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CHAPTER-1

1.1 INTRODUCTION
Absence is the failure of worker to report for work when he is scheduled to the work. A
work is to be treated as absent for the purpose of this absenteeism statistics even when he
does not turn up for a week after obtaining prior permission.
K.G. Desai classified absenteeism in to two types viz, authorized absenteeism and
unauthorized absenteeism. Authorized absenteeism is permitted absenteeism i.e, taking
leave prior permission of an employer. Unauthorized absenteeism means taking leave
without prior permission of an employer. Absence of worker on account of strike or lock
out or layoff i.e, involuntary absent is not considered as absence for the purpose of
absenteeism study.

Absenteeism rate is the percentage of man days lost due to voluntary absent (both
authorized and unauthorized) to the corresponding total man days schedule to work. It
can be expressed as under:

Man days lost (both authorized and unauthorized)
-----------------------------------------------------------X 100
Man days scheduled to work

According to K.N vaid absenteeism can be measured with the help of the
following formula

Persons not working due to
Authorized leave
Absence Rate =

+ unauthorized leave

-------------------------------------------------------------------- X 100
Man shifts actually worked
EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM

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According to the view of K. Aswathappa, Absenteeism costs money to the organization
besides reflecting employee dissatisfaction with the company.

Absenteeism is

unavoidable when the employee himself or herself falls sick, His or her dependents at
home suddenly become unwell or there is an accident inside the plant. Unavoidable
absenteeism is accepted by managers and is even sanctioned by labor laws. Avoidable
absenteeism arises due to night shifts, opportunities for moon lighting and earning extra
income, indebt ness, lack of job security, unfriendly supervision and job dissatisfaction.
This absenteeism needs intervention by the management.
Absenteeism is of two types –
1. Innocent absenteeism - Is one in which the employee is absent from work due to
genuine cause or reason. It may be due to his illness or personal family problem or any
other real reason
2. Culpable Absenteeism - is one in which a person is absent from work without any
genuine reason or cause. He may be pretending to be ill or just wanted a holiday and
stay at home.
Many emplo yees will, on occasions, need a few days off work because of illness,
however, when absences become more frequent or long term and reach an
unacceptable level, action by management is necessary. Absence from work can be
expensive in both monetary and human terms. The costs incurred when an
emplo yee is absent from work may include:
(i) Replacing the employee or requiring other staff to cover the absence;
(ii) Inability to provide services, or achieve section and departmental objectives;
(iii) Low morale and general dissatisfaction from other staff, particularly if the
absence is perceived as unwarranted.

EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM

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Effects of absenteeism on Industry

Absenteeism
$

Affects production targets
$

Increases the work load of inexperienced & less experienced
$

Leads to rejection of finished products
$

Increases the cost of production
$

Lowers the Profit margin
$

Affects Industrial growth

EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM

3

Effects of absenteeism on the employees Absenteeism $ Reduces his earnings $ Adds his indebtedness $ Decreases the Purchasing power $ Leads to family problems $ Increases mental stress $ Leads to inefficiency in his job $ Loss of employment EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 4 .

certain observations may be made.PECULIAR FEATURES OF ABSENTEEISM: On the basis of micro studies undertaken in different parts of the country. This difference in the rate of absenteeism is believed to be due to the peculiar style and practices of management. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 5 . The percentage of absenteeism is much higher in coal and mining industries than in organized industries f. As the size of the group increases. presumably because of the employment of a large number of newcomers among the younger age groups. It is the highest during March-April-may. b. Absenteeism in India is seasonal in character. The percentage of absenteeism is generally higher in the day shifts. d. Absenteeism is generally high among workers below 15 years of age and those above 40. and also in the harvest season. a. the rate of absenteeism goes up. c. e. The rate of absenteeism varies from department to department within a unit. the composition of the laborer force and the culture of the organization. it increases considerably on the days following the payments of wages and bonus. The younger employees are not regular and punctual. While the older people are not able to withstand the strenuous nature of the work. when a land has to be prepared for monsoon saving. when the rate goes as high as 40 percent. The rate of absenteeism is the lowest on pay day. g.

since it is found that there is a low rate of labor turnover in this company. So. this study will help the company to adopt measures to reduce absenteeism and to increase the employee‟s commitment towards his job by knowing the factors which remains as a hindrance for the employee to be punctual towards his job. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 6 .2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Integra is a company with 1.1.500 employees and it is a developing company getting a new reputation in the field of e-publishing. So it is very essential for the company to concentrate in the employee‟s commitment towards the work assessed for him. It is also easier to find the employee‟s satisfaction towards his job by conducting a study on employee absenteeism which thereby helps the company to retain its employee.

EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 7 . Absenteeism is not only an individual problem but also a social as well as economic problem of our country. So.1. there is a great need for the research and analysis of absenteeism in the organization. This may lead an organization to attain reduced productivity. Reducing the rate of absenteeism is not a simple task. but also results in loss and deterioration of skill and efficiency.3 NEED FOR STUDY One of the major problems affecting the precious resource of any organization is absenteeism. To control the rate of absenteeism we should know what absenteeism is and study the factors such as personal factors. When absenteeism becomes a habit there is not only general lowering of morale. social factors and environmental factors responsible for absenteeism. Decrease in production will affect the profits of the company.

1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY • To study the general causes for employee absenteeism • To analyse the workplace factors which leads to employee absenteeism in the organization • To find out the most prominent general and worklife factors that leads to absenteeism in the organization EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 8 .

• It is possible that some of the respondents feel that the management has backed the study and hence the reliability of the response. • Some of the respondents were not interested to express their views.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY • The information provided by them may be subjected to personal bias.1. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 9 . • Due to time constraints and busy schedules it was difficult to interact with the employees completely.

and wholly owned subsidiaries in UK (Cambrideshire) and USA ( Chicago & New York). For over a decade. Integra has been offering a full range of high end publishing services for professionals and educational books/journals. press and corporate.CHAPTER-2 PROFILE OF THE COMPANY 2. elementary high school and college text books. XML) data conversion and related services for books and journals. Integra has its global service delivery centers at Pondicherry and Chennai.1Introduction Integra is one of the leading pre –publishing services companies. in the world providing end-to-end content management and content transformation services including high quality digital typewriter-publishing services (SGML. Having its headquarters in Pondicherry. reference books. financial and legal publications. for various publishers.2 History Integra has emerged from a team of 5 in 1994 in over 1000 professionals today. user manuals and catalogues. data conversion services archival solutions and a host of value added services. 2. Integra specializes in providing full service project management-publishing for books and journals. custom made course material. around the world. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 10 . India.

2.S. setting exceptional standards of performance and productivity. This group is backed up by a team of around 800 highly qualified professionals. Integra‟s core management group consists of professionals with several years experience in the IT industry. In 1994. delivering superior returns to shareholders and profitable solutions to customers through empowered and professionally skilled employees. Sriram Subramanian has B. MD and CEO.3 Leadership team Sriram Subramanian founder. working together effectively with a willingness to explore new ideas and learn endlessly. 2. creating and enhancing value for our clients.4 Vision “By 2013 it plans to emerge as the worlds leading provider of end-to-end prepress and epublishing services. Engineering with around 15 years experience in various senior positions.” EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 11 . He is a proven leader and entrepreneur. he co-founded Integra along with Anuradha Sriram.

5 Five Driving Forces of Integra ZEAl TO SUCCEED ¢lEXlBlllTY PASSlON ADAPTABlllTY COMMlTMENT EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 12 .2.

2. Ë Elsevier Ë Pearson Education Ë Chicago University Press Ë Oxford University Press Ë Taylor & Francis Ë Wiley Publications Ë Cambridge University Press Ë Palgrave Macmillan Ë Springer Ë Cengage Learning EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 13 . Its clients are.6 Clients Integra has built its clients base in the past 16 years out of its sheer focus in customer satisfaction. providing high quality deliverables. Integra which is a leading e-publishing company in India quotes that this client list was accomplished only by maintaining schedule integrity. being flexible and adaptable and forging bonds of long lasting nature.

2.7 STRUCTURE OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT General Manager Recruitment Employee relations L&D Admin EERRanager m Manager L&D Manager Senior executive Senior executive Senior executive Senior executive Junior executive v Junior executive Junior executive Junior executive HR Emanager ManH ageR r Administr ator EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 14 .

Integra provides advanced e-publishing services using the latest technologies like SGML/ XML and HTML. Today they are equipped to deliver a whole gamut of value-added services that include end-to-end project management. Europe and Asia Pacific. magazines. translation and localization and new media publishing. editorial services. Integra‟s capability extends across lines of business such as books. As a full-service house. image management and digital archiving besides traditional multilingual typesetting and data conversion services. financial content management. including SGML entry of scientific text comprising math and tables as per the DTD supplied by the client. They offer a full range of high-end publishing services for • • • • STM & HSS books and journals Major reference works/ encyclopedias College & school textbooks Trade books Editorial services • • • • • • • Project Management Copy-editing Proofreading Indexing Language polishing Accuracy checking Permissions research Production • • • • • Image processing Cover page Data conversion Artwork Creation Multi-language typesetting Other Services • Media • DTD development • Application Development • Digital Asset management EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 15 .8 Services Integra Software Services is one of the largest providers of prepress and electronic publishing services to almost all leading global publishers and typesetters across North America.2. journals. major research works.

Publishers and Production personnel Quicker resolution of queries of the clients Resolving any issues if they arise Keeping track of manuscripts and page proofs through the entire phase of production Following-up and scheduling with Integra‟s Global Delivery Unit to meet the Publishers deadline • • • • • • Production Integra's core expertise lies in the digital typesetting of books and journals. Integra produces more than 1 million typeset pages annually. Editors. They also have the capability to integrate other deliverables within the workflow by using “Single Source Publishing” methodology. They typeset works of a range of complexities from 1-color to 4-color.Project management services • Managing and coordinating the entire project starting from receipt of handover notes from the Publisher to dispatch of final files Sharing the planned schedule with the publisher to meet the deadlines as per the needs Liaising with everyone involved in the project including Authors. Today. for which they have a large pool of experienced and skilled compositors well versed in using the latest versions of pagination software (with or without XML) like • • • • • QuarkXpress LaTeX 3B2 InDesign FrameMaker They have XML-first workflow developed in all of the above mentioned typesetting software which helps to deliver XML files at the end of process seamlessly. Some of the other services include • • • • Image enhancement and management Creative art Design services for book and cover Data conversion from any format to any format EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 16 .

to SGML. Their workflow for Web Publishing allows them to create print PDF and hyperlinked PDF simultaneously for print as well as for the internet. Conversions are made from. retrieval & reprint of their customer‟s files. HTML. Sony and LIT.Data Conversion They convert any complex matter. Palm PDB. e-Books and PDF (both searchable and non-searchable). Digital Asset Management Integra provides a unique value added service of archiving. as well as any proprietary markup languages. Archiving /Re-archiving services • • • Validation of data before archiving/re-archiving to ensure quality of archives Technology migration strategies Online and Offline archiving Retrieval • Retrieving and packaging assets based on end user's requirement saving time for the customer • Delivery through various medium Reprint • • Performing reprint reduces coordination at customer's end Re-archiving done after reprint ensures latest version is available in Archives EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 17 . XML. Mobipocket. A dedicated team forms the Digital Asset Management group and extends this service to global publishers. including equations and tables from any pagination software or hard copy. • • • Hard copy to any digital format Any digital format to any other format E-books They also specialize in conversion of books into different formats like e-pub. using its iArchive tool. DML. Word. re-archiving. they also convert data from SGML to XML. Kindle.

India.m 2.Pondicherry & Chennai.9 a.m Second shift.9 Company Working Hours General shift. Ë Servicing 9 out of top 10 STM and educational publishers. Ë Winner of NASSCOM gender inclusivity award for 2009 Ë Rated no 2 in Customer Satisfaction as per Black Book of Outsourcing – 2009 Ë Leading Full Service provider to publishing industry world-wide with Global delivery Models Ë Onshore · Full Service Delivery Centre for Hi-Ed in Hinsdale. Ë 1500 employees.m to 6 a. Dutch. Spanish & French) Ë ISO9001:2008 certified company with adoption of six sigma processes.2.m to 10 p. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 18 . biggest employment provider in Pondicherry.10 p.m to 2 p.2 p.m First shift. Ë Has handled over one million typeset pages in 2008.10 a.m Third shift. German. Illinois · Full Service Delivery Centre for K-12 in New York City · Full Service House in UK Ë Offshore · E-to-E service provided out of India .10 Milestones Ë 15+ years experience in content processing for publishers worldwide.m to 6 p. Ë Has multilingual typesetting capabilities(English.

1966). voluntary and lastly a four-category taxonomy. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 19 . social exchange. involuntary vs.1 INFORMAL CONTRACT: Gibsson (1966) attempted to explain some of the main features of absence behaviour by means of the notion of an informal contract. there is also more concealment of the contributions of individuals. He also mentions the importance of the employee‟s identification with the organisation. in larger organisations. The contract is viewed as being made between the individual and the organisation. since there is greater division of labour. whose feelings of obligation would thus be strengthened. as in the case of longer-service employees. organizationally unexcused. perceived inequity. and withdrawal from stressful work situations. Gibsson (1966) was especially interested in absences that were not long enough to activate formal legitimising (certification) procedures. the organisation should be seen to offer a fair deal to the individual. and argues for the importance of the “authenticity” of the work contract (Gibsson. Gibsson (1966) remarks that a plausible idea relating to the size of the organisation influences absence rates. it will be easier for people to legitimise their absences to themselves. He used the concept of valence. In other words. withdrawal. non-attendance. dynamic conflict. thus permitting latitude for absence from work. referring to a person‟s positive or negative relationships to a work situation and pointed out that if the combined valences of a work situation are weak. organizationally excused vs.CHAPTER-3 REVIEW OF LITERATURE THEORIES OF ABSENTEEISM: Absence behaviour is discussed in terms of theories on absences such as the notion of the informal contract. 3.

3 WITHDRAWAL FROM THE STRESS OF WORK SITUATIONS: In their study on absence. 1962) contributed a theory of absence as being the withdrawal from the stress of work situations. No recent literature has been identified which has built on this perspective. Hill and Trist (1953. absences without formal permission). as the aim of this research is to determine whether work-related attitudes (Job Involvement and Organisational Commitment) predict employee absenteeism.In this research Gibsson‟s (1966) concept of valence. individuals experiencing conflicts of satisfaction and obligations tend to express them through labor turnover. employees‟ feelings about how fairly they had been treated in regard to their pay levels and promotions. It is hypothesised that employees with low job involvement and organizational commitment (negative relationship to the work situations) will have higher levels of absenteeism. the probability of absence behaviour will increase with the magnitude of inequity and if other means of reducing inequity are not available. producing evidence of a relationship between absences and perceived fairness of pay. accidents. 3.2 RESOLVING PERCIEVED INEQUITY: Adams (1965). Hanisch and Hulin (1991) theorized that absenteeism and other withdrawal behaviors reflect invisible attitudes such as job dissatisfaction. Adams (1965) suggested that absences may be a means of resolving perceived inequity. that is. Hill and Trist (1953) and Patchen (1960) have made notable theoretical contributions towards the study of absenteeism. 3. In addition to the views of Hill and Trist (1962). Withdrawal is the central explanatory concept. thus. low level of EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 20 . and unsanctioned absences (this is. referring to an individual‟s positive and negative relationship toward a work situation has relevance. Patchen (1960) had tested this kind of hypothesis.

In this context the rights and duties of individuals are both subject to. The second assumption made by Chadwick-Jones (1982). an employee who is absent from work is consciously or unconsciously expressing negative attachment to the organization. or anything else.organisational commitment. and representative of.4 DYNAMIC CONFLICT: The „withdrawal‟ explanation offered by Hill and Trist (1962) had some subsequent influence on theoretical discussions by Ås (1962) and Knox (1961). What individuals do is therefore likely to be in answer to. 3. The conflict is located within the individual. some form of social exchange is taking place between employers and employees.5 SOCIAL EXCHANGE: Chadwick-Jones(1982) presented a case for the theory of absenteeism that is social. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 21 . or an intention to quit. According to this view. Exchanges may be conceived as between individuals and work groups. and whether a person stays or withdraws is the result of a complex in incentives and stresses. It seems obvious that individuals do have some mutual obligations to peers. security. is that under the employment contract. effort.it will be only what is possible for employees in the organisation. as well as achieving a compromise with the rules of the group. and superiors (as well as other relationships outside the work situation). As a first step Chadwick-Jones (1982) assumed the interdependency of members of work organisations. but it would not be realistic to conceive of the exchange between „the individual‟ and „the organisation‟ while disregarding the social conditions and rules. on behalf of. subordinates. Whatever they exchange in this situation – whether it be their time. or skill or money. congenial friends. or between work groups and management. not individual in emphasis. in defence of. Gadourek (1965) described the latter as „dynamic conflict‟ theories. a set of rules about activities in the work situation. 3.

however. 3. as the reasons for absence behaviour could be related to a choice of alternative activities instead of attending work. It is quite possible. as a defensive or aggressive act in inter-group conflict (Chadwick-Jones et al. as withdrawal or escape from surveillance. disciplinary rules. Chadwick-Jones (1982) however. especially those with higher status – supervisors in factories. between employers and employees. do point out that absences may not enter into the exchange at all. absence may also be viewed as a stratagem in inter-group relations. where work is defined by the employee‟s presence at a particular location (office or workshop) for a fixed period each day. job duties. The definition distinguishes absenteeism from other forms of non-attendance that are arranged in advanced (e. 1966. vacations) and specifically avoids judgments of legitimacy associated with absent events that are implied by as sick leave.Chadwick-Jones think of social exchange between employees and employers as developing in. For the purpose of this research this theory has relevance.g. Thus. and – salient to their analysis – absence from work. 3. insofar as some employees or employee groups. 1982). Informal ones include supervisory styles. Jones. as individual or group resistance to an inflexible system. can be interpreted as an individual act of choice between alternative activities. absence from work. that managers possess greater control over the allocation of their working time and may take periods of „time out‟ that are not recorded.. a pattern of behaviour in the work situation that includes absences with all the other factors that constitute the contract. 1971). Johns. Formal factors include pay.6 WITHDRAWAL: According to Chadwick-Jones (1982). formal and informal.7 NON-ATTENDANCE: Another definition of absenteeism refers to the non-attendance of employees for scheduled work (Gibons. managers in banks – are absent very little or hardly at all. and promotion lines. hours. peer group relations. or as revealed by. 1978. This definitional emphasis seeks to focus on the key organisational consequences of unscheduled non-attendance – instability in the supply of EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 22 .

1985. fatigue. absence is viewed as a response to various infrequent and uncontrollable events (illness. If such an absence (medical) occurred. Based on these studies. distinguished between two basic types of absences: involuntary (e. 1977). Firzgibbons & Moch. religious holidays. funeral leave. These categories are medical. jury duty. it seems that organisations operationalise excused absence to include (within defined limits) categories such as personal sickness. vocation. normative and calculative. Voluntary absences are under the direct control of the employee and are frequently utilised for personal aims. Nicholson. 3.9 INVOLUNTARY VS VOLUNTARY: March and Simon (1958) on the other hand. as Johns and Nicholson (1982) noted. Cheloha & Farr. 3.g. Hence. one simple distinction that previous studies (Blau. career enhancing. 3. However. voluntary rather than involuntary absences from work may reflect job dissatisfaction and lack of commitment to the organization.g. involuntary absences are beyond the employee‟s immediate control. absence behaviour can have a variety of meanings for individuals. For this research this definition will be applicable. as the researcher will not take into account absences due to vacation leave and sick leave taken over more than three days. uncertified sickness). funeral attendance) and voluntary (e. This research will focus on the organizationally unexcused type of absenteeism. 1981. it probably would be operationalised as a sporadically occurring EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 23 .10 A FOUR-CATEGORY TAXONOMY: Blau and Boal (1987) presented a four-category taxonomy describing the meanings of absence.In the medical category .8 ORGANISATIOALY EXCUSED VS UNEXCUSED: In terms of distinguishing among types of absence.labor to the organisation resulting in the disruption of scheduled work processes and the loss of under utilisation of productive capacity (Allen. 1971. 1980) made is between organisationally excused versus organisationally unexcused absences. 1980. and transportation problems. and family demands). injury. Conversely. Jones. certified sickness.

1.excused absence (Blau & Boal. Finally the calculative absence is viewed as a coin of exchange (Blau and Boal. Return to work policy - 50% 3.11 ACTIONS TO REDUCE ABSENTEESISM: The industrial society survey found that the top ban most effective ways of managing attendance adopted by the 486 respondents were. Johns & Nicholson. Thus. 1987). 3. This type of absence would be operationalised in terms of the employee using a certain number of excused and unexcused absences permitted by the organization. It could be predicted that an extremely apathetic employee (low job involvement and organizational commitment) would take full advantage by using both kinds of absence. Written absence policy - 50% 4. As such. In the career enhancing category. For the normative category. for this group. but also when absenteeism will happen. this type of absence probably would operationalise as a consistently occurring excused absence. Thus. depending on how much the employee felt he or she should modify the implicit social contract. absence is depicted as a mechanism that gives the employee a further choice to pursue task. the absolute frequency and total number of days absent should be greatest for workers who are the most apathetic.and career-related goals. 1987. Accurate Monitoring - 57% 2. Training of line managers - 37% EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 24 . 1987). 1982) in either fulfilling or modifying the implicit social contract between the employee and employer. absence is viewed less as a motivated behaviour and more as a habitual response to the norms of the work group (organisation) regarding absence (Blau & Boal. and as a time allocation strategy for enhancing nonwork outcomes. it would be expected not only to predict frequency.

Discipline - 36% 7.5. Performance appraisal - 26% 10. Personal adjustments 9% C. Poor work habits 6% B. Dissatisfaction 16% D. Team working - 21% Jackson (1994) in study based upon a sample of 550 employees found that the causes of excessive absenteeism were as follows A. Irresponsibility 17% E. They compared the attitudes of high and low absentee rate employees. According to their study absenteeism rises as supervising quality decreases 2. Outside difficulties 17% F. In a study of absenteeism of 4 major textile mills in Delhi – covering a period of 4 years-1960 to 1963 –Made by The Shri Ram Centre for industrial relations. Mann and Baumgartner (1952) report a study typical of the University of Michigan Group. Motivation - 37% 6. The investigators found that a more favorable attitude toward supervisor and a more favorable feeling about work associates accompanied lower absentee rates for both blue –and white-collar workers. Communicating absence rates - 33% 8. Senior Management commitment - 27% 9. the following facts were revealed. Sickness or fatigue 35% 1. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 25 .

• About 40% of total yearly absences occurred with the permission of management • About 25% were due to sickness and accidents and were granted by ESI. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 26 . • The remaining 35% were caused by workers‟ unauthorized absenteeism.

EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 27 . which wants to portray the characteristics of a group or individuals or situation. the decisions happen to be in respect of: What is the study about? Why is the study being made? Where will the study be carried out? What type of data is required? Where can the data found? What periods of time will the study include? What will be the sample design? How will the data be analyzed? In what style will the report be prepared? What techniques of data collection will be used? The Research Design undertaken for the study is Descriptive one. As such design includes an outline of what the researcher will do form writing the hypothesis and its operational implications to the final analysis of data. A study.CHAPTER-4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4. The main objective of Descriptive study is to acquire knowledge. is known as Descriptive study. More explicit. It is mostly qualitative in nature. measurement and analysis of data.1 Research Design “A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis data in a manner to combine relevance to the researcher purpose with economy in procedure” It constitutes the blueprint for the collection. As such the design includes an outline of what the researcher will do from writing the hypothesis and its operational implications to the final analysis of data.

To study the problem clearly numbers of employees from each department were selected on the basis of the size of the department as well as nature of the work. The task of data collection begins after research problem has been identified and research design is chalked out.3 Sampling Methodology Research work was conducted by taking a sample of 100 employees of 1300 (excluding apprentice trainees and contract labors). Ë Primary data In this study. websites. This is collected using a questionnaire specifically designed for the employees of all levels. Data collected are classified into primary and secondary data.4.2 Source of Data Data are the raw materials in which marketing research works. the primary data is collected to understand the main reasons behind the absenteeism of the employee. and from library books 4. memorandums of settlements. Ë Secondary data Secondary data were collected from the company‟s annual publications. The questions in the questionnaire are framed on the basis of the factors responsible for absenteeism EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 28 . Questionnaires were distributed to the employees individually and lot of efforts had to be taken to collect the required data from the selected sample of employees representing the population. newspapers. journals.

of Respondents Weighted average method: Ë Weighted average can be defined as an average whose component items are multiplied by certain values (weights) and the aggregate of the products are divided by the total of weights. The percentage method is used to know the accurate percentages of the data we took. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 29 . Where the importance of the items varies.4.4 Description of statistical tools used Ë Percentage method Percentage Analysis In this project Percentage method test was used. Ë One of the limitations of simple arithmetic mean is that it gives equal importance to all the items of the distribution. Ë It is essential to allocate weight applied but may vary in different cases. Ë In certain cases relative importance of all the items in the distribution is not the same. The following are the formula No of Respondent Percentage of Respondent = x 100 Total no. Thus weight age is a number standing for the relative importance of the items. it is easy to graph out through the percentages.

1 20−30 3K−40 4K−50 INFERENCE It is inferred that 79% of the employees who participated are in the age group of 2030. 18% come under the category of 30-40 and only 2% belongs to the category of 40-50.CHAPTER-5 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Analysis using simple random sampling Demographic details: AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS Age 20-30 31-40 41-50 Total No of Respondents 79 19 2 100 Percentage 79 19 2 100 Chart 5. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 30 .

2 SEX OF THE RESPONDENTS male 38% female 62% INFERENCE It has been inferred that 62% of the employees who participated in the survey are female and the remaining 38% come under male category EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 31 .SEX OF THE RESPONDENTS Sex Male No of respondents 38 Percentage 38 Female Total 62 100 62 100 Chart 5.

MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS Marital status Single Married Divorced Widow(er) Total No of respondents 64 33 0 3 100 Percentage 64 33 0 3 100 Chart 5. Rest of them are categorized under the category of widows. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 32 .3 MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS single married Widow INFERENCE It has been inferred that 64% of the employees who participated in the survey are single and 33% of the respondents are married.

1 No Causes Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree 1 Other source of income 15 14 44 10 16 2 Higher studies 40 39 17 2 - 3 Time for personal activities 41 20 22 14 - 4 Health problems - 6 48 26 16 5 Employee‟s commitment 12 19 35 23 6 6 Transportation problems 4 7 31 34 18 7 Family responsibilities 8 1 11 41 32 8 Lack of interest 31 23 11 15 12 EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 33 .General causes for employee absenteeism: Table 5.

since their income is not enough for their family expenses.4 Other source of income 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 K5 K0 5 0 Sfıongly agıee Agıee Nuefıal Disagıee Sfıongly disagıee INFERENCE It has been inferred that 15% and 16% of the employees absent themselves because of other businesses. This clearly shows that very minimum number of people are engaged in some other business.Chart 5. Whereas among the remaining some are neutral and some strongly disagree to this statement. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 34 .

coming under the age group of 20-30 and they just work here to gain some experience. since most of the employees working in the organisation are freshers.Chart 5.5 Higher studies 45 40 35 30 25 20 K5 K0 5 0 Sfııongly agıee Agıee Nuefıal Disagıee Sfıongly disagıee INFERENCE 40% of the respondents strongly agree that they had to concentrate in their higher studies which make them to take leave. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 35 .

EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 36 .Chart 5.6 Time for personal activities 45 40 35 30 25 20 K5 K0 5 0 Sfıongly Agıee Agıee Nuefıal Disagıee Sfıongly disagıee INFERENCE 41% of the respondents strongly agree that they don't get time for their personal activities because of their tight schedule and heavy work which becomes a major factor to make them absent.

EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 37 .Chart 5.7 Health problems leading to absenteeism 60 50 40 30 20 K0 0 Sfıongly agıee Agıee Nuefıal Disagıee Sfıongly disagıee INFERENCE Most of the employees disagree to the fact that health problems make them absent from their work and only 6% of them agree that their health gets affected often.

EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 38 .Chart 5. Anyway this ratio is less because only employees at high level are really feeling committed towards their work.8 Employee‟s commitment towards the work Sfıongly agıee Agıee Neufıal Disagıee Sfıongly disagıee INFERENCE This pie chart shows that 23% and 6% percent of the employees disagree and strongly disagree to the fact that their absence doesn't affect the company's output.

EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 39 .9 Transportation problem Sfıongly agıee Agıee Neufıal Disagıee Sfıongly disagıee INFERENCE Only 4% and 7% of the employees strongly agree and agree to this statement whereas the remaining are comfortable reaching their workplace since most of the employees recruited were residing close to their workplace and most of them were found to have two wheelers and four wheelers.Chart 5.

Chart 5. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM Chart 5.11 40 .10 Work Vs Family responsibilities Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree INFERENCE 41% and 32% of the employees disagree and strongly disagree that their worklife is affected by their family responsibilities this shows that they were able to able their work and family because the company doesn't give any home assignments and projects to the employees.

EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM Factors responsible for employee‟s absenteeism at the workplace: 41 .Lack of interest Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree INFERENCE 31% and 23% of the employees strongly agree and agree to the statement that they are not into the right job since most of them were engineering and science graduates who were doing the job of diploma holders and typewriters.

2 No Causes Strongly agree 20 Agree Neutral Disagree 26 28 11 Strongly disagree 14 1 Employee‟s satisfaction 2 Stress level of the employees Pay scale 58 22 10 5 3 50 27 15 2 3 8 3 40 30 15 12 41 11 21 10 6 Loneliness at the workplace Routine work causes boredom Working conditions - - 34 4 56 7 Welfare measures 2 - 29 6 56 8 Shift basis.Drawback 40 20 12 8 12 9 Lack of motivation 28 11 10 32 10 10 Colleagues cooperation 11 5 - 60 14 3 4 5 EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 42 .Table 5.

12 Employee‟s Satisfaction towards the job 30 25 20 K5 K0 5 0 Sfıongly agıee Agıee Nuefıal Disagıee Sfıongly disagıee INFERENCE It has been inferred that 20% and 26% 0f the respondents were dissatisfied with their job because most of them felt that they didn't fit in with the task allotted to them and some felt that they were dominated by their higher officials and didn't get any freedom to share their views.Chart 5. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 43 .

EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 44 .Chart 5.13 Stress level of the employees 70 60 50 40 30 20 K0 0 Sfıongly Agıee Agıee Nuefıal Disagıee Sfıongly disagıee INFERENCE Nearly 58% and 22% of the respondents have agreed that their work is heavy and tiresome which causes stress and due to stress they absent themselves to relax. This was found to be the majo reason for most of the employees to be absent.

They feel that the work assessed to them is greater and their pay scale is lesser.Chart 5. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 45 .14 Salary and allowances 60 50 40 30 20 K0 0 Sfıongly agıee Agıee Nuefıal Disagıee Sfıongly disagıee INFERENCE 50% and 27% of the employees feel that the salary given to them is not satisfactory since their work is stressful and they don't get any performance pay even if they work for overtime.

15 Loneliness at the workplace 45 40 35 30 25 20 K5 K0 5 0 Sfıongly agıee Agıee Nuefıal Disagıee Sfıongly disagıee INFERENCE Only 8% and 3% of the respondents feel lonely at their workplace. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 46 . This shows that this is a very minor reason for absenteeism in the company.Chart 5. most of the employees were from the same locality and were found to have been college mates or schoolmates. Because.

Chart 5. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 47 .16 Boredom due to routine work 45 40 35 30 25 20 K5 K0 5 0 Sfıongly agıee Agıee Nuefıal Disagıee Sfıongly disagıee INFERENCE 41% agree and 12% strongly agree that the same routine work allotted to them causes boredom towards their work which makes them to absent. This will also lead to lack of interest towards the work.

Chart 5.17

Satisfaction with the existing working condition
60

50

40

30

20

K0

0
Sfıongly agıee

Agıee

Neufıal

Disagıee

Sfıongly disagıee

INFERENCE
None of the respondents are dissatisfied with their existing working conditions. This
shows that they are satisfied with the infrastructure and atmosphere in which they
work.

EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM

48

Chart 5.18

Satisfaction with the welfare measures
60

50
40
30
20
K0
0
Sfıongly agıee

Agıee

Nuefıal

Disagıee

Sfıongly disagıee

INFERENCE
It has been found that only 2% of the employees are dissatisfied with the welfare
measures adopted by the company and the rest of them strongly disagree to this
statement.

EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM

49

Chart 5.19

Shift basis - Drawback
45
40
35
30
25
20
K5
K0
5
0
Sfıongly agıee

Agıee

Nuefıal

Disagıee

Sfıongly disagıee

INFERENCE
20% and 40% of the respondents agree and strongly agree to that shift basis is a
strong reason for their absence. This is because 62% of the respondents who
participated in the survey were female, who feel that they are not comfortable with
the night shifts.

EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM

50

whereas 32% of the employees disagree to this statement. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 51 .20 Lack of motivation Sfıongly agıee Agıee Neufıal Disagıee Sfıongly disagıee INFERENCE Only 11% and 28% of the respondents agree and strongly agree that they don't get proper motivation from their superiors.Chart 5.

whereas 60% of the respondents disagree to this fact.Chart 5. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 52 .21 Colleagues Co-operation Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree INFERENCE Only 11% of the respondents strongly agree that their colleagues are not cooperative. so it is evident that this factor doesn't play a major role in absenteeism.

36 6 5 Employee‟s commitment 293 2. most of the employees also feel that they don't get ample time for their personal activities so it has been ranked second.91 8 8 Lack of interest 322 3.Ranking the general causes using weighted average method: Table 5.99 4 2 Higher studies 411 4. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 53 .27 7 7 Family responsibilities 191 1.11 1 3 Time for personal activities 379 3.93 5 6 Transportation problems 227 2. since most of them expect the right kind of job to be allotted to them.3 No Causes Total score Average Rank 1 Other source of income 299 2.79 2 4 Health problems 236 2.22 3 INFERENCE: From the above table we can infer that the reason of higher studies was ranked first among the other causes. Lack of interest towards the job has been ranked third.

88 6 10 Colleagues co-operation 209 2.65 10 8 Shift basis.44 3 9 Lack of motivation 288 2.24 4 2 Stress level of the employees 421 4. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 54 .47 7 5 Routine work causes boredom 309 3.4 No Causes Total score Average Rank 1 Employee‟s satisfaction 324 3. Therefore it has been ranked second.10 2 4 Loneliness at the workplace 247 2.Ranking the workplace factors using weighted average method: Table 5.Drawback 344 3.66 9 7 Welfare measures 165 1.21 1 3 Pay scale 410 4. It was also found that most of the employees were not satisfied with their pay scale. Shift basis was also found be the third main reason for the employee's absenteeism in this company.09 5 6 Working conditions 166 1.09 8 INFERENCE The first main workplace factor was found to be the stress level of the employees.

Ë The female employees don‟t feel comfortable with all the shifts. they tend to be absent to a greater extent. mainly the night shifts. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 55 .CHAPTER-6 6. which makes them to be absent. Ë Lack of time for recreation and personal needs due to work pressure encourage them to take leave. Worklife factors responsible for absenteeism: Ë Employees experience a higher level of stress since their work is heavy and tiresome.1 FINDINGS General factors responsible for absenteeism: Ë Since most of the employees are working in a temporary basis and pursuing their studies. Ë Most of them feel that they are underpaid because they feel that for the same qualification other companies give them better compensation. Ë Lack of interest towards the job due to over qualification and mismatch of the job makes them to be absent.

6. Ë The company can help the employees have get together or peer groups at the end of every month Ë The people who are overqualified and not suitable for that particular job should not be recruited. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 56 . Ë The company should allot some time for entertainment in addition to the lunch break and it was found that most of the employees needed a break at least for alternate Saturdays. It should also revise and increase the pay scale based on the profits of the company. It can give overtime incentive for people who work for the organisation in Saturdays. Ë The company can conduct performance appraisal once in 2 months.2 SUGGESTIONS: Ë The company itself should provide support and back-up to its employees by having tie-up with educational organisations and conducting training programme and seminars once in a while.

so the company can free them in their Saturdays. they will like to socialize in their weekends with their friends or family. The company can try adopting the suggestions given above to reduce absenteeism in the company. Since this is a fastly developing company here in Pondicherry. The company should not solely concentrate in getting the work done by the employees.CHAPTER-7 7. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 57 . Since most if the employees working here are coming under the age group of 20-30. it has to look after that its employees are satisfied with salary and compensation given to them. it should also give its employees some time for fun and entertainment.1 CONCLUSION Integra software services should be very cautious while recruiting the employees.

Educational Publishers. Second Edition. Human relations and organizational behavior.. Gomez-Mejia. Cardy. Statistical Methods. Ë Biswajeet pattanayak. Ë Likert Rensis. “Human Resource and Personnel Management”. New Delhi. published by rajiv Beri fore Macmillan India ltd. “Research Methodology” Methods and Techniques. 5th edition. Ë Lewis R. David B.. Human resources management. Thirty Fourth Edition.Third edition. Managing human resources. S. “The Human Organisation” published by Mc Graw Hill Book Company Limited.R. Ë Tapomoy Deb “Strategic Approaches to Human Resource Management” published by Atlantic publisher.Hill Publishing Company limited. Robert L. second edition. Ë Paneerselvam.S. Balkin. New Delhi.. Sultan Chand & Sons Publishers. publisher by Beri fore Macmillan India ltd. published by prentice Hall of India Private Ltd. 2005. Tata MC GRAW.. New Delhi. Ë Dwivedi R.P. Ë Tripathi P C “Human Resource Development” published by Sultan Chand &Sons. Ë Gupta.2 BIBILIOGRAPHY Ë Aswathappa. Ë Flippo Edwin B “Personnel Management” published by Mc Graw Hill Book Company Limited.7. New Delhi.. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 58 ..

scribd.com/forums/archive/index.php?do=signup http://www.oppapers.com/ http://www.com/ http://www.com/ http://www.integra-india.com/ http://www.citehr.sciencedirect.com/ http://www.com/register.wikipedia.html http://www.php/t13788.absenteeism.Websites: http://www.com/ EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 59 .managementparadise.

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) Disagree e. Pondicherry Name: …………………………… Age a.) Female Marital Status a.) Neutral d.QUESTIONNAIRE: A Study on Employee Absenteeism with reference to Integra Software Services.) Strongly disagree 2.) Divorced d.)Agree c.) Single b.)Agree c. I feel that sickness makes me absent from work often a.) Disagree e. I feel that my worklife is affected by the family responsibilities a.) 41-50 c.) Disagree e.) Neutral 6.)Strongly agree b.) Nuetral d.) Strongly agree b.) Widow(er) General factors: 1.) Strongly disagree 3.) Strongly agree b.) Agree c.) Disagree e.) Strongly disagree EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 61 .)Agree c.) Strongly agree b. I have some other source of income which prompts me to take leave a.) Strongly disagree 5.) Disagree e.) Neutral d.) Married c.) Disagree e.) Strongly agree b. I am not into the job assigned to me and I am seeking for the appropriate job a.) Agree c.) Nuetral d.) 20-30 b. I don't get enough time to spend with my family a.) Strongly disagree 4.) Nuetral d.) Agree c.) Strongly disagree d. I concentrate more on my higher studies when compared to my work a.) Strongly agree b.) Male b.) 31-40 Sex a.

) Strongly disagree 4.) Disagree e. I am not satisfied with my works a.) Disagree e.) Nuetral 6.) Disagree e.) Strongly agree b.) Strongly agree b.) Disagree e.) Disagree e.) Agree c.) Agree c.) Strongly agree b.)Strongly disagree d.)Neutral 7.) Strongly agree b.) Agree c.) Nuetral d.) Agree c.)Agree c.)Neutral d. I feel that my absence doesn't affect the company's output a.) Strongly disagree d.)Disagree e) Strongly disagree c.) Agree c. I am not satisfied with the welfare measures adopted by the company a.)Agree c.) Strongly disagree 2.) Strongly agree b. I am not satisfied with the salary and allowances a.)Agree c.) Strongly agree b. Stress is a part of my work life a.) Strongly agree b.) Neutral d.) Strongly disagree 8.) Strongly agree b.) Strongly disagree 5.) Strongly disagree Worklife factors: 1.) Nuetral d.) Strongly agree b.) Strongly disagree EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 62 .) Neutral d. I feel lonely while working with others (in your workplace) a. I feel bored with the same routine work a. I do absent myself often because of transportation problems a.) Strongly agree b.) Agree 3.7.) Nuetral d.) Nuetral d.) Disagree e.) Disagree e.) Strongly disagree 8.) Neutral d) Disagree e. Shift basis is a stumbling block for my regularity a.) Agree c.)Disagree e. I don't feel satisfied with the existing working condition a.

) Agree c.) Disagree e. please specify ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………… Any suggestions to reduce absenteeism in your company ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………….) Disagree e. I don't get proper motivation from my superiors a.) Neutral d. for your absence.9.) Strongly agree b.) Strongly disagree 10. I am not getting sufficient co-operation from my colleagues a.) Strongly agree b. EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 63 .) Strongly disagree Any other reasons.) Agree c.) Neutral d.