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**International Journal of Advanced Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering (IJARECE)
**

Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2013

**FOLDED CASCODE OTA BASED gm-C
**

FILTER DESIGNING

Abhishek Saini, Ankit Aswal, Ajit Singh

Abstract— The design topology of a folded cascode OTA

based first order gm-c filter is presented. In RC filters the

frequency selectivity depends upon the capacitors. For low

frequency applications, RC filters have problem of large

physical size. The gm-c filter is alternative for this which has an

advantage of tuning the frequency directly proportional to the

bias current of OTA. The folded cascode OTA is designed with

.18μm CMOS technology operating with a 2.5V supply and

using a bias current of 100μA. Simulative investigation is done

using TANNER tool.

Index Terms—OTA, FOLDED CASCODE OTA, gm -C

Filter.

I. INTRODUCTION

Filters are the electrical networks that process signals in a

frequency-dependent approach. The basic concept of a filter

can be explained by investigating the frequency dependent

character of the impedance of capacitors and inductors. Think

of a voltage divider network where the shunt leg has reactive

impedance. As the frequency is transformed, the value of the

reactive impedance alters as an effect of voltage divider ratio

changes. This method capitulates the frequency dependent

transform in the input/output transfer function that is distinct

as the frequency response.

There exist numerous design methodologies of continuous

time filter, for instance RC filters, MOSFET-C filters, gm-C

filters, gm-C-the OP-AMP filter. In such filters, active RC

filters, MOSFET-C filter, and trans-conductance capacitor

(gm-C) filters are the three chief types of high performance

continuous-time filters. They usually employ the use of

MOS, Bi-CMOS technology, and the bipolar transistor [1].

An advantage of active filter studies is that the restraints of

passive filter studies are totally eradicated. Though in the

design of active filters, voltage controlled Op-Amp and

current controlled OTA are taken into consideration as basic

active elements. The active filter design employing the use of

op-amp encompasses serious limitations over its applications

in the high frequency regions. Hence to surmount these

limitations OTA based active filters are very popular owing

to their salient features such as they have adjustable and

linear transconductance gm over wide range of bias current,

Manuscript received Aug 30, 2013.

Abhishek Saini, Faculty of Technology, Uttarakhand Technical

University, Dehradun, India, +919719655605.

Ankit Aswal, Department of E.C.E., B.T. Kumaon Institute of

Technology, Dwarahat, India, +919997377467.

Ajit Singh, Department of E.C.E., A.K.G. Engineering College,

Mahamaya Technical University, Ghaziabad, India, +919873446273

**provide excellent matching between amplifiers, have
**

controlled impedance buffers and provide high output signal

to noise ratio. In this paper folded OTA based first order

active low pass and high pass filter are explained using the

linearity of transconductance of OTA with bias current [2] .

**II. FOLDED CASCODE OPERATIONAL
**

TRANSCONDUCTANCE AMPLIFIER

The operational trans-conductance amplifier (OTA) is

basically a voltage controlled current source (VCCS) whose

output current is produced by differential input voltage [3].

The OTA’s transconductance gm makes it a voltage

controlled current source whereas the op-amps are voltage

controlled voltage source. Its ability to tune analog devices

such as filters, oscillators etc. electronically makes it very

much suitable for use in designing analog devices and it is the

most attractive attribute of an OTA [4]. Its electronic

tunability is achieved by varying its transconductance by

controlling the bias current and hence by varying input

voltage. Hence tunability is controlled by bandwidth of g m,

which depends on the bias current [5].

**Fig. 1 Symbol of an OTA
**

The expression for the output current of an OTA is given by

IO = gm (V+ - V-)

And the transconductance is given as

gm =

where : thermal voltage = 26 mV at room temperature.

: bias current.

The transconductance gm of the OTA is directly proportional

to bias current

Characteristics of an ideal OTA are briefed as follows,

I/p impedance (Zin ) = ∞

O/p Impedance (Z0) = ∞

Inverting i/p current Io- = Non-inverting i/p current IO+

Bandwidth = ∞

757

All Rights Reserved © 2013 IJARECE

Low Pass Filter Fig. A. Fig. 6 Block diagram of Low-Pass Filter using OTA In the above figure of low-pass filter inverting terminal is shorted with output terminal and the input signal is applied to 758 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARECE . Further the frequency response of the proposed model is verified using TANNER tool in the subsequent section.ISSN: 2278 – 909X International Journal of Advanced Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering (IJARECE) Volume 2. 4 Frequency vs. W/L (µm/µm) M1 61/2 M2 61/2 M3 281/2 M4 303/2 M5 303/2 M6 182/2 M7 182/2 M8 75/2 M9 75/2 M10 75/2 M11 75/2 M12 351/2 M13 303/2 M14 303/2 Table 1 Calculated Values of Aspect Ratios for the Folded Cascode OTA III. 5 Frequency vs. September 2013 In folded cascade OTA the differential input stage provides the gain of the operational amplifier. Phase Response of Folded Cascode OTA MOS Fig. In this section first order active high-pass and low-pass filters are realized using folded cascade OTA. 2 Circuit Diagram of a Typical Folded Cascode OTA We have opted for folded cascade OTA for its large gain and high bandwidth performance and also has good PSRR compared to the two stage op-amp since the OTA is compensated with active loads. Issue 9. The term folded cascode OTA is derived by folding down p-channel cascode active loads of a differential pair and changing the MOSFETs to n-channels. 3 Circuit Implementation of Folded Cascode OTA As we know active filters completely eliminate the limitations and restrictions of passive filters. Gain response of Folded Cascode OTA Fig. NMOS differential pair is taken as it has greater mobility as compared to PMOS and hence provides a larger value of transconductance and gain [6]. PROPOSED DESIGN Fig.

Fig.ISSN: 2278 – 909X International Journal of Advanced Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering (IJARECE) Volume 2. both simulated and calculated values of 3db cut-off frequency are approximately equal hence the design are verified.1) B.Iout = gm Vo Hence the transfer function can be calculated as Fig. 8 the 3db cut-off frequency from the equation 3.gm Vo Let I is the current flowing in to the capacitor I = (Vi –V)* Sc I= . September 2013 the non-inverting terminal. And output is taken across the capacitor C.2) IV. Vin is the voltage at non-inverting terminal. From the above fig.61 KHz. 9 Schematic of High-Pass Filter Using Single OTA The 3dB cut-off frequency of the high-pass filter is given as (3. 7 the 3db cut-off frequency from the equation 3. Issue 9. Fig. we get. V = Vo Iout = .04 KHz and the simulated value of 3db cut-off frequency from the fig. we get Iout = gm (Vi1 – Vi2) Vi1 = 0 due to grounded and Vi2 = V From the figure inverting terminal is shorted with output terminal so. From the above fig.04 KHz and the simulated value of 3db cut-off frequency from the fig. SIMULATION RESULTS The proposed model is simulated using TANNER TOOL 13. 10 is 197. High Pass Filter Fig. 10 Frequency Response of Low-Pass Filter Using Single OTA \ For Low Pass Filter using OTA shown in the fig. 8 Block Diagram of High-Pass Filter Using OTA In the above figure of high-pass filter non-inverting terminal is grounded and input signal is applied through a capacitor C to the inverting terminal. 7 Schematic of Low-Pass Filter Using Single OTA The 3dB cut-off frequency of the low-pass filter is given as (3.2 is 199. 11 Frequency Response of High-Pass Filter Using Single OTA For High Pass Filter using OTA shown in the fig. 11 759 All Rights Reserved © 2013 IJARECE .0.1 is 199. I1 = gm (Vin . let suppose V is the voltage at inverting end due to input signal Vi.V0) Voltage across the capacitor C is given as Vo = Hence the transfer function can be calculated as Fig.

Abhishek Saini received his B. This author is pursuing M.Tech degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering from H. vol. 08-12. Halse. H. issue 8. Daoud Dammak. Low Power and High Speed Signal Processing Circuits. 728-731. Issue 9.Tech degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering from H.Tech in Digital Communication from B.K. Rajeshwari S. India in 2011.ISSN: 2278 – 909X International Journal of Advanced Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering (IJARECE) Volume 2. S.N. Uttar Pradesh. India. Vol. This author is pursuing M.N. no. Liu.61 KHz. Engineering and Technology. 49 No.T. “Telescopic OTA Based KHN Filter”. August 2013. 101-105. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Circuits. vo. “Bipolar OTA based voltage controlled sinusoidal oscillator”. Further simulation results verify that it is possible to achieve tunable range of frequencies by varying the bias current of the OTA. Zouari. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology. Dwarahat.B. no. India. His major areas of research interest include Analog Filter Circuit Design. pp. World Academy of Science. Pp. Abhishek Saini. pp. “Design of OTA-C Low Pass Filter Using Multiple OTA’s”. Ajit Singh received his B. Garhwal University. Neville Watson and Yonghe Liu. We have opted for folded cascade topology due to its large bandwidth and high gain. 28-33. Watson and Y. Mathad. 2. This author is pursuing M. B. 760 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARECE . IOSR Journal of Applies Physics. International Journal of Advanced Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering. P. V. H. Garhwal University. CONCLUSION In the proposed model the first order active filters are realized using single folded cascade OTA. Whereas in case of OP-AMPS the frequency is varied by varying the size of the capacitor which is the major drawback of OP-AMPS in high frequency applications as the size of the capacitor will increase and hence making the circuit bulky. 4. India in 2011.G. India in 2011. Systems. Bensalem. pp. “The Design of OTA-C Filter Based on the Prototype of Ladder LC Filter”. Kumaon Institute of Technology. March 2013. both simulated and calculated values of 3db cut-off frequency are approximately equal hence the design are verified. “Design of Folded Cascode OTA in Different Regions of Operation through gm/ID Methodology”. International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering. His major areas of research interest include Communication Systems. M. Low Power and High Speed Signal Processing Circuits and Communication Systems. pp. M. Mutsaddi and S. 2010. 1. “Simulation of Voltage Controlled Tunable All Pass Filter using LM13700 OTA”. 322-326. One more reason for employing OTA instead of OP-AMPS is that the frequency in the OTA can be varied in accordance with the bias current which is controlled by the differential input voltage. 144-148. September 2013 is 197.Tech degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering from H. Bhaba Priyo Das. Deepa Saini and Vishal Ramola. 6. Signals. Dehradun. Engineering College. Ghaziabad. Low Power and High Speed Signal Processing Circuits and Communication Systems. India. N. vol. Uttarakhand.Tech in VLSI Design from A. July-August 2012. Loulou.N. 1. Ankit Aswal received his B. vol. S. 2008. Uttarakhand.B. Network Security and Mobile Computing. His major areas of research interest include Analog Filter Circuit Design.Tech in VLSI Design from Uttarakhand Technical University. 2010. 5. Das. Garhwal University. V. pp.B. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Chunyuan Feng. 45. and M.

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