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Jake Glass

I.

End of World War I
A. The Last Year of the War
1. 1917 was not good for Allies
a. Allied offensives on the Western Front had been
badly defeated
2. On positive side, entry of the US into WWI in 1917 gave
Allies a much-needed psychological boost
a. Provided fresh troops and material
i. 1918, American troops would prove crucial
B. A New German Offensive
1. For Germany, withdrawal of Russians offered new hope for
a successful end to the war
a. Germany now free to concentrate entirely on the
Western Front
b. Erich Ludendorff, guided military operations,
decided to make on final military gamble
i. A grand offensive in the west to break the
military stalemate
c. German attack was launched in March 1918
i. By April, German troops were within 50 miles
of Paris
 German advance stopped at the second
battle of Marne on July 1918
 French, Moroccan, and American troops
(140,000 fresh American troops),
supported by hundreds of tanks, threw
the Germans back over Marne
ii. August 8, the forces met at the Second Battle
of the Somme

backed by regular army troops. German officials soon found that the Allies were unwilling to make peace with the autocratic imperial government of Germany 2. crushed the rebels and murdered Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht. 1 month later the party tried to seize power in Berlin 2. the Social Democrats under Friedrich Ebert announced the creation of a democratic republic a. on November 11. an agreement to end the fighting) D. After William II’s departure from Germany.000 American troops poured into France. Collapse and Armistice 1. formed the German Communist Party in December 1918 a. and the Allies began an advance toward Germany  September 29. Revolutionary Forces 1. New Social Democratic government. 2 days later. 1918. sailors in the northern German town of Kiel mutinied 3. 1918. 1.000. Austria-Hungary experienced disintegration and revolution . General Ludendorff told German leaders that the war was lost  He demanded the government ask for peace at once C. November 3. the new German government signed an armistice (a truce. leaders of the German Communists 3. 1918. unhappy with the Social Democrats’ moderate policies. Group of radical socialists.

along with the large monarchial state Yugoslavia E. Even before the end of the war. When he arrived in Europe for the peace conference. Wilson’s Proposals 1. Wilson’s proposals for a truly just and lasting peace included reaching the peace agreements openly rather than through secret diplomacy i. Wilson Portrayed WWI as a people’s war against “absolutism and militarism” c. representatives of 27 victorious Allied nations met in Paris to make a final settlement F. Wilson became the spokesperson for a new world order based on democracy and international cooperation i. he was enthusiastically cheered by many Europeans G. The Peace Settlements 1. His proposals included:  Reducing armaments  Point consistent with domestic safety  Ensuring self determination ii.a. Hungary. The Paris Peace Conference 1. Empire had been replaced by the independent republics of Austria. and Czechoslovakia. At the peace conference. President Woodrow Wilson drafted an outline of his “Fourteen Points” to the US Congress a. January 1919. Basic peace settlement that he believed justified the enormous military struggle being waged b. complications became obvious . Delegates met in Paris in early 1919 to determine the peace settlement a.

and Lloyd George i. French’s approach to peace was chiefly guided by its desire for national security  To Georges Clemenceau. Italy.i. Clemenceau and Lloyd George wanted to punish Germany  Only a compromise would suffice . the League of Nations. and Russia could not be present because of its civil war d. Germany was not invited to attend. was considered one of the Big Four Powers ii. Secret treaties that had been made before the war had raised the hopes of European nations for territorial gains b. Wilson wanted to create a world organization. as one of the Allies. National interests also complicated the deliberations of the Paris Peace Conference i. the French people had suffered the most from German aggression  French desired revenge and security against future German attacks  Clemenceau stripped of all weapons. The most important decisions at the conference were made by Wilson. to prevent future wars i. prime minister of Great Britain. David Lloyd George. had won a decisive victory in elections in December 1918  His platform: make the Germans pay for this dreadful war ii. the premier of France. Clemenceau. vast German payments-reparations-to cover the costs of war c.

January 25. Wilson agreed to make compromises on territorial arrangements  He did so because he believed that the League could later fix any unfair settlements f.000 men. In return. The Treaty of Versailles 1. were to be returned . Austria. Final peace settlement of Paris consisted of five separate treaties with the defeated nations of Germany. taken by the Germany from France in 1871. Wilson’s wish of the creation of an international peacekeeping organization be the first order of business was granted. Hungary. cut back its navy. Clemenceau also compromised to obtain some guarantees for French security H. Bulgaria. Especially unhappy with article 231  Called the “War Guilt Clause” which declared that Germany (and Austria) were responsible for starting the war  The treaty ordered Germany to pay reparations for all damages that the Allied governments and their people had sustained as a result of the war  Germany had to reduce its army to 100. 1919 i. and turkey a.e. Germans considered it to be a harsh peace i. and eliminate its air force  Alsace and Lorraine.

New nation-states emerged from the lands of these three empires: Finland. Austria and Hungary . Austro-Hungarian Empire disappeared 3. Poland. The Legacies of the War 1. and the separate peace treaties made with the other Central Powers redrew the map of eastern Europe 2. The German and Russian empires lost much territory a. Latvia. Estonia. Czechoslovakia. Lithuania. stripped of all weapons and fortifications I. Sections of eastern Germany were awarded to a new Polish State  German land along the Rhine River became a demilitarized zone. the Treaty of Versailles. The war.