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L

Lab – Us
sing the
e Window
ws Calculator w
with Netw
work Ad
ddresses
s

O
Objectives
Part 1: Ac
ccess the Windows Calc
culator
Part 2: Co
onvert betwe
een Numberiing Systems
Part 3: Co
onvert Host IPv4 Addresses and Sub
bnet Masks in
nto Binary
g Powers of 2
Part 4: De
etermine the
e Number of Hosts in a Network Using
Part 5: Co
onvert MAC Addresses and
a IPv6 Add
dresses to B inary

B
Backgroun
nd / Scenarrio
Network technicians us
se binary, dec
cimal, and he
exadecimal nu
umbers when working with
h computers a
and
des a built-in Calculator ap
pplication as p
part of the op
perating system. The
networking devices. Microsoft provid
C
inc
cludes a Standard view tha
at can be used to perform basic arithme
etic tasks
Windows 7 version of Calculator
such as addition,
a
subtrract, multiplica
ation, and div
vision. The Ca
alculator application also h
has advanced
programm
ming, scientific
c, and statistic
cal capabilitie
es.
In this lab
b, you will use the Windows
s 7 Calculatorr application P
Programmer view to conve
ert between th
he binary,
decimal, and
a hexadecimal number systems.
s
You
u will also use
e the Scientificc view powerss function to d
determine
the numbe
er of hosts that can be add
dressed base
ed on the num
mber of host b
bits available.

R
Required Resources
R

1 PC (Windows 7, Vista, or XP)

sing an opera
ating system other
o
than Wiindows 7, the
e Calculator a pplication vie
ews and functions
Note: If us
u should be a
available may vary from
m those show
wn in this lab. However, you
able to perform
m the calcula
ations.

© 2013 Cisco and
d/or its affiliates. All rights reserve
ed. This docume
ent is Cisco Publiic.

Page 1 of 7

you can use the Scientific mode to perform this lab. Which characters are activated on the number pad now? 0-9 and A-F © 2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. Which number system is currently active? Dec Which numbers on the number pad are active in decimal mode? 0-9 b. Click the View menu and select Programmer to switch to Programmer mode. Hexadecimal characters are used when writing or displaying IPv6 and MAC addresses. Standard and Scientific. This numbering system uses digits 0 to 7. Page 2 of 7 . If you are using one of these operating systems. a. but this numbering system is not commonly used. Scientific. Step 2: Click the Accessories folder and select Calculator.Lab – Using the Windows Calculator with Network Addresses Part 1: Access the Windows Calculator In Part 1. All rights reserved. Hexadecimal numbers are base 16. c. Computers and other electronic devices use the binary numbering system with only the digits 0 and 1 for data storage. Click the Bin (Binary) radio button. One way to overcome this problem is to arrange binary numbers into groups of four as hexadecimal numbers. This document is Cisco Public. Octal numbers are also a convenient way to represent a large binary number in smaller groups. In this lab. data transmission and numerical calculations. One disadvantage of binary numbers is that the binary number equivalent of a large decimal number can be quite long. Programmer. several number system modes are available: Hex (Hexadecimal or base 16). What are the four available modes? Standard. and financial transactions. only two modes. are available. Part 2: Convert between Numbering Systems In the Windows Calculator Programmer view. We are accustomed to using the decimal number system that uses the digits 0 to 9. Note: For Windows XP and Vista. Oct (Octal or base 8). Step 3: After Calculator opens. the Windows 7 Calculator is used to convert between different numbering systems in the Programmer mode. and a combination of numbers from 0 to 9 and the letters A to F are used to represent the binary or decimal equivalent. Octal numbers represent binary numbers in groups of three. Dec (Decimal or base 10). The decimal numbering system is used in everyday life for all counting. Statistics Note: The Programmer and Scientific modes are used in this lab. All computer calculations are ultimately performed internally in binary (digital) form. you will become familiar with the Microsoft Windows built-in calculator application and view the available modes. Step 1: Click the Windows Start button and select All Programs. money. regardless of how they are displayed. Which numbers are active on the number pad now? 0 and 1 Why do you think the other numbers are grayed out? Because there is no such thing as 2-9 in binary. and Bin (Binary or base 2). click the View menu. Click the Hex (Hexadecimal) radio button. The octal numbering system is very similar in principle to hexadecimal. This makes them difficult to read and write.

Which he exadecimal ch haracter (0 through 9 o F) represen nts decimal 15 5? F or A to g. Click the Hex radio button to ch hange to Hex xadecimal mod de. Page 3 of 7 . All rights reserve ed. This assists s you in relatin ng the binaryy digits to othe er numbering system values. 0001 0 0011 0100 0 1101 0010 0 1010 0011 1000 1001 0011 1110 0100 38 93 E4 As yo ou record the values v in the table above. This docume ent is Cisco Publiic. The decimal d numb ber 15 is now entered. Click the Dec radio o button again n. C Convert the fo ollowing h. f. As yo ou were switch hing between the numberin ng systems. press the e Num Lock key to enable e the numeric c keypad. Numb bers are conv verted from on ne numbering g system to an nother by sele ecting the dessired number mode. numb Decim mal Binary Hexadecim mal 86 6 0101 0110 1010 111 1100 1100 56 AF CC 13 4D 2A 175 204 19 77 42 56 147 228 i. click the nu umber 1 follow wed by the nu umber 5 on th he ber pad. Each set of 4 bits repres sents a hexad decimal chara acter or poten ntially multiple e decimal cha aracters. If the e number doe es not enter in nto the calcula ator. What happened to o the numberr 15? It was converted to the number 15 in binary e. Usin ng your mouse e. Click the Dec radio o button. yyou may have e noticed the binary numbe er 1111 is displa ayed during th he conversion n. Clear the values in bers between the binary. same goes for the last. Click the Bin radio o button. If using the e nume erical keypad. type the num mber 15. do you see a pattern betw ween the bina ary and hexad decimal numb bers? The first four numbers of the binary number corresponds to the first number or letter in the hexadecimal number. © 2013 Cisco and d/or its affiliates. numb Note: The numberrs and letters on the keyboard can also be used to en nter the value es. de ecimal. n the window by clicking C above the 9 o on the calcula ator keypad.L Lab – Using the t Windows s Calculator with Networrk Addresses s d. The numbe er converts ba ack to decima al. and hexadecimal n numbering syystems.

A subnet mask will always consist of four 8-bit octets.1.255. how many bits would there be? a. respectively. This makes these addresses more readable to humans.255. All rights reserved. Use the Windows Calculator application to convert the IP address 192. This document is Cisco Public. An octet is always 8 binary bits. Page 4 of 7 . the network portion can be determined and the number of hosts available in a given IPv4 subnet can also be calculated. such as 255.168. The process is examined in Part 4. Each of the decimal octets in the address or a mask can be converted to 8 binary bits.168.0. each represented as a decimal number. are also represented in a dotted decimal format.0.10 into binary and record the binary numbers in the following table: Decimal Binary 192 1100 0000 1010 1000 0000 0001 0000 1010 168 1 10 b. If all 4 octets were converted to binary. © 2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates.1. Subnet masks.Lab – Using the Windows Calculator with Network Addresses Part 3: Convert Host IPv4 Addresses and Subnet Masks into Binary Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) addresses and subnet masks are represented in a dotted decimal format (four octets). Using the Windows Calculator.10 and 255. convert the 8 possible decimal subnet mask octet values to binary numbers and record the binary numbers in the following table: Decimal Binary 0 0000 0000 1000 0000 1100 0000 1110 0000 1111 0000 1111 1000 1111 1100 1111 1110 1111 1111 128 192 224 240 248 252 254 255 c.255.255. such as 192. With the combination of IPv4 address and the subnet mask.

168. Input 2.1. Using the example of 192.248. d. these represent the network portion of the address. or press Enter on the keyboard for the answer.255. Click the xy key. This key raises a number to a power. All rights reserved.Lab – Using the Windows Calculator with Network Addresses Part 4: Determine the Number of Hosts in a Network Using Powers of 2 Given an IPv4 network address and a subnet mask.0. switch to the Scientific mode by clicking the View menu. The remaining 11 bits are 00100001010 and represent the host portion of the address. Decimal IP Address and Subnet Mask Binary IP Address and Subnet Mask 192.248. f.0 11111111111111111111100000000000 Because the first 21 bits in the subnet mask are consecutive numeral ones. you must determine the network and host portion of the address. If given the number of host bits. a.255. the formula to determine the number of hosts available in an IPv4 subnet is the number 2 to the power of the number of host bits available. To calculate the number of hosts on a network.168. e. Click =. Subtract 2 from the answer by using the calculator if desired. Input 11.10 with a subnet of 255. the corresponding first 21 bits in the IP address in binary is 110000001010100000000. minus 2: Number of available hosts = 2 (number of host bits) – 2 b. there are 2046 hosts are available on this network (211-2). Number of Available Host Bits Number of Available Hosts 5 30 16382 16777214 1022 14 24 10 © 2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. then select Scientific.1. Using the Windows Calculator application. Page 5 of 7 . What is the decimal and binary network number for this address? 1578240 or 110000001010100000000 What is the decimal and binary host portion for this address? 266 or 00100001010 Because the network number and the broadcast address use two addresses out of the subnet.10 11000000101010000000000100001010 255. c. the address and subnet mask are converted to binary numbers. This document is Cisco Public. In this example. Align the bits as you record your conversions to binary numbers. determine the number of hosts available and record the number in the following table. g. the network portion can be determined along with the number of hosts available in the network.

The MAC or physical address is normally represented as 12 hexadecimal characters.255.11111111. B8-AC-6F-1F-44-FD c.128 11111111.255. Convert the MAC address into binary digits using the Windows Calculator application.255.252 11111111.0 11111111. which is what the computer understands. Record the MAC address for your PC.11111111.11111111.255.00000000 Number of Available Host Bits Number of Available Hosts 8 12 7 2 16 254 4094 126 2 65534 Part 5: Convert MAC Addresses and IPv6 Addresses to Binary Both Media Access Control (MAC) and Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) addresses are represented as hexadecimal digits for readability.255.11111100 255. Page 6 of 7 .11111111. you will convert these hexadecimal addresses to binary addresses.255. If all 12 hex characters were converted to binary. Each of the hex characters in the address can be converted to 4 binary bits.0 11111111.11111111.11111111. For a given subnet mask.00000000 255. where each x is a number from 0 to 9 or a letter from A to F.0. In this part. grouped in pairs and separated by hyphens (-).Lab – Using the Windows Calculator with Network Addresses h. However. determine the number of hosts available and record the answer in the following table.11110000. All rights reserved.0 11111111. Subnet Mask Binary Subnet Mask 255. how many bits would there be? 48 b.240.255.255.10000000 255.00000000. Step 1: Convert MAC addresses to binary digits.11111111. 10111000-10101100-01101111-00011111-01000100-11111101 © 2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates.00000000 255. Physical addresses on a Windows-based computer are displayed in a format of xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx. a. computers only understand binary digits and use these binary digits for computations. This document is Cisco Public.11111111.

2. How many hosts are available on a subnet where the first 64 bits represent the network? Hint: All host addresses are available in the subnet for hosts. 18446744073709551614 © 2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. For most IPv6 addresses. Hexadecimal Binary 2001 0010 0000 0000 0001 0000 1101 1011 1000 1010 1100 1010 1101 0000 0000 0000 0001 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 0DB8 ACAD 0001 0000 0000 0000 0001 Reflection 1. An IPv6 address is 128 bits long. This document is Cisco Public. the network portion of the address is usually 64 bits. b. These IPv6 addresses can be converted to binary numbers for computer use. IPv6 addresses are binary numbers represented in human-readable notations: 2001:0DB8:ACAD:0001:0000:0000:0000:0001 or in a shorter format: 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1. convert the sample IPv6 address into binary numbers and record it in the table below. Can you perform all the conversions without the assistance of the calculator? What can you do to make it happen? Convert each number or letter individually.Lab – Using the Windows Calculator with Network Addresses Step 2: Convert an IPv6 address into binary digits. Using the Windows Calculator application. IPv6 addresses are also written in hexadecimal characters for human convenience. Page 7 of 7 . a. All rights reserved.