You are on page 1of 29

Technical

Product Information

Spring wire for applications with
high performance demands
Suzuki Garphyttan has produced wire since 1906.
Since 1927 the main product is oil tempered valve
spring wire for the automotive industry. During the
years others special wires such as stainless round
wire, flat rolled and shaped wire in carbon, low alloyed
and stainless material, have been added to the product program. We have acquired extensive knowledge
and experience of steel grades, efficient manufacturing and quality control which is crucial to the properties of the finished product. Large resources are invested in research concerning improved properties of
our products and improved manufacturing processes,
enabling Suzuki Garphyttan to be world leader in the
manufacturing of spring wire.
The main focus is spring wire for combustion
engines (valve and transmission springs, piston
rings, compression rings, fuel injection springs)
and other automotive applications.

Coiling properties
Defect free surfaces, narrow dimensional and tensile strength tolerances are important in achieving
the best properties for spring coiling. Each wire is continuously controlled during the entire manufacturing – from wire rod to the finished product – according to a specific control plan.

Certified quality
Suzuki Garphyttan has a Quality Management System certified according to the International Standard
for Quality ISO TS 16949.
Our main wire rod suppliers also have Quality Management Systems certified by a third party according to ISO 9001 as a minimum and are also regularly audited by Suzuki Garphyttan.

Technical support
We are prepared to assist you in utilizing modern materials for maximum performance. For us it is obvious and necessary to be at the front, to serve our customers, discussing problems and areas for
development in existing as well as new products.

Environmental awareness
Our goal is to manufacture high quality products without any negative effects on the environment. We
are continuously improving our manufacturing processes to improve both internal and external environment. Before new investments are made, special consideration is given to environmental solutions.
We are certified according to ISO 14001.
For more information regarding different elements in our products we recommend the database
IMDS ”International Material Data System” where each element is named with a separate CAS-No.
See the following Internet address: www.mdsystem.com.

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

Oil tempered
special spring
wire for applications
with high performance requirements

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

High quality oil tempered wire
OTEVA® oil tempered valve spring wire
For valve springs in combustion engines as well as for
transmission and crankshaft damper springs subjected to
extreme fatigue. OTEVA® grades cover different demands
of high performance in tensile strength and fatigue life.
Our valve spring wire grades differ from each other in
terms of chemical, mechanical and technical properties as
well as required surface finish with regard to surface depth
and decarburization levels.
Oil tempered wire is also manufactured with egg or elliptical cross sections. Profiled cross sections give the advantage of optimum distribution of stresses in a spring (see
fig.).

KD oil tempered clutch and transmission spring
wire
For use in clutch springs of different types with various performance demands. KD is an oil tempered wire with good
dynamical characteristics.

STATO oil tempered spring wire
An oil tempered wire grade used for springs subjected to
static stress or moderate fatigue. STATO is available in
different types of steel demanding ultimate tensile strength,
and relaxation properties comparable to the OTEVA®
grades.

Stress distribution
in transversal section
comparing round
(picture to the right)
and egg shaped
(picture to the left)
wire respectively.

Chemical composition, approximate values in %
Our grades

C

Si

Mn

P max.

S max.

Cr

V

Ni

Mo

W

OTEVA® 101 SC

0.60

2.25

0.50

0.020

0.025

1.25

0.15

0.15

0.15

OTEVA® 91 SC

0.60

2.00

0.45

0.020

0.020

0.90

0.10

0.10

OTEVA® 90 SC

0.60

2.00

0.85

0.020

0.020

0.95

0.10

0.30

OTEVA® 76 SC

0.60

1.47

0.70

0.020

0.020

0.75

0.15

0.30

OTEVA® 75 SC

0.60

1.47

0.70

0.020

0.020

0.75

0.15

OTEVA® 70 SC

0.53

1.47

0.70

0.025

0.020

0.67

SWOSC-VHV

0.60

1.47

0.70

0.020

0.020

0.67

0.15

SWOSC-V

0.53

1.47

0.70

0.025

0.020

0.67

75 KD

0.60

1.47

0.70

0.025

0.020

0.67

0.15

70 KD

0.53

1.47

0.70

0.025

0.020

0.67

STATO 75

0.60

1.47

0.70

0.025

0.025

0.67

0.15

STATO 70

0.53

1.47

0.70

0.025

0.025

0.67

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

High quality oil tempered wire

Nearest equivalent standards
Our grades

EN 10270-2

SIS

ASTM

B.S.

JIS

OTEVA® 101 SC

OTEVA® 91 SC

OTEVA® 90 SC

OTEVA® 76 SC

OTEVA® 75 SC

VDSiCrV

SWOSC-VHV

VDSiCrV

SWOSC-V

VDSiCr

142090-05

A 877

2803 685A55HD

JIS G 3561 SWOSC-V

75 KD

TDSiCrV

70 KD

TDSiCr

142090-05

A 401

2803 685A55ND

STATO 75

FDSiCrV

STATO 70

FDSiCr

142090-05

A 401

2803 685A55HS

JIS G 3568 SWOSC-B

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

Eddy Current continuous
surface testing
Suzuki Garphyttan uses the most advanced Eddy Current testing equipment available on the market. Experience
from many years of surface testing in efficient continuous testing lines is a guarantee for high quality spring wire.
Eddy Current testing is carried out on material with high demands on surface quality.
EC-testing is performed with both rotating (R) and stationary (D) probe test equipment. The different levels of EC-testing are
indicated in the steel grade designations in the table below.

Steel grade designations
OTEVA® 101 SC RD40 S
OTEVA® 91 SC RD40 S
OTEVA® 90 SC RD40 S
OTEVA® 76 SC RD40 S
OTEVA® 75 SC RD40 S
OTEVA® 70 SC RD40 S
OTEVA® 70 SC S

(*)

OTEVA® 70 SC

( *)

SWOSC-VHV RD40 S
SWOSC-V RD40 S
75 KD R60
75 KD

(*)

70 KD R60
70 KD

(*)

STATO 75

(*)

STATO 70

(*)

SC

= Super Clean

R

= Rotation probe testing

RD

= Rotation probe + stationary probe testing

40, 60 = Defect depth levels in µm
S

= Shaved

Continuous testing of surface defects is performed as standard in sizes from 2.00 – 6.00 mm.
Other sizes can be agreed upon.
Grades indicated with (*) refer to material outside the size range 2.00 – 6.00 mm, or grades not requiring EC-testing.

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

Delivery forms
Oil tempered spring wire
Delivery forms
Spool/Coil diameter
Inner
Outer
diam.
diam.
min. mm
max. mm

Coil/Spool
weight
abt. kg

Wire sizes
mm

Type

Code

0.50 – 1.00
0.50 – 2.10

Plastic spool
Metal spool

S4610
S6520

314
400

460
700

1.10 – 2.50
0.80 – 2.50
0.80 – 2.50

Coils/Carrier No 1
Coils/Carrier No 2
Coils/Wooden Box

RU0004
RM0004
RM0021
RM0024
RM0025
RM0027

450
450
450
450
450
450

700
700
700
700
700
700

225
225
225
110
110
110

2.00 – 3.00

Coils/Carrier No 3

RM0006
RU0006
RU0019
RU0021*

720
720
720
720

1 200
1 200
1 200
1 200

225
450
450
450

2.00 – 4.00

Coils/Wooden Box

RM0021
RM0022
RM0023

720
720
720

1 200
1 200
1 200

225
225
225

2.00 – 3.00

Coils/Carrier No 4

RU0011
RU0020
RU0022*

1 070
1 070
1 070

1 500
1 500
1 500

900
900
900

> 3.00 – 6.50 Coils/Carrier No 5

RU0012
RU0014*

1 070
1 070

1 500
1 500

1 800
1 800

1 350

1 650

500

> 6.50 – 14.00 Coils**

40
110 / 225

* RU0014, RU0021 and RU0022 have VCI plastic cover, oversea transport.
** Sizes > 6.50 – 14.00 mm in coils in unshaved condition subcontracted.

Packing

The packings for the different delivery forms can be seen in the next page.
Standard packing alternatives (others can be delivered on special request):
Plastic and metal spool covered with paper
- on EUR-pallet (S-codes)
Coil covered with plastic hood
- on carrier (RU-codes)
Coil covered with VCI plastic hood
- on carrier (RU-codes) oversea transport.
Coils separately wrapped with paper
- on carrier (RM-codes)
Coils separately wrapped with paper
- in wooden boxes (RM-codes)
Wire sizes 6.50 – 10.00 mm are subcontracted and the sales is organized from our German office.
Packaging materials used are only those which can be recycled, such as paper and polyethylene.

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

Delivery forms
Oil tempered spring wire
Carriers
Surface: galvanized
Type

Delivery
form
Code

Carrier 1

RU0004

800

1200 1000

420

17

700

Carrier 2

RM0004

800

1200 1000

540

17

300

Carrier 3

RM0006
RU0006
RU0019
RU0021

800
800
800
800

1200
1200
1200
1200

900
900
900
900

720
720
720
720

18
18
18
18

1200
1200
1200
1200

Carrier 4

RM0011
RU0011
RU0020
RU0022

1160
1160
1160
1160

1530
1530
1530
1530

960
960
960
960

1070
1070
1070
1070

31
31
31
31

1200
1200
1200
1200

Carrier 5

RU0012
RU0014

1160
1160

1530 1200 1070
1530 1200 1070

42
42

1800
1800

Size, mm
A

B

C

D

Tara
weight
abt. kg

Max
weight
abt. kg

Spools
Colour: black/green
Type

Delivery
form
Size, mm
Code
A
B

Plastic

S4610 460

105

319

91

305

Metal

S6520 695

314

400

270

33

C

D

E

Tara
weight
abt. kg

1.8
26

Max.
weight
abt. kg

40
275

EUR-pallet
Spools
Type

Delivery
form
Code

1

SP6520

800

1200

150

26

225

750

2

SP4611

800

1200

340

34

40

500

3

SP4612

800

1200

540

42

40

750

4

SP4613

800

1200

740

50

40

1000

Size, mm
Width
Length

Height

Tara
weight
abt. kg

Spool
weight
abt. kg

Weight
abt. kg

Packing of plastic and metal spools on EUR-pallet. Max. weight 1000 kg.
Wooden boxes
Boxes for paper wrapped coils
Delivery
form
Code

Outer size, mm
Width
Length

Height

Tara
weight
abt. kg

Coil
weight
abt. kg

Weight
abt. kg

RM0021

1110

1150

1000

78

225/450

1 000

RM0022

1110

1150

620

57

225/450

500

RM0023

1110

1150

430

48

225/450

250

RM0024

850

850

950

52

110

450

RM0025

850

850

600

36

110

225

RM0027

850

850

450

20

110

145

The paper wrapped coils with wire sizes > 2.50 mm are placed in wooden boxes
with code RM0021-23 and coils with wire sizes < 2.50 mm in the boxes RM0024-27.

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

OTEVA® 101 SC is a Super Clean steel, especially intended for the manufacture of clutch and
transmission springs and other springs requiring
high fatigue properties and good relaxation properties at increased working temperatures.

OTEVA® 101 SC
Oil tempered SiCrVMoW-alloyed
ultra-high tensile clutch and transmission spring wire for surface nitriding

Manufactured as standard in shaved condition in
sizes from Ø 2.00 mm to 5.00 mm or in egg or
elliptical shape corresponding to round cross
section 2.50 mm to 5.00 mm. Other wire sizes on
request.

Chemical composition
C

Si

Mn

P max.

S max.

Cr

V

Mo

W

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

2.10 – 2.40

0.30 – 0.70

0.025

1.10 – 1.40

0.05 – 0.25

0.05 – 0.25

0.05 – 0.25

0.50 – 0.70

0.020

4)

Physical properties
Size range
mm

1)

Tolerance
± mm

2)

Tensile strength
2
N/mm

3)

Reduct. of area
min. %

Torsions
l=300 mm,
min. revs.

2.00 – 2.50

0.020

2100 – 2200

40

2

>2.50 – 3.20

0.020

2100 – 2200

40

2

>3.20 – 4.00

0.025

2100 – 2200

40

2

>4.00 – 5.00

0.025

2100 – 2200

40

2

1)

Other wire sizes on request.

2)

Ovality, i. e. the difference between the largest and smallest dimension of a cross section, is maximum half the tolerance range.
Conversion from tensile strength to hardness values can be calculated in standard ISO EN 18265. The tensile strength Rm within one
2
coil does not vary more than 50 N/mm .

3)

4)

Torsion test is carried out for assessing deformability. The fracture of the torsion test piece shall be smooth and perpendicular to the
wire axis. The rupture shall show no longitudinal cracks.

Surface condition
Non-destructive testing
In the standard size range 2.00 - 5.00 mm the wire is tested
continuously in Eddy Current equipment to a surface level
of > 40 microns. Other wire sizes on request.
End sample test
The wire is end sample tested by means of etch testing and
binocular inspection as well as microscopical inspection of
the material structure.

As stated by IVSWMA*, it is likely to find occasional inclusions in valve spring quality steel of a size larger than
15µm.
* IVSWMA: International Valve Spring Wire Manufacturers Association

Max. permissible depth of partial surface decarburization
and surface defects, 0.5% x wire diameter. No complete
decarburization allowed.

Heat treatment
As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be
stress relieved. Depending on nitriding temperature used
later in the spring manufacturing process, this temperature
may be decreased.

Cleanliness in steel
The presence of non-metallic inclusions in the wire rod is
inspected for every heat in accordance with the Suzuki
Garphyttan method (or alternative max. T-method).

Hot presetting
After shot peening, the springs should be hot preset or
stress relieved. In order to reach optimum fatigue and relaxation properties, the springs must be preset at an appropriate stress.

Our criteria for releasing wire rod material for valve spring
wire are the following;
For wire rod samples: Inclusion size max. 15 µm in surface
area.

Delivery forms
See separate sheet.

Inclusion size, surface
Max. number of inclusions

5–10
50

> 10–15
7

>15 µm
0

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

OTEVA® 101 SC
Oil tempered SiCrVMoW-alloyed ultra-high tensile
clutch and transmission spring wire for surface nitriding
Soft shot peening
Before the nitriding process a soft shot peening process
shall be applied in order to remove the oxide layer on the
spring wire surface.
Nitriding
Springs of OTEVA® 101 SC must be nitrided to obtain
optimum fatigue and relaxation properties. Our recommendation is gas nitriding.
Shot peening
In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process
time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size
of shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and
shot peening equipment.
For nitrided springs with an extremely hard surface zone, it
is important to use a shot peening media with high hardness.
Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly
critical.
Relaxation and fatigue properties
In diagram 1 the fatigue properties of this grade are illustrated in a Goodman-diagram, based on a special test
spring design.
Diagram 2 shows the relaxation properties (loss of load) of
nitrided springs made from OTEVA® 101 SC wire subjected
to static compression at different temperatures, nitrided/not
nitrided.
For further technical support, please contact Suzuki
Garphyttan.

Spring conditions for fatigue and relaxation tests
(specially designed test spring) Diagrams 1 and 2:
Wire diameter
Spring index

Ø 3,85 mm
6

Stress relieving
Temperature
Time

450°C (790 ±10 °F)
30 minutes

Soft shot peened
Speed
Time
Shot size

20-30 m/s
5 min
0,8 mm

Nitriding
Temperature
Time
Aim for surface hardness
Aim for core hardness
Compound (white) layer

Gas nitriding
450-470°C
5-20 hours
Min. 850 Hv
Min. 610 Hv
Max. 1 µm.

Shot peening (triple shot
peening for nitrided springs)
1st treatment

2nd treatment

3rd treatment

Hot presetting
(theoretically set)
Fatigue testing
Relaxation test

Diagram 1 –Fatigue properties for nitrided springs.

Pressure 0,3 MPa with RCW shoot
size 0,6 mm (hardness 800 Hv) for
20 minutes.
Pressure 0,3 MPa with RCW shoot
size 0,25 mm (hardness 800 Hv)
for 10 minutes.
Pressure 0,2 MPa with fine shoot
size (hardness 700 HV) for 10
minutes.

Pre-set at 200°C for 10 minutes to
2
a calculated stress of 1500 N/mm .
Pre-set at 210°C for 10 minutes to
2.
a calculated stress of 1300 N/mm

Diagram 2 –Relaxation properties for nitrided springs.

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

OTEVA® 91 SC is a Super Clean steel, especially intended for the manufacture of valve springs
and other springs requiring extremely high fatigue
properties and good relaxation properties at increased working temperatures.

OTEVA® 91 SC
Oil tempered SiCrVMo-alloyed
ultra-high tensile valve spring wire
for surface nitriding

Manufactured as standard in shaved condition in
sizes from Ø 2.00 mm to 6.00 mm, or in egg or
elliptical shape corresponding to round cross
section 2.50 mm to 6.00 mm. Other wire sizes on
request.
Chemical composition
C
%

Si
%

Mn
%

P max.
%

S max.
%

Cr
%

V
%

Mo
%

0.50 – 0.70

1.80 – 2.20

0.30 – 0.60

0.020

0.020

0.80 – 1.00

0.05 – 0.15

0.05 – 0.15

Physical properties
4)

Size range
mm

1)

Tolerance
± mm

2)

Tensile strength
2
N/mm

3)

Reduct. of area
min. %

Torsions
l=300 mm,
min. revs.

2.00 – 2.50

0.020

2180 – 2280

45

5

>2.50 – 3.20

0.020

2130 – 2230

45

5

>3.20 – 4.00

0.025

2080 – 2180

45

4

>4.00 – 5.00

0.025

2030 – 2130

45

3

>5.00 – 5.60

0.030

1980 – 2080

40

3

>5.60 – 6.00

0.035

1980 – 2080

40

3

1)

Other wire sizes on request.

2)

Ovality, i. e. the difference between the largest and smallest dimension of a cross section, is maximum half the tolerance range.

3)

Conversion from tensile strength to hardness values can be calculated in standard ISO EN 18265. The tensile strength Rm within one
2
coil does not vary more than 50 N/mm .

4)

Torsion test is carried out for assessing deformability. The fracture of the torsion test piece shall be smooth and perpendicular to the
wire axis. The rupture shall show no longitudinal cracks.

Yield point
The proof stress Rp0.2 is min. 0.8 x tensile strength of the
wire. The proof stress will rise above 0.9 x tensile strength
after stress relieving the springs.
E and G modulus
Modulus of elasticity, E:
Modulus of shear, G:

About 206 kN/mm2
2
About 79.5 kN/mm

Surface condition
Non-destructive testing
In the standard size range 2.00 - 6.00 mm the wire is tested
continuously in Eddy Current equipment to a surface level
of > 40 microns. Other wire sizes on request.
End sample test
The wire is end sample tested by means of etch testing and
binocular inspection as well as microscopical inspection of
the material structure.
Max. permissible depth of partial surface decarburization
and surface defects, 1 % x wire diameter. In shaved condition; for diameters <=2 .00 mm 10 µm, for diameters > 2.00
mm 0.5% x d.
Cleanliness in steel
The presence of non-metallic inclusions in the wire rod is
inspected for every heat in accordance with the Suzuki
Garphyttan method (or alternative max. T-method).

Our criteria for releasing wire rod material for valve spring
wire are the following;
For wire rod samples: Inclusion size max. 15 µm in surface
area.
Inclusion size, surface
Max. number of inclusions

5–10
50

> 10–15
7

>15 µm
0

As stated by IVSWMA*, it is likely to find occasional inclusions in valve spring quality steel of a size larger than
15µm.
* IVSWMA: International Valve Spring Wire Manufacturers Association

Heat treatment
As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be
stress relieved. Depending on nitriding temperature used
later in the valve spring manufacturing process, this temperature may be decreased.
Hot presetting
After shot peening, the springs should be hot preset or
stress relieved. In order to reach optimum fatigue and relaxation properties, the springs must be preset at an appropriate stress.
Delivery forms
See separate sheet.

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

OTEVA® 91 SC
Oil tempered SiCrVMo-alloyed ultra-high tensile
valve spring wire for surface nitriding
Soft shot peening
Before the nitriding process a soft shot peening process
shall be applied in order to remove the oxide layer on the
spring wire surface.

Spring conditions for fatigue and relaxation tests
(specially designed test spring) Diagrams 1 and 2:

Nitriding
Springs of OTEVA® 91 SC should be nitrided to obtain optimum fatigue and relaxation properties. Our recommendation is gas nitriding.

Stress relieving
Temperature

Wire diameter
Spring index

Ø 3,85 mm
6

Shot peening
In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process
time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of
shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot
peening equipment.

Time

450 ±5 °C (840 ±10 °F)
min. 420 °C (790 ±10 °F) for nitriding
30 minutes

Soft shot peened
Speed
Time
Shot size

20-30 m/s
5 min
0,8 mm

For nitrided springs with an extremely hard surface zone, it
is important to use a shot peening media with high hardness.

Nitriding
Temperature
Time
Aim for surface hardness
Aim for core hardness
Compound (white) layer

Gas nitriding
450-470°C
5-20 hours
Min. 800 Hv
Min. 560 Hv
Max. 1 µm.

Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly
critical.
Relaxation and fatigue properties
In diagram 1 the fatigue properties of this grade are illustrated in a Goodman-diagram, based on a special test spring
design.
Diagram 2 shows the relaxation properties (loss of load) of
springs made from OTEVA® 91 SC wire subjected to static
compression at different temperatures, nitrided/not nitrided.
For further technical support, please contact Suzuki
Garphyttan.

Number of cycles: 25 x 10

6

Final stress Tau (corr.)
N/mm2

Shot peening (double shot
peening for nitrided springs)
1st treatment
2nd treatment

Speed 56 m/sec. for 20 minutes,
size of shots 0.6 mm
Speed 30 m/sec. for 10 minutes,
size of shots 0.25 mm
min. 800 Hv

Hardness of shot-peening
grit (shot)
Aim for Almen arc-height

0.55-0.60 mm

Hot presetting
(theoretically set)
Temperature
Time

1500 N/mm (nitrided springs)
2
1300 N/mm (not nitrided springs)
200°C (max. 250°C)
10 minutes

Initial stress
Tau (corr.)
N/mm2

2

Nitrided
Not nitireded

Time of test:

24 h

Initial stress Tau (corr.) N/mm2
Loss of load, %

Diagram 1 – Fatigue properties as nitrided/not nitrided.

Diagram 2 – Relaxation properties, nitrided/not nitrided springs

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

OTEVA® 90 SC is a Super Clean steel, especially intended for the manufacture of valve
springs and other springs requiring extremely
high fatigue properties and good relaxation
properties at increased working temperatures.

OTEVA® 90 SC
Oil tempered SiCrVNi-alloyed
ultra-high tensile valve spring wire
for surface nitriding

Manufactured as standard in shaved condition
in sizes from Ø 2.00 mm to 6.00 mm, or in
egg or elliptical shape corresponding to round
cross section 2.50 mm to 6.00 mm. Other wire
sizes on request.

Chemical composition
C
%

Si
%

Mn
%

P max.
%

S max.
%

0.50 – 0.70

1.80 – 2.20

0.70 – 1.00

0.020

0.020

Cr
%

V
%

Ni
%

0.85 – 1.05

0.05 – 0.15

0.20 – 0.40

4)

Physical properties
Size range
mm

1)

Tolerance
± mm

2)

Tensile strength
2
N/mm

3)

Reduct. of area
min. %

Torsions
l=300 mm,
min. revs.

2.00 – 2.50

0.020

2180 – 2280

45

5

>2.50 – 3.20

0.020

2130 – 2230

45

5

>3.20 – 4.00

0.025

2080 – 2180

45

4

>4.00 – 5.00

0.025

2030 – 2130

45

3

>5.00 – 5.60

0.030

1980 – 2080

40

3

>5.60 – 6.00

0.035

1980 – 2080

40

3

1)

Other wire sizes on request.

2)

Ovality, i. e. the difference between the largest and smallest dimension of a cross section, is maximum half the tolerance range.

3)

Conversion from tensile strength to hardness values can be calculated in standard ISO EN 18265. The tensile strength Rm within one
2
coil does not vary more than 50 N/mm .

4)

Torsion test is carried out for assessing deformability. The fracture of the torsion test piece shall be smooth and perpendicular to the
wire axis. The rupture shall show no longitudinal cracks.

Yield point
The proof stress Rp0.2 is min. 0.8 x tensile strength of the
wire. The proof stress will rise above 0.9 x tensile strength
after stress relieving the springs.
E and G modulus
Modulus of elasticity, E:
Modulus of shear, G:

Our criteria for releasing wire rod material for valve spring
wire are the following;
For wire rod samples: Inclusion size max. 15 µm in surface
area.
Inclusion size, surface

About 206 kN/mm2
2
About 79.5 kN/mm

Surface condition
Non-destructive testing
In the standard size range 2.00 - 6.00 mm the wire is tested
continuously in Eddy Current equipment to a surface level
of > 40 microns. Other wire sizes on request.
End sample test
The wire is end sample tested by means of etch testing and
binocular inspection as well as microscopical inspection of
the material structure.
Max. permissible depth of partial surface decarburization
and surface defects, 1 % x wire diameter. In shaved condition; for diameters <=2 .00 mm 10 µm, for diameters > 2.00
mm 0.5% x d.
Cleanliness in steel
The presence of non-metallic inclusions in the wire rod is
inspected for every heat in accordance with the Suzuki
Garphyttan method (or alternative max. T-method).

Max. number of inclusions

5–10
50

> 10–15
7

>15 µm
0

As stated by IVSWMA*, it is likely to find occasional inclusions in valve spring quality steel of a size larger than
15µm.
* IVSWMA: International Valve Spring Wire Manufacturers Association

Heat treatment
As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be
stress relieved. Depending on nitriding temperature used
later in the valve spring manufacturing process, this temperature may be decreased.
Hot presetting
After shot peening, the springs should be hot preset or
stress relieved. In order to reach optimum fatigue and relaxation properties, the springs must be preset at an appropriate stress.
Delivery forms
See separate sheet.

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

OTEVA® 90 SC
Oil tempered SiCrVNi-alloyed ultra-high tensile
valve spring wire for surface nitriding
Soft shot peening
Before the nitriding process a soft shot peening process
shall be applied in order to remove the oxide layer on the
spring wire surface.
Nitriding
Springs of OTEVA® 90 SC should be nitrided to obtain
optimum fatigue and relaxation properties. Our recommendation is gas nitriding.
Shot peening
In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process
time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size
of shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and
shot peening equipment.
For nitrided springs with an extremely hard surface zone, it
is important to use a shot peening media with high hardness.
Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly
critical.
Relaxation and fatigue properties
In diagram 1 the fatigue properties of this grade are illustrated in a Goodman-diagram, based on a special test
spring design.
Diagram 2 shows the relaxation properties (loss of load) of
springs made from OTEVA® 90 SC wire subjected to static
compression at different temperatures, nitrided/not nitrided.
For further technical support, please contact Suzuki
Garphyttan.

Final stress Tau (corr.)
6
N/mm2
Number of cycles: 25 x 10

Spring conditions for fatigue and relaxation tests
(specially designed test spring) Diagrams 1 and 2:
Wire diameter
Spring index

Ø 3,85 mm
6

Stress relieving
Temperature

Time

450 ±5 °C (840 ±10 °F)
min. 420 °C (790 ±10 °F) for nitriding
30 minutes

Soft shot peened
Speed
Time
Shot size

20-30 m/s
5 min
0,8 mm

Nitriding
Temperature
Time
Aim for surface hardness
Aim for core hardness
Compound (white) layer

Gas nitriding
450-470°C
5-20 hours
Min. 800 Hv
Min. 560 Hv
Max. 1 µm.

Shot peening (double shot
peening for nitrided springs)
1st treatment
2nd treatment

Speed 56 m/sec. for 20 minutes,
size of shots 0.6 mm
Speed 30 m/sec. for 10 minutes,
size of shots 0.25 mm
min. 800 Hv

Hardness of shot-peening
grit (shot)
Aim for Almen arc-height

0.55-0.60 mm

Hot presetting
(theoretically set)
Temperature
Time

1500 N/mm (nitrided springs)
2
1300 N/mm (not nitrided springs)
200°C (max. 250°C)
10 minutes

Initial stress
Tau (corr.)
N/mm2

2

Nitrided
Not nitireded

Time of test:

24 h

Initial stress Tau (corr.) N/mm2
Loss of load, %

Diagram 1 - Fatigue properties as nitrided/not nitrided.

Diagram 2 - Relaxation properties, nitrided/not nitrided springs.

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

OTEVA 76 SC is a Super Clean steel, especially
intended for the manufacture of valve springs and
other springs requiring high fatigue properties
and good relaxation properties at moderately
increased working temperatures.

OTEVA® 76 SC
Oil tempered SiCrVNi-alloyed
high tensile valve spring wire

Manufactured as standard in shaved condition
and in sizes from Ø 2.00 mm to 6.00 mm, or in
egg or elliptical shape corresponding to round
cross section 2.50 mm to 6.00 mm. Other wire
sizes on request.

Only manufactured in USA and China

Chemical composition
C
%

Si
%

Mn
%

P max.
%

S max.
%

Cr
%

V
%

Ni
%

0.50 – 0.70

1.20 – 1.65

0.50 – 0.90

0.020

0.020

0.50 – 1.00

0.05 – 0.20

0.15 – 0.50

Physical properties
4)

Size range
mm

1)

Tolerance
± mm

2)

Tensile strength
2
N/mm

3)

Reduct. of area
min. %

Torsions
l=300 mm,
min. revs.

2.00 – 2.50

0.020

2110 – 2210

45

5

>2.50 – 3.20

0.020

2060 – 2160

45

5

>3.20 – 4.00

0.025

2010 – 2110

45

4

>4.00 – 5.00

0.025

1960 – 2060

45

3

>5.00 – 5.60

0.030

1910 – 2010

40

3

>5.60 – 6.00

0.035

1910 – 2010

40

3

1)

Other wire sizes on request.

2)

Ovality, i. e. the difference between the largest and smallest dimension of a cross section, is maximum half the tolerance range.

3)

Conversion from tensile strength to hardness values can be calculated in standard ISO EN 18265. The tensile strength Rm within one
2
coil does not vary more than 50 N/mm .

4)

Torsion test is carried out for assessing deformability. The fracture of the torsion test piece shall be smooth and perpendicular to the
wire axis. The rupture shall show no longitudinal cracks.

Yield point
The proof stress Rp0.2 is min. 0.9 x tensile strength of the
wire.
E and G modulus
Modulus of elasticity, E:
Modulus of shear, G:

About 206 kN/mm2
About 79.5 kN/mm2

Surface condition
Non-destructive testing
In the standard size range 2.00 - 6.00 mm the wire is tested
continuously in Eddy Current equipment to a surface level
of > 40 microns. Other wire sizes on request.
End sample test
The wire is end sample tested by means of etch testing and
binocular inspection as well as microscopical inspection of
the material structure.
Max. permissible depth of partial surface decarburization
and surface defects, 1 % x wire diameter. In shaved condition; for diameters <=2 .00 mm 10 µm, for diameters > 2.00
mm 0.5% x d.

Cleanliness in steel
The presence of non-metallic inclusions in the wire rod is
inspected for every heat in accordance with the Suzuki
Garphyttan method (or alternative max. T-method).
Our criteria for releasing wire rod material for valve spring
wire are the following;
For wire rod samples: Inclusion size max. 15 µm in surface
area.
Inclusion size, surface
Max. number of inclusions

5–10
50

> 10–15
7

>15 µm
0

As stated by IVSWMA*, it is likely to find occasional inclusions in valve spring quality steel of a size larger than
15µm.
* IVSWMA: International Valve Spring Wire Manufacturers Association

Delivery forms
Please contact site: South Bend USA or Suzhou China.

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

OTEVA® 76 SC
Oil tempered SiCrVNi-alloyed
high tensile valve spring wire

Heat treatment
As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be
stress relieved.
Shot peening
In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot peening equipment.
Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly critical.
Hot presetting
After shot peening, the springs should be hot preset or
stress relieved. In order to reach optimum fatigue and
relaxation properties, the springs must be preset at an
appropriate stress.
Relaxation and fatigue properties
In diagram 1 the fatigue properties of this grade are
illustrated in a Goodman-diagram, based on a special
test spring design.
Diagram 2 shows the relaxation properties (loss of
load) of springs made from OTEVA 76 SC wire subjected to static compression at different temperatures.

Spring conditions for fatigue and relaxation tests
(specially designed test spring) Diagram 1 and 2:
Wire diameter
Spring index

Ø 4.00 mm
6

Stress relieving
Temperature
Time

420 ±5°C (790 ±10 °F)
30 minutes

Shot peening (double shot
peening)
1st treatment
2nd treatment

Speed 56 m/sec. for 20 minutes,
size of shots 0.8 mm
Speed 30 m/sec. for 10 minutes,
size of shots 0.8 mm
610-670 Hv

Hardness of Shot-peening
grit (shot):
Aim for Almen arc-height

Min 0.45 mm

Hot presetting

1300 N/mm

(theoretically set)
Temperature
Time

200°C (max. 250°C)
10 minutes

2

For further technical support, please contact Suzuki
Garphyttan.

Final stress Tau (corr.)
N/mm2

Number of cycles:

25 x 106

Initial stress Tau (corr.)
N/mm2

24 h

Loss of load, %

Initial stress Tau (corr.) N/mm2

Diagram 1 - Fatigue properties

Time of test:

Diagram 2 - Relaxation properties

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

OTEVA® 75 SC is a Super Clean steel, especially intended for the manufacture of valve springs
and other springs requiring high fatigue properties and good relaxation properties at moderately
increased working temperatures.

OTEVA® 75 SC
Oil tempered SiCrV-alloyed
high tensile valve spring wire

Manufactured as standard in sizes from Ø 1.60
mm to 6.50 mm, or in egg or elliptical shape corresponding to round cross section 2.50 mm to
6.50 mm. Other wire sizes on request.

Chemical composition
C
%

Si
%

Mn
%

P max.
%

0.50 – 0.70

1.20 – 1.65

0.50 – 0.80

0.020

S max.
%

Cr
%

V
%

0.020

0.50 – 1.00

0.05 – 0.20

Physical properties
4)

Size range
mm

1)

Tolerance
± mm

2)

Tensile strength
2
N/mm

3)

Reduct. of area
min. %

Torsions
l=300 mm,
min. revs.

1.60 – 2.00

0.020

2160 – 2260

45

5

>2.00 – 2.50

0.020

2110 – 2210

45

5

>2.50 – 3.20

0.020

2060 – 2160

45

5

>3.20 – 4.00

0.025

2010 – 2110

45

4

>4.00 – 5.00

0.025

1960 – 2060

45

3

>5.00 – 5.60

0.030

1910 – 2010

40

3

>5.60 – 6.00

0.035

1910 – 2010

40

3

>6.00 – 6.50

0.035

1910 – 2010

35

-

1)

Other wire sizes on request.

2)

Ovality, i. e. the difference between the largest and smallest dimension of a cross section, is maximum half the tolerance range.

3)

Conversion from tensile strength to hardness values can be calculated in standard ISO EN 18265. The tensile strength Rm within one
2
coil does not vary more than 50 N/mm .

4)

Torsion test is carried out for assessing deformability. The fracture of the torsion test piece shall be smooth and perpendicular to the
wire axis. The rupture shall show no longitudinal cracks.

Yield point
The proof stress Rp0.2 is min. 0.9 x tensile strength of the
wire.
E and G modulus
Modulus of elasticity, E:
Modulus of shear, G:

About 206 kN/mm2
About 79.5 kN/mm2

Surface condition
Non-destructive testing
In the standard size range 2.00 - 6.00 mm the wire is tested
continuously in Eddy Current equipment to a surface level
of > 40 microns. Other wire sizes on request.
End sample test
The wire is end sample tested by means of etch testing and
binocular inspection as well as microscopical inspection of
the material structure.
Max. permissible depth of partial surface decarburization
and surface defects, 1 % x wire diameter. In shaved condition; for diameters <=2 .00 mm 10 µm, for diameters > 2.00
mm 0.5% x d.

Cleanliness in steel
The presence of non-metallic inclusions in the wire rod is
inspected for every heat in accordance with the Suzuki
Garphyttan method (or alternative max. T-method).
Our criteria for releasing wire rod material for valve spring
wire are the following;
For wire rod samples: Inclusion size max. 15 µm in surface
area.
Inclusion size, surface
Max. number of inclusions

5–10
50

> 10–15
7

>15 µm
0

As stated by IVSWMA*, it is likely to find occasional inclusions in valve spring quality steel of a size larger than
15µm.
* IVSWMA: International Valve Spring Wire Manufacturers Association

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

OTEVA® 75 SC
Oil tempered SiCrV-alloyed
high tensile valve spring wire
Delivery forms
See separate sheet.
Heat treatment
As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be
stress relieved.
Shot peening
In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot peening equipment.
Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly critical.
Hot presetting
After shot peening, the springs should be hot preset or
stress relieved. In order to reach optimum fatigue and
relaxation properties, the springs must be preset at an
appropriate stress.
Relaxation and fatigue properties
In diagram 1 the fatigue properties of this grade are
illustrated in a Goodman-diagram, based on a special
test spring design.
Diagram 2 shows the relaxation properties (loss of
load) of springs made from OTEVA® 75 SC wire subjected to static compression at different temperatures.

Spring conditions for fatigue and relaxation tests
(specially designed test spring) Diagram 1 and 2:
Wire diameter
Spring index

Ø 4.00 mm
6

Stress relieving
Temperature
Time

420 ±5°C (790 ±10 °F)
30 minutes

Shot peening (double shot
peening)
1st treatment
2nd treatment

Speed 56 m/sec. for 20 minutes,
size of shots 0.8 mm
Speed 30 m/sec. for 10 minutes,
size of shots 0.8 mm
610-670 Hv

Hardness of Shot-peening
grit (shot):
Aim for Almen arc-height

Min 0.45 mm

Hot presetting

1300 N/mm

(theoretically set)
Temperature
Time

200°C (max. 250°C)
10 minutes

2

For further technical support, please contact Suzuki
Garphyttan.

Final stress Tau (corr.)
N/mm2

Number of cycles:

25 x 106

Initial stress Tau (corr.)
N/mm2

24 h

Loss of load, %

Initial stress Tau (corr.) N/mm2

Diagram 1 - Fatigue properties

Time of test:

Diagram 2 - Relaxation properties

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

OTEVA® 70 SC is a Super Clean steel, especially intended for
the manufacture of valve springs and other springs requiring high
fatigue properties and good relaxation properties at moderately
increased working temperature.

OTEVA® 70 SC
Oil tempered SiCr-alloyed
valve spring wire

The wire is manufactured in shaved or unshaved condition (Ø
6.50 – 14.00 mm in unshaved condition subcontracted) in sizes
from Ø 0.50 mm to 6.50 mm, or in egg or elliptical shape corresponding to round cross section 2.50 mm to 6.50 mm. Other wire
sizes on request.
Chemical composition
C
%

Si
%

Mn
%

P max
%

0.50 – 0.60

1.20 – 1.60

0.50 – 0.80

0.025

S max
%

Cr
%

0.020

0.50 – 0.80
4)

Physical properties
Size range
mm

1)

Tolerance
± mm

2)

Tensile strength
2
N/mm

3)

Reduct. of area
min. %

Torsions
l=300 mm,
min. revs.

0.50 – 0.80

0.010

2080 – 2210

6

>0.80 – 1.30

0.015

2080 – 2210

50

5

>1.30 – 1.40

0.015

2080 – 2210

50

5

>1.40 – 1.60

0.020

2080 – 2210

50

5

>1.60 – 2.00

0.020

2010 – 2160

50

5

>2.00 – 2.50

0.020

1960 – 2060

50

5

>2.50 – 3.00

0.020

1910 – 2010

50

4

>3.00 – 3.20

0.020

1910 – 2010

45

4

>3.20 – 3.50

0.025

1910 – 2010

45

4

>3.50 – 4.50

0.025

1860 – 1960

45

4

>4.50 – 5.00

0.025

1810 – 1910

45

3

>5.00 – 5.60

0.030

1810 – 1910

40

3

>5.60 – 6.00

0.035

1760 – 1860

40

3

>6.00 – 6.50

0.035

1760 – 1860

40

1)

Other wire sizes on request.

2)

Ovality, i. e. the difference between the largest and smallest dimension of a cross section, is maximum half the tolerance range.

3)

Conversion from tensile strength to hardness values can be calculated in standard ISO EN 18265. The tensile strength Rm within one
2
coil does not vary more than 50 N/Mm .

4)

Torsion test is carried out for assessing deformability. The fracture of the torsion test piece shall be smooth and perpendicular to the
wire axis. The rupture shall show no longitudinal cracks.

Yield point
The proof stress Rp0.2 is min. 0.9 x tensile strength of the
wire.
E and G modulus
2
Modulus of elasticity, E: About 206 kN/mm
Modulus of shear, G: About 79.5 kN/mm2
Surface condition
Non-destructive testing
In the standard size range 2.00 - 6.00 mm the wire is tested
continuously in Eddy Current equipment to a surface level
of > 40 microns. Other wire sizes on request.
End sample test
The wire is end sample tested by means of etch testing and
binocular inspection as well as microscopical inspection of
the material structure.
Max. permissible depth of partial surface decarburization
and surface defects, 1 % x wire diameter. In shaved condi-

tion; for diameters <=2 .00 mm 10 µm, for diameters > 2.00
mm 0.5% x d.
Cleanliness in steel
The presence of non-metallic inclusions in the wire rod is
inspected for every heat in accordance with the Suzuki
Garphyttan method (or alternative max. T-method).
Our criteria for releasing wire rod material for valve spring
wire are the following;
For wire rod samples: Inclusion size max. 15 µm in surface
area.
Inclusion size, surface
Max. number of incl.

5–10
50

>10–15

>15 µm

7

0

As stated by IVSWMA*, it is likely to find occasional inclusions in valve spring quality steel of a size larger than
15µm.
* IVSWMA: International Valve Spring Wire Manufacturers Association

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

OTEVA® 70 SC
Oil tempered SiCr-alloyed
valve spring wire

Delivery forms
See separate sheet.

Spring conditions for fatigue and relaxation tests
(specially designed test spring) Diagram 1 and 2:

Heat treatment
As soon as possible after coiling, the springs
should be stress relieved.

Wire diameter
Spring index

Ø 4,00 mm
6

Stress relieving
Temperature
Time

420 ±5°C (790 ±10 °F)
30 minutes

Shot peening
In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the
process time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of shots should be adapted
to wire dimension, pitch and shot peening equipment.
Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is
particularly critical.
Hot presetting
After shot peening, the springs should be hot
preset or stress relieved. In order to reach optimum fatigue and relaxation properties, the
springs must be preset at an appropriate stress.

Shot peening

Speed 48 m/sec. for 20 minutes,
size of shots 0.8 mm
610-670 Hv

Hardness of Shot-peening
grit (shot):
Aim for Almen arc-height

Min. 0.40-0.45 mm

Hot presetting

1200 N/mm

(theoretically set)
Temperature
Time

200°C (max. 250°C)
10 minutes

2

Relaxation and fatigue properties
In diagram 1 the fatigue properties of this grade
are illustrated in a Goodman-diagram, based on a
special test spring design.
Diagram 2 shows the relaxation properties (loss
of load) of springs made from OTEVA® 70 SC
wire subjected to static compression at different
temperatures.
For further technical support, please contact
Suzuki Garphyttan.

Final stress Tau (corr.)
N/mm2
Number of cycles:

Initial stress Tau (corr.)
N/mm2

25 x 106

Time of test:

24 h

Initial stress Tau (corr.) N/mm2
Loss of load, %

Diagram 1 - Fatigue properties

Diagram 2 - Relaxation properties

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

SWOSC-VHV is a Super Clean steel, especially intended for the manufacture of valve springs and other
springs requiring high fatigue properties and good relaxation properties at moderately increased working
temperatures.

SWOSC-VHV
Oil tempered SiCrV-alloyed
high tensile valve spring wire

The wire is manufactured in shaved condition in sizes
from Ø 1.60 mm to 6.50 mm, or in egg or elliptical
shape (corresponding to round cross section 2.50 mm
to 6.50 mm). Other wire sizes on request.

Only manufactured in China

Chemical composition
C
%

Si
%

Mn
%

0.50 – 0.70

1.20 – 1.65

0.50 – 0.80

P max.
%

0.020

S max.
%

Cr
%

V
%

0.020

0.50 – 1.00

0.05 – 0.20

Physical properties
4)

Size range
mm

1)

Tolerance
± mm

2)

Tensile strength
N/mm2

3)

Reduct. of area
min. %

Torsions
l=300 mm,
min. revs.

1.60 – 2.00

0.020

2180 – 2280

45

5

>2.00 – 2.50

0.020

2110 – 2210

45

5

>2.50 – 3.20

0.020

2060 – 2160

45

5

>3.20 – 4.00

0.025

2010 – 2110

45

4

>4.00 – 5.00

0.025

1960 – 2060

45

3

>5.00 – 5.60

0.030

1910 – 2010

40

3

>5.60 – 6.00

0.035

1910 – 2010

40

3

>6.00 – 6.50

0.035

1910 – 2010

35

1)

Other wire sizes on request.

2)

Ovality, i. e. the difference between the largest and smallest dimension of a cross section, is maximum half the tolerance range.

3)

Conversion from tensile strength to hardness values can be calculated in standard ISO EN 18265. The tensile strength Rm within one
2
coil does not vary more than 50 N/mm .

4)

Torsion test is carried out for assessing deformability. The fracture of the torsion test piece shall be smooth and perpendicular to the
wire axis. The rupture shall show no longitudinal cracks.

Yield point
The proof stress Rp0.2 is min. 0.9 x tensile strength of the
wire.
E and G modulus
Modulus of elasticity, E: About 206 kN/mm2
Modulus of shear, G: About 79.5 kN/mm2
Surface condition
Non-destructive testing
In the standard size range 2.00 - 6.00 mm the wire is tested
continuously in Eddy Current equipment to a surface level of
> 40 microns. Other wire sizes on request.
End sample test
The wire is end sample tested by means of etch testing and
binocular inspection as well as microscopical inspection of
the material structure.

Max. permissible depth of partial surface decarburization
and surface defects, 1 % x wire diameter. In shaved condition; for diameters <=2 .00 mm 10 µm, for diameters > 2.00
mm 0.5% x d.
Cleanliness in steel
The presence of non-metallic inclusions in the wire rod is
inspected for every heat in accordance with the Suzuki
Garphyttan method (or alternative max. T-method).
Our criteria for releasing wire rod material for valve spring
wire are the following;
For wire rod samples: Inclusion size max. 15 µm in surface
area.
Inclusion size, surface
Max. number of incl.

5–10
50

>10–15

>15 µm

7

0

As stated by IVSWMA*, it is likely to find occasional inclusions in valve spring quality steel of a size larger than 15µm.
* IVSWMA: International Valve Spring Wire Manufacturers Association

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

SWOSC-VHV
Oil tempered SiCrV-alloyed
high tensile valve spring wire

Spring conditions for fatigue and relaxation tests
(specially designed test spring) Diagram 1 and 2:

Delivery forms
See separate sheet.
Heat treatment
As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be
stress relieved.
Shot peening
In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process
time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of
shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot
peening equipment.
Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly
critical.
Hot presetting
After shot peening, the springs should be hot preset or
stress relieved. In order to reach optimum fatigue and relaxation properties, the springs must be preset at an appropriate stress.
Relaxation and fatigue properties
In diagram 1 the fatigue properties of this grade are illustrated in a Goodman-diagram, based on a special test spring
design.

Wire diameter
Spring index

Ø 4.00 mm
6

Stress relieving
Temperature
Time

420 ±5°C (790 ±10 °F)
30 minutes

Shot peening (double
shot peening)
1st treatment

2nd treatment

Hardness of Shot-peening
grit (shot):
Aim for Almen arc-height
Hot presetting
(theoretically set)
Temperature
Time

Speed 56 m/sec. for 20
minutes,
size of shots 0.8 mm
Speed 30 m/sec. for 10
minutes,
size of shots 0.8 mm
610-670 Hv
Min 0.45 mm
1300 N/mm

2

200°C (max. 250°C)
10 minutes

Diagram 2 shows the relaxation properties (loss of load) of
springs made from SWOSC-VHV wire subjected to static
compression at different temperatures.
For further technical support, please contact Suzuki Garphyttan.

Final stress Tau (corr.)
N/mm2

Initial stress Tau (corr.)
N/mm2
Number of cycles:

25 x 106

Time of test:

24 h

Loss of load, %
Initial stress Tau (corr.) N/mm2

Diagram 1 - Fatigue properties

Diagram 2 - Relaxation properties

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

SWOSC-V is a Super Clean steel, especially intended for the
manufacture of valve springs and other springs requiring high
fatigue properties and good relaxation properties at moderately increased working temperature.

SWOSC-V
Oil tempered SiCr-alloyed
valve spring wire

The wire is manufactured in shaved condition in sizes from Ø
1.60 mm to 6.50 mm, or in egg or elliptical shape (corresponding to round cross section 2.50 mm to 6.50 mm). Other
wire sizes on request.

Only manufactured in China

Chemical composition
C
%

Si
%

Mn
%

P max
%

0.50 – 0.60

1.20 – 1.60

0.50 – 0.80

0.025

S max
%

Cr
%

0.020

0.50 – 0.80

Physical properties
4)

Size range
mm

1)

Tolerance
± mm

2)

Tensile strength
N/mm2

3)

Reduct. of area
min. %

Torsions
l=300 mm,
min. revs.

1.60 – 2.00

0.020

2010 – 2160

50

5

>2.00 – 2.50

0.020

1960 – 2060

50

5

>2.50 – 3.00

0.020

1910 – 2010

50

4

>3.00 – 3.20

0.020

1910 – 2010

45

4

>3.20 – 3.50

0.025

1910 – 2010

45

4

>3.50 – 4.50

0.025

1860 – 1960

45

4

>4.50 – 5.00

0.025

1810 – 1910

45

3

>5.00 – 5.60

0.030

1810 – 1910

40

3

>5.60 – 6.00

0.035

1760 – 1860

40

3

>6.00 – 6.50

0.035

1760 – 1860

40

1)

Other wire sizes on request.

2)

Ovality, i. e. the difference between the largest and smallest dimension of a cross section, is maximum half the tolerance range.

3)

Conversion from tensile strength to hardness values can be calculated in standard ISO EN 18265. The tensile strength Rm within one
2
coil does not vary more than 50 N/mm .

4)

Torsion test is carried out for assessing deformability. The fracture of the torsion test piece shall be smooth and perpendicular to the
wire axis. The rupture shall show no longitudinal cracks.

Yield point
The proof stress Rp0.2 is min. 0.9 x tensile strength of the
wire.
E and G modulus
Modulus of elasticity, E: About 206 kN/mm2
2
Modulus of shear, G: About 79.5 kN/mm
Surface condition
Non-destructive testing
In the standard size range 2.00 - 6.00 mm the wire is tested
continuously in Eddy Current equipment to a surface level
of > 40 microns. Other wire sizes on request.
End sample test
The wire is end sample tested by means of etch testing and
binocular inspection as well as microscopical inspection of
the material structure.

Max. permissible depth of partial surface decarburization
and surface defects, 1 % x wire diameter. In shaved condition; for diameters <=2 .00 mm 10 µm, for diameters > 2.00
mm 0.5% x d.
Cleanliness in steel
The presence of non-metallic inclusions in the wire rod is
inspected for every heat in accordance with the Suzuki
Garphyttan method (or alternative max. T-method).
Our criteria for releasing wire rod material for valve spring
wire are the following;
For wire rod samples: Inclusion size max. 15 µm in surface
area.
Inclusion size, surface
Max. number of incl.

5–10
50

>10–15

>15 µm

7

0

As stated by IVSWMA*, it is likely to find occasional inclusions in valve spring quality steel of a size larger than
15µm.
* IVSWMA: International Valve Spring Wire Manufacturers Association

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

SWOSC-V
Oil tempered SiCr-alloyed
valve spring wire
Spring conditions for fatigue and relaxation tests
(specially designed test spring) Diagram 1 and 2:

Delivery forms
Please contact site: Suzhou China
Heat treatment
As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be
stress relieved.
Shot peening
In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process
time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size
of shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and
shot peening equipment.
Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly
critical.
Hot presetting
After shot peening, the springs should be hot preset or
stress relieved. In order to reach optimum fatigue and relaxation properties, the springs must be preset at an appropriate stress.

Wire diameter
Spring index

Ø 4,00 mm
6

Stress relieving
Temperature
Time

420 ±5°C (790 ±10 °F)
30 minutes

Shot peening
Hardness of Shot-peening
grit (shot):
Aim for Almen arc-height
Hot presetting
(theoretically set)
Temperature
Time

Speed 48 m/sec. for 20 minutes,
size of shots 0.8 mm
610-670 Hv
Min. 0.40-0.45 mm
1200 N/mm

2

200°C (max. 250°C)
10 minutes

Relaxation and fatigue properties
In diagram 1 the fatigue properties of this grade are illustrated in a Goodman-diagram, based on a special test
spring design.
Diagram 2 shows the relaxation properties (loss of load) of
springs made from SWOSC-V wire subjected to static compression at different temperatures.
For further technical support, please contact Suzuki
Garphyttan.

Final stress Tau (corr.)
N/mm2
Number of cycles:

25 x 106

Initial stress Tau (corr.)
N/mm2
Time of test:

24 h

Initial stress Tau (corr.) N/mm2
Loss of load, %

Diagram 1 - Fatigue properties

Diagram 2 - Relaxation properties

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

75 KD is especially intended for the manufacture
of clutch and transmission springs and similar
moderately high fatigue stressed springs. The
material has good relaxation properties.

75 KD

The wire is manufactured in sizes from Ø 1.60 to
7.00 mm. Other wire sizes on request.

Oil tempered SiCrV-alloyed
clutch and transmission spring wire

Chemical composition
C
%

Si
%

Mn
%

P max
%

S max
%

Cr
%

V
%

0.50 – 0.70

1.20 – 1.65

0.50 – 0.80

0.025

0.025

0.50 – 1.00

0,05 – 0.20

Physical properties
Size range
mm

1)

Tolerance
± mm

Torsions
2)

Tensile strength
2
N/mm

3)

4)

Reduct. of area
min. %

l=300 mm,
min. revs.

1.60 – 2.00

0.020

2160 – 2310

45

5

>2.00 – 2.50

0.020

2110 – 2210

45

5

>2.50 – 3.20

0.020

2060 – 2160

45

4

>3.20 – 4.00

0.025

2010 – 2110

45

4

>4.00 – 5.00

0.025

1960 – 2060

45

4

>5.00 – 5.60

0.030

1910 – 2010

40

4

>5.60 – 6.00

0.035

1910 – 2010

40

3

>6.00 – 6.50

0.035

1910 – 2010

40

>6.50 – 7.00

0.035

1860 – 2010

40

1)

Other wire sizes on request.

2)

Ovality, i. e. the difference between the largest and smallest dimension of a cross section, is maximum half the tolerance range.
Conversion from tensile strength to hardness values can be calculated in standard ISO EN 18265. The tensile strength Rm within one
2
coil does not vary more than 60 N/mm .

3)

4)

Torsion test is carried out for assessing deformability. The fracture of the torsion test piece shall be smooth and perpendicular to the
wire axis. The rupture shall show no longitudinal cracks.

Yield point
The proof stress Rp0.2 is min. 0.9 x tensile strength of the
wire.

Cleanliness in steel, non-metallic inclusions
Max. level 2 according to DIN 50602-M.
Corresponding standard: ASTM E-45-A.

E and G modulus
Modulus of elasticity, E: About 206 kN/mm2
2
Modulus of shear, G:
About 79.5 kN/mm

Heat treatment
As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be
stress relieved.

Surface condition
Non-destructive testing
In the standard size range 2.00 - 6.50 mm the wire is tested
continuously in Eddy Current equipment to a surface level of
> 60 microns. Other wire sizes on request.

Shot peening
In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process
time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of
shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot
peening equipment. Shot peening of the inside of the spring
coils is particularly critical.

End sample test
The wire is end sample tested by means of etch testing and
binocular inspection as well as microscopical inspection of
the material structure.
Max. permissible depth of partial surface decarburization
and surface defects, 1.3% x wire diameter. No complete
decarburization allowed.

Hot presetting
After shot peening, the springs should be hot preset or
stress relieved. In order to reach optimum fatigue and relaxation properties, the springs must be preset at an appropriate stress.
Delivery forms
See separate sheet.

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

70 KD is especially intended for the manufacture
of clutch and transmission springs and similar
moderately high fatigue stressed springs. The
material has good relaxation properties.

70 KD
Oil tempered SiCr-alloyed
clutch and transmission spring wire

The wire is manufactured in sizes from Ø 0.50 to
7.00 mm. Other wire sizes on request.

Chemical composition
C
%

Si
%

Mn
%

P max
%

S max
%

0.50 – 0.60

1.20 – 1.60

0.50 – 0.80

0.025

0.020

Physical properties
Size range
mm

1)

Tolerance
± mm

Cr
%

0.50 – 0.80
Torsions

2)

Tensile strength
2
N/mm

3)

Reduct. of area
min. %

4)

l=300 mm,
min. revs.

0.50 – 0.80

0.010

2080 – 2210

6

>0.80 – 1.30

0.015

2080 – 2210

50

5

>1.30 – 1.40

0.015

2080 – 2210

50

5

>1.40 – 1.60

0.020

2080 – 2210

50

5

>1.60 – 2.00

0.020

2010 – 2160

50

5

>2.00 – 2.50

0.020

1960 – 2060

50

5

>2.50 – 3.00

0.020

1910 – 2010

50

4

>3.00 – 3.20

0.020

1910 – 2010

45

4

>3.20 – 3.50

0.025

1910 – 2010

45

4

>3.50 – 4.50

0.025

1860 – 1960

45

4

>4.50 – 5.00

0.025

1810 – 1910

45

3

>5.00 – 5.60

0.030

1810 – 1910

40

3

>5.60 – 6.00

0.035

1760 – 1860

40

3

>6.00 – 7.00

0.035

1760 – 1860

40

1)

Other wire sizes on request.

2)

Ovality, i. e. the difference between the largest and smallest dimension of a cross section, is maximum half the tolerance range.
Conversion from tensile strength to hardness values can be calculated in standard ISO EN 18265. The tensile strength Rm within one
2
coil does not vary more than 60 N/mm .

3)

4)

Torsion test is carried out for assessing deformability. The fracture of the torsion test piece shall be smooth and perpendicular to the
wire axis. The rupture shall show no longitudinal cracks.

Yield point
The proof stress Rp0.2 is min. 0.9 x tensile strength of the
wire.

Cleanliness in steel, non-metallic inclusions
Max. level 2 according to DIN 50602-M.
Corresponding standard: ASTM E-45-A.

E and G modulus
Modulus of elasticity, E: About 206 kN/mm2
Modulus of shear, G:
About 79.5 kN/mm2

Heat treatment
As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be
stress relieved.

Surface condition
Non-destructive testing
In the standard size range 2.00 - 6.00 mm the wire is tested
continuously in Eddy Current equipment to a surface level
of > 60 microns. Other wire sizes on request.

Shot peening
In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process
time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of
shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot
peening equipment. Shot peening of the inside of the spring
coils is particularly critical.

End sample test
The wire is end sample tested by means of etch testing and
binocular inspection as well as microscopical inspection of
the material structure.
Max. permissible depth of partial surface decarburization
and surface defects, 1.3% x wire diameter. No complete
decarburization allowed.

Hot presetting
After shot peening, the springs should be hot preset or
stress relieved. In order to reach optimum fatigue and relaxation properties, the springs must be preset at an appropriate stress.
Delivery forms
See separate sheet.

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

STATO 75 is especially intended for the manufacture of
springs exposed to static or moderately high fatigue stresses. The material has good relaxation properties.

STATO 75

The wire is manufactured in sizes from Ø 2.00 mm to
7.00 mm. Other wire sizes on request.

Oil tempered SiCrV-alloyed
spring wire

Chemical composition
C
%

Si
%

Mn
%

P max
%

S max
%

Cr
%

V
%

0.50 – 0.70

1.20 – 1.65

0.50 – 0.80

0.025

0.025

0.50 – 1.00

0.05 – 0.20

Physical properties
Size range
mm

1)

Tolerance
± mm

2)

Tensile strength
2
N/mm

3)

Reduct of area
min. %

2.00 – 2.50

0.020

2110 – 2210

45

>2.50 – 3.20

0.020

2060 – 2160

45

>3.20 – 4.00

0.025

2010 – 2110

45

>4.00 – 5.00

0.025

1960 – 2060

45

>5.00 – 5.60

0.030

1910 – 2010

40

>5.60 – 6.50

0.035

1910 – 2010

40

>6.50 – 7.00

0.035

1860 – 2010

40

1)
2)
3)

Other wire sizes on request.
Ovality, i. e. the difference between the largest and smallest dimension of a cross section, is maximum half the tolerance range.
Conversion from tensile strength to hardness values can be calculated in standard ISO EN 18265. The tensile strength Rm within one
2
coil does not vary more than 70 N/mm .

Yield point
The proof stress Rp0.2 is min. 0.9 x tensile strength of the
wire.
E and G modulus
2

Modulus of elasticity, E:

About 206 kN/mm

Modulus of shear, G:

About 79.5 kN/mm2.

Surface condition
End sample test
The wire is end sample tested by means of etch testing and
binocular inspection as well as microscopical inspection of
the material structure.
Max. permissible depth of partial surface decarburization
and surface defects, 1.5% x wire diameter. No complete
decarburization allowed.

Cleanliness in steel, non-metallic inclusions
Max. level 2 according to DIN 50602-M.
Corresponding standard: ASTM E-45-A.
Heat treatment
As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be
stress relieved.
Shot peening
In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process
time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of
shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot
peening equipment. Shot peening of the inside of the spring
coils is particularly critical.
Hot presetting
After shot peening, the springs should be hot preset or
stress relieved. In order to reach optimum fatigue and relaxation properties, the springs must be preset at an appropriate stress.
Delivery forms
See separate sheet.

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

STATO 70 is especially intended for the manufacture of
springs exposed to static or moderately high fatigue stresses. The material has good relaxation properties.

STATO 70

The wire is manufactured in sizes from Ø 0.50 mm to
7.00 mm. Other wire sizes on request.

Oil tempered SiCr-alloyed
spring wire

Chemical composition
C
%

Si
%

Mn
%

P max
%

0.50 – 0.60

1.20 – 1.60

0.50 – 0.80

0.025

S max
%

Cr
%

0.025

0.50 – 0.80

Physical properties
2)

Tolerance1)
± mm

Tensile strength
2
N/mm

0.50 – 0.80

0.010

2100 – 2300

>0.80 – 1.00

0.015

2100 – 2300

50

>1.00 – 1.40

0.020

2060 – 2260

50

>1.40 – 1.60

0.020

2040 – 2220

50

>1.60 – 2.00

0.025

2000 – 2180

50

>2.00 – 2.50

0.025

1970 – 2140

50

>2.50 – 2.70

0.025

1950 – 2120

50

>2.70 – 3.00

0.030

1910 – 2100

50

>3.00 – 3.50

0.030

1900 – 2060

45

>3.50 – 4.00

0.030

1870 – 2030

45

>4.00 – 4.50

0.035

1860 – 2020

45

>4.50 – 5.00

0.035

1830 – 1980

45

>5.00 – 5.60

0.035

1800 – 1950

40

>5.60 – 6.50

0.040

1780 – 1930

40

>6.50 – 7.00

0.040

1740 – 1890

35

Size range
mm

1)
2)
3)

Reduct of area
min. %

Other wire sizes on request.
Ovality, i. e. the difference between the largest and smallest dimension of a cross section, is maximum half the tolerance range.
Conversion from tensile strength to hardness values can be calculated in standard ISO EN 18265. The tensile strength Rm within one
2
coil does not vary more than 70 N/mm .

Yield point
The proof stress Rp0.2 is min. 0.9 x tensile strength of the
wire.
E and G modulus
Modulus of elasticity, E:
Modulus of shear, G:

Cleanliness in steel, non-metallic inclusions
Max. level 2 according to DIN 50602-M.
Corresponding standard: ASTM E-45-A.

About 206 kN/mm2
About
79.5
kN/mm2.

Heat treatment
As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be
stress relieved.

End sample test
The wire is end sample tested by means of etch testing and
binocular inspection as well as microscopical inspection of
the material structure.

Shot peening
In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process
time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size
of shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and
shot peening equipment. Shot peening of the inside of the
spring coils is particularly critical.

Surface condition

Max. permissible depth of partial surface decarburization
and surface defects, 1.5% x wire diameter. No complete
decarburization allowed.

Hot presetting
After shot peening, the springs should be hot preset or
stress relieved. In order to reach optimum fatigue and relaxation properties, the springs must be preset at an appropriate stress.
Delivery forms
See separate sheet.

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.

Addresses
Production Sites

Sales Representatives/Distributors/Re-sellers

Sweden
Suzuki Garphyttan AB
(Bruksvägen 3)
SE-719 80 Garphyttan
Sweden
Tel +46 (0)19 295 100
Fax +46 (0)19 295 101
e-mail info.se@sg-wire.com
www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

Albania, Austria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia,
Czech Republic, Hungary, Macedonia, Romania, SerbiaMontenegro, Slovakia and Slovenia
AWS STAHLHANDEL GESELLSCHAFT MBH
Neunkirchnerstr. 49
AT-2734 Puchberg/Schneeberg
Austria
Tel +43 720 010 221
Fax+43 720 010 221-30
e-mail aws@aws.co.at
www.aws.co.at

USA
Suzuki Garphyttan Corp.
4404 Nimtz Parkway
South Bend, IN 46628
USA
Tel +1 574 232 8800
Fax +1 574 232 2565
e-mail info.us@sg-wire.com

Belgium, Luxembourg and Netherlands

China
Suzuki Garphyttan Wire (Suzhou) Co. Ltd.
Building B, No 6 Longpu Road
SIP, Suzhou 215126
P.R. China
Tel +86 512 8885 5361
Fax +86 512 8885 5366
e-mail info.cn@sg-wire.com
Sales Offices
China
Suzuki Garphyttan Wire (Suzhou) Co. Ltd.
Building B, No 6 Longpu Road
SIP, Suzhou 215126
P.R. China
Tel +86 512 8885 5361
Fax +86 512 8885 5366
e-mail info.cn@sg-wire.com
Germany
Suzuki Garphyttan GmbH
Postfach 102541
DE-40016 Düsseldorf
Germany
Tel +49 (0)211/92304-0
Fax +49 (0)211/92304-40
e-mail info.se@sg-wire.com
www.suzuki-garphyttan.de
Sweden
Suzuki Garphyttan AB
(Bruksvägen 3)
SE-719 80 Garphyttan
Sweden
Tel +46 (0)19 295 100
Fax +46 (0)19 295 101
e-mail info.se@sg-wire.com
www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

JOOP H BECKER HANDELSONDERNEMING
Schaaksport 142
NL-9728 PG Groningen
Netherlands
Tel +31 651 345 233
Fax+31 505 278 515
e-mail joophbecker@hetnet.nl
Brazil
UBRASTEEL TRADING LTDA
Rua Vieira de Morais, 420 - conj 92 - Campo Belo
BR - CEP 04617-000 - Sao Paulo - SP
Brazil
Tel +55 11 5536 9540
Fax +55 11 5093 1131
e-mail info@ubrasteel.com.br, vendas@ubrasteel.com.br,
ole.bergh@ubrasteel.com.br
Great Britain
STRIDE SUPPLIES LTD
Unit 7, Lakeside Industrial Estate
Broad Ground Road
GB-B98 8YP Redditch, Worcs.
England
Tel +44 01527 500170
Fax +44 01527 505652
e-mail info@stride-supplies.co.uk
Korea
JOIL STEEL Co
8F, Korea Assoc. of Machinery Industry (KOMAT)
13-6, Yeoudi-dong
Yeongdeungpo-gu
KR-150-729 Seoul
Korea
Tel +82-2-761-2028
Fax +82-2-761-2029
e-mail joilstl@kornet.net

USA
Suzuki Garphyttan Corp.
4404 Nimtz Parkway
South Bend, IN 46628
USA
Tel +1 574 232 8800
Fax +1 574 232 2565
e-mail info.us@sg-wire.com

August 2014
This information is subject to change (design, dimensions,
technical data, etc) without prior notice.