[11]:page 18[13]
Production of iron and steel by early arrivals[edit]
The people of Tanzania have been associated with the production of iron and steel. The Pare
people were the main producers of highly demanded iron for peoples who occupied the mountain
regions of northeastern Tanzania. The Haya people on the western shores of Lake Victoria
invented a type of high-heat blast furnace, which allowed them to forge carbon steel at
temperatures exceeding 1,820 °C (3,310 °F) more than 1,500 years ago.[14]
Visitors from the Near East and India around the first millennium A.D.[edit]
Travellers and merchants from the Persian Gulf and India have visited the east African coast
since early in the first millennium A.D.[15] Islam was practised by some on the Swahili Coast as
early as the eighth or ninth century A.D
Economic reform and restructuring[edit]
From the mid-1980s, the regime financed itself by borrowing from the International Monetary
Fund and underwent some reforms. Since then, Tanzania's gross domestic product per capita
has grown and poverty has been reduced.[25]
Increased political freedoms[edit]
In 1992, the Constitution of Tanzania was amended to allow multiple political parties.[26] In
Tanzania's first multi-party elections, held in 1995, the ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi won 186 of
the 232 elected seats in the National Assembly, and Benjamin Mkapa was elected as president

the attorney general of Zanzibar.[33] In Zanzibar.[33] No appeal regarding Islamic family matters can be made from the High Court of Zanzibar.[32] The president and the members of the house of representatives have five-year terms.[33] In Zanzibar.[31][32] The second is from the party in power and is the leader of government business in the house.[33] From there. which hears only labour disputes. 78(1) The house of representatives (or Legislative Council) has two parts: the president of Zanzibar and the members serving in the house. with the first being from the main opposition party in the house. in which the executive authority of Zanzibar is invested. all the regional commissioners of Zanzibar. the final appeal is to the Court of Appeal of Tanzania.The legislative authority in Zanzibar over all non-union matters is vested in the house of representatives (per the Tanzania constitution)[28]:§ 106(3) or the Legislative Council (per the Zanzibar constitution).and 15 geographic zones.[31] The Revolutionary Council consists of the president. all ministers. 67(1) The house determines the number of its elected members[30]:§ 120(2) with the Zanzibar Electoral Commission determining the boundaries of each election constituency. ten members appointed by the president.[34] The High Court of Zanzibar has an industrial division.[33] On the mainland. and other house members deemed fit by the president. who are appointed by the president of Tanzania.commercial.[30]:§§ 5A(2).[30]: §§ 63(1).[30]:§§ 55(3).[31] The house of representatives is composed of elected members. the house has a total of 81 members: fifty elected members. appeal is to either the District Courts or the Resident Magistrates Courts. 26(1) Zanzibar has two vice-presidents. appeal is to the Kadhi's Appeal Courts for Islamic family matters and the Magistrates Courts for all other cases.[33] The High Court of mainland Tanzania has three divisions .[30]:§ 120(1) In 2013.[citation needed] except for those of the Court of Appeal and the High Court.[28]: §§ 109(1). labour. and land[33] .[29] Judiciary[edit] Tanzania's legal system is based on English common law. the lowest level courts are the Kadhi's Courts for Islamic family matters and the Primary Courts for all other cases.[30]:§ 42(2) with the ministers allocated according to the number of house seats won by political parties. appeal is to the High Court of Mainland Tanzania or Zanzibar.[30]:§ 99(1)[33] Otherwise. five regional commissioners. the attorney general.[33] The lowest level courts on the Tanzanian mainland are the Primary Courts. and appointed female members whose number must be equal to 30 percent of the elected members. 64. the attorney general. ten members appointed by the president.[33] Tanzania has a four-level judiciary. 118(2)-(3) Tanzania is a party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court .[30]:§ 28(2) The president selects ministers from members of the house of representatives.[28]:§ 107(1)-(2)[30]:§ 63(1) The president is Zanzibar's head of government and the chairman of the Revolutionary Council. and fifteen appointed female members. both vice-presidents.[35] Mainland and union judges are appointed by the chief justice of Tanzania.