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MENG332

Control Principles
Tutorial #10

Root Locus Transfer Function Roots of Characteristic Equation Stability .

Two conditions: Magnitude Condition Angle Condition .

(we assume that the value of gain K is nonnegative) For this system K G( s) = s( s + 1)( s + 2) let us sketch the root-locus and determine the value of K so that the damping ratio of a pair of dominant complex-conjugate closed-loop poles is 0.Consider the following system. R( s) Y (s) G(s) .5.

the angle condition becomes ∠G ( s ) = ∠ K = −∠s − ∠( s + 1) − ∠( s + 2) s( s + 1)( s + 2) = ±180D (2k + 1). 2...The magnitude condition is K G( s) = =1 s( s + 1)( s + 2) For the given system.. . k = 0.1.

s2 = −1. s3 = −2 No zeros. −1 0 . −2 (3) Locate the poles and zeros on the s-plane.Solution: (1) Characteristic equation of the system is 1 + G( s) = 0 ⇒ 1 + K =0 s( s + 1)( s + 2) (2) Determine the poles and zeros of G(s) Poles: s1 = 0.

SL = 3 −1 0 . The root loci on the real axis is (−1. 0). +∞). (−2. −2) −2 (5) Determine the number of separate loci. 0). −2) and check the angle. SL is equal to the number of poles. (−∞. (−∞. Select test points in (0. (−1. −1).(4) Determine the root loci on the real axis Hint: using the angle condition. SL.

2. 0 + (−1) + (−2) The center point of the asymptotes σ A = = −1 3−0 The angle of the asymptotes (2q + 1) 180D . (n p − nz − 1) φA = n p − nz Let q = 0... −60D . q = 0.1. 2. s2 = −1. (7) Determine the asymptotes of the root loci. we have φ A = 60D .(6) The root loci are symmetrical with respect to the horizontal real axis...1. 3 Poles: s1 = 0.180D . s3 = −2 No zeros.

Hints: Routh Hurwitz criterion. Characteristic equation: 1 + K =0 s( s + 1)( s + 2) s 3 + 3s 2 + 2s + K = 0 s3 1 3 s2 s1 (6 − K ) / 3 K s0 2 K The value of K make s1 term in the first column equal to 0 is K=6. .(8) Determine the points where the root loci cross the imaginary axis.

the crossing point in the imaginary axis can be found by solving the auxiliary equation obtained from the s2 row. K = 0 .Based on Case 3 in Routh-Hurwitz criterion. K = 6 ⇒⎨ ⇒⎨ 3 ⎩ 2w − w = 0 ⎪⎩ w = 0. equal both the real part and the imaginary part to zero and solve K. ( jw) 3 + 3 ( jw ) + 2 ( jw ) + K = 0 2 ⇒ ( K − 3 jw2 ) + j (2w − w3 ) = 0 ⎧ K − 3w2 = 0 ⎧⎪ w = ± 2. 3s 2 + K = 3s 2 + 6 = 0 ⇒ s = ± j 2 An alternative method is to let s = jϖ in the characteristic equation.

find the roots of For the present system 1 + dp( s) =0 ds .4226. so we obtain s=-0. s = −1.0).5774 Since the breakaway point in this problem should lie in (-1. . K =0 s( s + 1)( s + 2) ⇒ K = −( s 3 + 3s 2 + 2s) Solve: dK = −(3s 2 + 6s + 2) = 0 ds ⇒ s = −0.(9) Determine the breakaway point. Define K = p(s).4226.

using the phase angle criterion.(10) Determine the angle of departure of the locus from a pole and the angle of arrival of the locus at a zero.. k = 0. until it satisfy the angle condition. select another one. θ1 + θ 2 + θ3 = ±180D (2k + 1). Choose a test point near the origin.1.. If the test point does not satisfy the condition. and apply the angle condition. 2. s +1 s+2 s θ3 −2 −1 θ2 θ1 0 ..

draw the root loci of the system.(11) Based on the information obtained in the previous steps. K →∞ K =6 K =6 −3 −2 −1 0 K =6 K →∞ .

we determine a pair of dominant complex-conjugate closed-loop poles such that the damping ratio is 0. These poles lie on the lines passing through the original and making the D angles of ±60 with the negative real axis. K →∞ K =6 K =6 −3 60 −2 D s = −0.3337 + j 0.Finally.5780 −1 0 K =6 K →∞ .5. as requirement by the problem.

3337 + j 0.5780 The corresponding K is K = s( s + 1)( s + 2) = 1.3337 ± j 0.0383 Using this value of K the third pole is found as s = -2. K →∞ K =6 K =6 −3 60 −2 D s = −0.5780 −1 0 K =6 K →∞ .3326.We obtain s = −0.

End .