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ikom - ComNets

Treffen/Workshop der ITG Fachgruppe 5.2.1

Radio Access Network Dimensioning
for 3G UMTS
Xi Li
xili@comnets.uni-bremen.de

November 13, 2009

ikom - ComNets

Outline
` Introduction and Motivation
` UMTS Network Dimensioning Framework
` Developed Simulation Models
` Developed Analytical Models
` Dimensioning Models and Results
` Conclusions and Outlook

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ikom .ComNets Outline ` Introduction and Motivation ` UMTS Network Dimensioning Framework ` Developed Simulation Models ` Developed Analytical Models ` Dimensioning Models and Results ` Conclusions and Outlook 3 .

25 .. UE RNC UE UE Node B Iub Packet Switched Domain Internet X.Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) ikom . UE UE UE UE Node B RNC UTRAN User Equipment Base Station Radio Network Controller Core Network UTRAN PSTN External Networks UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network Public Switched Telephone Network 4 .ComNets UE UE Node B Circuit Switched Domain Iub PSTN ....

ComNets ` Dimensioning: determine appropriate bandwidths for transport links y maximizing utilization of transport resources y guarantee QoS (Quality of Service) requirements ` The transport resource within the UTRAN is considerably costly UTRAN Iub Interface Costly Costlyinterface interface „„ Strict Strictdelay delayQoS QoS „„ Dimensioning of Iub is important to design a high cost.Motivation of UMTS Network Dimensioning ikom .efficient UMTS network 5 .

QoS differentiation and prioritization Goal Goalof ofthis thisThesis Thesis yy yy Investigate Investigateimportant importantaspects aspectsrelated relatedtotothe theIub Iubdimensioning dimensioning Develop Developdimensioning dimensioningapproaches approachesfor fordifferent differentUMTS UMTSNetworks Networks ƒƒ simulation simulationmodels models ƒƒ analytical analyticalmodels models yy Derive Deriveimportant importantdimensioning dimensioningguidelines guidelinesand andrules rules 6 .ComNets ` UMTS network is developing fast y Evolutions of UMTS ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Radio Access Network (RAN) evolution: Rel99. HSPA+. HSUPA.g.g. e. e. LTE Evolved UMTS terminals and emerging new services Significant increase of the traffic volume Remarkable changes in traffic pattern and characteristics y Transport Technologies for UTRAN. migration from ATM to IP y Quality of Service Schemes. HSDPA.Goal of This Thesis ikom .

ComNets Outline ` Introduction and Motivation ` UMTS Network Dimensioning Framework ` Developed Simulation Models ` Developed Analytical Models ` Dimensioning Models and Results ` Conclusions and Outlook 7 .ikom .

packet loss ratio The The goal goal of of network network dimensioning dimensioning is is to to minimize minimize costs costs while while maximizing maximizing QoS QoS 8 .Objectives of UMTS Network Dimensioning ikom . connection reject ratio due to admission control function y network-relevant QoS: network-specific QoS to evaluate the quality of a network.ComNets ` Network Costs: the costs correlated with the expenditures necessary for leasing transport link bandwidths ` Quality of Service y user-relevant QoS: refers to the QoS related to the individual users ƒ Application delay or throughput. measured on the packet level ƒ Packet delay.

ComNets Simulation Approach Analytical Approach Input Output Traffic Demand traffic class traffic load traffic distribution Dimensioning Process QoS Targets Network Cost minimum required link capacities (Mbit/s) user-relevant QoS network-relevant QoS Network Configurations QoS network topology traffic control functions resource control functions transport technology Bandwidth QoS mechanisms 9 .Framework of UMTS Network Dimensioning ikom .

ComNets Outline ` Introduction and Motivation ` UMTS Network Dimensioning Framework ` Developed Simulation Models ` Developed Analytical Models ` Dimensioning Models and Results ` Conclusions and Outlook 10 .ikom .

transport network.Simulation Models ikom .e. protocol stack.ComNets ` Model a complete UMTS system following 3GPP specifications ` Focused on a detailed modeling of the Iub interface (i. resource and QoS management) ` Modeling of air interface and core network are simplified ` Reduce complexity and improve simulation efficiency IP Transport ATM Transport ATM Transport IP Transport 11 .

ComNets Outline ` Introduction and Motivation ` UMTS Network Dimensioning Framework ` Developed Simulation Models ` Developed Analytical Models ` Dimensioning Models and Results ` Conclusions and Outlook 12 .ikom .

Services and QoS Measures ikom .ComNets Voice Video Conferencing Real Time (RT) low delay low loss require Admission Control Circuit-Switched Traffic Web FTP Applications/Services Non Real Time (NRT) carried by TCP/IP delay tolerant Traffic Classes Elastic Traffic Blocking probability (CAC reject ratio) Application Throughput (Application Delay) Packet Delay Packet Loss ratio Packet Delay Packet Loss ratio QoS Measures Userat flow/call level relevant QoS QoS Measures at packet level over the Iub Networkrelevant QoS 13 .

ComNets Dimensioning Tool Analytical Models User-Relevant QoS Traffic Scenario QoS Measure Proposed Analytical Models Circuit-Switched Traffic Elastic Traffic blocking QoS application delay or throughput Erlang Loss Model Processor Sharing (PS) Model Erlang-B MD Erlang-B M/G/R-PS queuing model Network-Relevant QoS Mixed Traffic both QoS need to be met Processor Sharing Model + Erlang Model Traffic Policy .Overview of Analytical Models ikom .Priority or BMAP/D/1 or BMAP/D/1-Priority Modeling Packet Level 14 .BW sharing .BW separation Modeling Call or Flow Level Circuitswitched traffic Elastic Traffic Mixed Traffic packet delay. packet loss ratio over the Iub interface Queuing Models with nonMarkovian Arrival Process Non-preemptive priority queuing model MMPP(2)/D/1 MMPP(2)/D/1 .

ikom .ComNets Outline ` Introduction and Motivation ` UMTS Network Dimensioning Framework ` Developed Simulation Models ` Developed Analytical Models ` Dimensioning Models and Results y Processor Sharing Model (Application Performance) y Packet level Queuing Model (Transport Network Performance) ` Conclusions and Outlook 15 .

Lindberger (1999) Delay factor 16 .Processor Sharing (PS) Model for Elastic Traffic . Rρ ) ⎞ x ⎛ x ⎜⎜1 + 2 ⎟⎟ = ⋅ fR rpeak ⎝ R (1 − ρ ) ⎠ rpeak Link utilization K.for User-Relevant QoS (Application Performance) ikom .ComNets UE Radio Access Bearer (RAB) rpeak rpeak UE Assumptions rpeak rpeak UE R = C / rpeak Iub (C) NodeB rpeak UE „ RNC „ Flow arrival follows Poisson Process General file length distribution Radio Network Cont rpeak Expected Sojourn Time (average transfer delay) UE M/G/R-PS Model File length E M / G / R {T ( x)} = Peak data rate Number of servers R = C / rpeak E ( R .

BRA Reuse single rate M/G/R-PS Calculate an average rate from different rpeak to derive R RAB CAC Radio Access Bearer Call Admission Control Ri = C ri ∑ρ ρ= i bearers EM / G / R {T ( xi )} = xi ⎛ E2 ( Ri .R is bearer specific .Proposed Extensions on M/G/R-PS Model ikom . Ri ρ ) ⎞ xi ⎜1 + ⎟ = f Ri ri ⎜⎝ Ri (1 − ρ ) ⎟⎠ ri K rpeak _ avg = ∑ r j ⋅ q j j =1 Ravg = C / rpeak _ avg 17 .consider total traffic 4. Single RAB No CAC New parameter UL_rtt_ratio E {T ( x )}* = E{T ( x )} + ( 2 + UL _ rtt _ ratio ) RTTadjust 2. Multiple RABs No CAC General M/G/R-PS model . Rate Adaptation . Single RAB With CAC 3.ComNets Seven Extensions are proposed in this thesis to incorporate UMTS networks Case Extensions Analytical Realizations RTTadjust = RTT ⋅ f R 1.

Proposed Extensions on M/G/R-PS Model (cont’) ikom . IP DiffServ EM / G / R {T ( xk )} = xk rpeak _ k ⎛ E (R . Multi-Iub RAN Backbone Link Cbb IP Router RNC Cac_n Node B 7.ComNets Case 5. Mixing with CS Traffic Extensions Analytical Realizations M/G/R-PS (a) C Iub = C elastic + LCS (b) C Iub = Celastic + CCS M/G/R-PS Erlang Last mile links Node B Cac_1 Node B Cac_2 6. R ρ ) ⎞ xk ⎜⎜1 + 2 k k k ⎟⎟ = fk Rk (1 − ρ k ) ⎠ rpeak _ k ⎝ 18 .

ComNets RNC Node B UMTS Core Network Per Hop Behavior (PHB) EF AF PHB Expedited Forwarding Assured Forwarding Per Hop Behavior SP WFQ DiffServ Strict Priority Weighted Fair Queuing Differentiated Services 19 .IP-based UTRAN with DiffServ QoS Structure ikom .

9 1 0. delay (s) 10 0 0.7 0.8 Iub link utilization 12 BE app.6 0.ComNets Single Link Scenario WFQ weight EF RT video EF NRT RAB 64kbps AF11 20 NRT RAB 128kbps AF21 30 NRT RAB 256kbps AF31 40 NRT RAB 384kbps AF41 50 NRT HSPA 2Mbps BE 10 10 8 6 4 M/G/R/N-PS Simulations 8 6 4 2 2 0.NRT RAB 128kbps AF11 PHB .Validation of Application Delay Estimation ikom .8 Iub link utilization The Therelative relativeerrors errorsof ofobtained obtainedanalytical analyticalresults resultsare arewithin within the theagreed agreedlevel levelfor fornetwork networkdimensioning dimensioningof ofindustry industry 20 .5 Service class AF21 PHB . delay (s) PHB 12 AF21 app.8 Iub link utilization 0.6 0.9 0 0.5 0.6 AF41 PHB .5 1 0.7 0.9 1 BE PHB HSPA M/G/R/N-PS Simulations 10 8 6 4 M/G/R/N-PS Simulations 8 6 4 2 2 0 0.7 0.6 0. delay (s) AF11 app.5 0.7 0. delay (s) RT voice M/G/R/N-PS Simulations 12 AF41 app.NRT RAB 384kbps 10 0.8 Iub link utilization 0.9 1 0 0.NRT RAB 64kbps 12 0.

99 Link DCH n TTI AAL2 ATM Queue Segmentation Queue Deterministic Deterministic service rate service rate 30ms Arrivals Departure Depatures RT or NRT Arrivals Server process (deterministic service rate) (a) Single-service system ` RT queuing delay Packet scheduling: H Non-preemptive priority Departure Depatures NRT L Server process (deterministic service rate) (b) Priority system Arrival process model (shall capture bursty and self-similarity of the aggregated arrival traffic and Bulk Arrival of packets) y 2-state Markov Modulated Poisson Process (MMPP) model. where the interarrival time distribution is based on 2-Phase Hyper-exponential distribution y Batch Markovian Arrival Process (BMAP) 21 .ComNets FP PDUs Delay distribution TTI DCH 1 TTI DCH 2 0.Queuing Models for Network-Relevant QoS ikom .

MMPP Model for Estimation of the Iub delay ikom .ComNets Capture of the Characteristic of the Arrival Traffic Traffic demand Add network / protocol overhead Mean traffic Variance Correlation Measure arrival traffic Capture the arrival traffic characteristics MMPP arrival process model parameters MMPPD/1 queuing MMPP/D/1 – priority queuing Queuing delay distribution 22 .

mean = 120 seconds Dimension QoS target: 99% of packets experience less than 10ms Iub delay voice only scenario .4 system simulation M/D/1 H2/D/1 MMPP/D/1 relative error of the analytical model required Iub bandwidth [kbps] 10000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 1000 2000 3000 voice traffic demand [kbps] 4000 0.3 M/D/1 H2/D/1 MMPP/D/1 0.15 0.Validation of the Iub Delay Estimation ikom .1 0.35 0.Rel99 ATM-based Iub voice only scenario .2kbps Speech/silence period: exponential distribution. mean = 3 seconds Call duration: exponential distribution.05 0 0 1000 2000 3000 voice traffic demand [kbps] 4000 23 .Rel99 ATM-based Iub 9000 8000 7000 0.ComNets Scenario I: 100% voice traffic (single Iub) Traffic model: Adaptive Multi Rate (AMR) 12.2 0.25 0.

ComNets Dimension QoS target: 99% of voice packets experience less than 10ms Iub delay 99% of data packets experience less than 30ms Iub delay Scenario III: 90% web traffic (low priority) & 10% voice traffic (high priority) Scenario II: 100% web traffic packet switched traffic (BRA) only packet switched traffic (BRA) with 10% voice 7000 8000 System simulation Queueing simulation (Opnet) Analytical calculation required Iub bandwidth [kbps] required Iub bandwidth [kbps] 8000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 1000 2000 3000 4000 UTRAN traffic demand [kbps] 5000 7000 6000 System simulation Queueing simulation (Opnet) Analytical calculation 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 UTRAN traffic demand [kbps] 5000 24 .Validation of the Iub Delay Estimation ikom .

ComNets Outline ` Introduction and Motivation ` UMTS Network Dimensioning Framework ` Developed Simulation Models ` Developed Analytical Models ` Dimensioning Models and Results ` Conclusions and Outlook 25 .ikom .

ComNets Propose a general UMTS network dimensioning framework Develop several detailed simulation models with OPNET Investigate important aspects related to Iub dimensioning Develop novel analytical models for dimensioning of the Iub interface and validated by simulations Circuit-switched Traffic User QoS Network QoS Elastic traffic Mixed traffic Blocking QoS Erlang-B (single stream) MD-Erlang B (multi-stream) Application QoS Processor Sharing (PS) Extensions of M/G/R-PS Consider applied traffic policy and its Mux.Conclusions and Outlook ` ` ` ` ikom . gain Packet delay & loss QoS Packet delay & loss QoS MMPP: Markov Modulated Poisson Process „ BMAP: Batch Markovian Arrival Process „ MMPP/D/1 or BMAP/D/1 MMPP/D/1 or BMAP/D/1 MMPP/D/1-nonpreemptive priority ` Develop a dimensioning tool (in Matlab) y Summarize all proposed analytical models y Apply to derive dimensioning rules 26 .

and IP-based UTRAN y Single Iub link scenario y Multi-Iub RAN scenario ` Dimensioning HSPA traffic in ATM-based UTRAN y HSDPA y HSUPA y HSPA+Rel99 (Traffic Separation) ` Further Work: Long Term Evolution (LTE) y Expect a much higher demand on transport bandwidth in access networks y Dimensioning for LTE transport access network ƒ Investigating applicability of current dimensioning models ƒ Extensions of analytical models are desired 27 .ComNets ` Dimensioning and Comparing of ATM.Conclusions and Outlook (cont’) ikom .

ikom .ComNets Thank for your Attention 28 .