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What are some of the realities mentioned at the beginning of the chapter

that modern manufacturing enterprises must cope with? (1) globalization,
(2) international outsourcing, (3) local outsourcing, (4) contract manufacturing
-Production systems can be divided into two categories or levels. Name and
briefly define the two levels. (1) facilities, which consist of the factory, the
equipment in the factory, and the way the equipment is organized; and (2)
manufacturing support systems, which is the set of procedures used by the
company to manage production and to solve the technical and logistics
problems encountered in ordering materials, moving the work through the
factory, and ensuring that products meet quality standards.
- Manufacturing systems are divided into three categories, according to
worker participation. Name the three categories. (1) manual work systems,
(2) worker-machine systems, and (3) automated systems.
- Three basic types of automation are defined in the text. What is fixed
automation and what are some of its features?
Fixed automation is a system in which the sequence of processing (or
assembly) operations is fixed by the equipment configuration. Each operation
in the sequence is usually simple, but the integration and coordination of
many such operations into one piece of equipment makes the system complex.
Typical features of fixed automation are (1) high initial investment for
custom-engineered equipment, (2) high production rates, and (3) relatively
inflexible in accommodating product variety.
-What is programmable automation and what are some of its features? The
operation sequence is controlled by a program, which is a set of instructions
coded so that they can be read and interpreted by the system. Some of the
features of programmable automation are (1) high investment in general
purpose equipment, (2) lost production time due to changeovers of physical
setup and reprogramming, (3) lower production rates than fixed automation,
(4) flexibility to deal with variations and changes in product configuration,
and (5) most suitable for batch production.
-What is flexible automation and what are some of its features? Flexible
automation is an extension of programmable automation. A flexible
automated system is capable of producing a variety of parts (or products) with
virtually no time lost for changeovers from one part style to the next. There is
no lost production time while reprogramming the system and altering the
physical setup. Accordingly, the system can produce various mixes and
schedules of parts or products instead of requiring that they be made in
batches. The features of flexible automation are (1) high investment for a
custom-engineered system, (2) continuous production of variable mixtures of
products, (3) medium production rates, and (4) flexibility to deal with product
design variations
-Identify three situations in which manual labor is preferred over
automation. (1) The task is technologically too difficult to automate. (2) Short
product life cycle. (3) Customized product.
- What is the USA Principle? What does each of the letters stand for? The
USA Principle is a common sense approach to automation and process
improvement projects. U means “understand the existing process,” S stands
for “simplify the process,” and A stands for “automated the process.”
- The text lists ten strategies for automation and process improvement.
Identify five of these strategies. The ten strategies listed in the text are (1)
specialization of operations, (2) combined operations, (3) simultaneous
operations, (4) integration of operations, (5) increased flexibility.
-What are the three phases of a typical automation migration strategy? As
defined in the text, the three typical phases are the following: Phase 1: Manual
production using single-station manned cells operating independently. Phase
2: Automated production using single-station automated cells operating
independently. Phase 3: Automated integrated production using a multistation automated system with serial operations and automated transfer of
work units between stations.
-What is manufacturing? The technological definition is the following:
Manufacturing is the application of physical and chemical processes to alter
the geometry, properties, and/or appearance of a given starting material to
make parts or products; manufacturing also includes the joining of multiple
parts to make assembled products. The economic definition is the following:
Manufacturing is the transformation of materials into items of greater value by
means of one or more processing and/or assembly operations.
-What are the three basic industry categories? (1) Primary industries,
which are those that cultivate and exploit natural resources, such as
agriculture and mining; (2) secondary industries, which convert the
outputs of the primary industries into products; they include
manufacturing, construction, and power generation; and (3) tertiary

industries, which constitute the service sector of the economy, which
includes banking, retail, transportation, education, government, and so
- What is the difference between a processing operation and an assembly
operation? A processing operation transforms a work material from one
state of completion to a more advanced state that is closer to the final
desired part or product. It adds value by changing the geometry,
properties, or appearance of the starting material. An assembly operation
joins two or more components to create a new entity, called an assembly,
subassembly, or some other term that refers to the joining process.
-Name the four categories of part-shaping operations, based on the state of
the starting work material. (1) solidification processes, (2) particulate
processing, (3) deformation processes, and (4) material removal processes.
-Assembly operations can be classified as permanent joining methods and
mechanical assembly. What are the four types of permanent joining
methods? (1) welding, (2) brazing, (3) soldering, and (4) adhesive bonding.
-What is the difference between a single-model production line and a
mixed-model production line? A single-model production line makes
products that are all identical. A mixed-model production line makes
products that have model variations characterized as soft product variety.
-What is lean production? Lean production means operating the factory with
the minimum possible resources and yet maximizing the amount of work that
is accomplished with these resources. Lean production also implies
completing the products in the minimum possible time and achieving a very
high level of quality, so that the customer is completely satisfied. In short,
lean production means doing more with less, and doing it better.
-In lean production, what is just-in-time delivery of parts? just-in-time
delivery of parts refers to the manner in which parts are moved through
the production system when a sequence of manufacturing operations is
required to make them. In the ideal just-in-time system, each part is
delivered to the downstream workstation immediately before that part is
needed at the station.
-In lean production, what does worker involvement mean? worker
involvement means that workers are assigned greater responsibilities and are
provided with training that allows them to be flexible in the work they can do.
Also, workers participate in problem-solving exercises to address issues faced
by the company
-In lean production, what does continuous improvement mean, and how is
it usually accomplished? Continuous improvement involves an unending
search for ways to make improvements in products and manufacturing
operations. It is usually accomplished by worker teams who cooperate to
develop solutions to production and quality problems.
-What is the cycle time in a manufacturing operation? the cycle time Tc is
the time that one work unit spends being processed or assembled. It is
the time between when one work unit begins processing (or assembly)
and when the next unit begins.
-What is a bottleneck station? The bottleneck station is the slowest
workstation in a production line, and therefore it limits the pace of the
entire line.
-What is production capacity? production capacity is the maximum rate of
output that a production facility (or production line, work center, or
group of work centers) is able to produce under a given set of assumed
operating conditions.
-How can plant capacity be increased or decreased in the short term? (1)
change the number of work shifts per week Sw or (2) change the number of
hours worked per shift Hsh.
-What is utilization in a manufacturing plant? Utilization is the amount of
output of a production facility relative to its capacity. Expressing this as an
equation, U = Q/PC, where U = utilization, Q = actual output quantity
produced during the period of interest, and PC is the production capacity
during the same period

Tc= To+ Th+ Tth; Tc= cycle time,
To= processing time for the operation,
Th= handling time (e.g., loading and unloading the production machine)
Tth= tool handling time (e.g., time to change tools)
Average Production Time and Rate … Batch production: batch time
Tb= Tsu+ QTc
Average production time per work unit
Tp= Tb/Q
Tp= Tsu/Q+ Tc
Production rate
Rp= 1/Tp
Cycle Time and Production Time
High quantity production (if Tpin minutes):
since Tsu/Q 0,
Tp= Tc
Rp= Rc= 60/Tp(per hour)
Job shop production Q = 1:
Tp= Tsu+ Tc
Flow line production (if Tr is time to transfer parts between
Tc= Tr+ Max To and Rc= 60/Tc
Production Capacity
no : number of operations in the routing
n: number of workstations working in parallel
Sw: shifts per week,
Hs: hours per shift,
PCw: weekly plant capacity, units/wk
For facilities in which parts are made in more than one operation,
no > 1: PC (w)= nSwHsRp/n0
no = 1: PC (w)= nSwHsRp
Utilization and Availability
MTBF = mean time between failures,
MTTR = mean time to repair,
Q = quantity actually produced,
PC = plant capacity
Utilization: U= PC/Q
Availability: A= MTBF-MTTR/MTBF
Manufacturing Lead Time MLT= no(Tsu+ QTc+ Tno) … where MLT=
manufacturing lead time, no= number of operations, Tsu= setup time, Q=
batch quantity, Tccycle time per part, and Tno= non-operation time
WIP= work-in-process, pc,
A= availability,
U= utilization,
PC= plant capacity, pc/wk,
MLT= manufacturing lead time, hr,
Sw= shifts per week,
Hsh= hours per shift, hr/shift
Costs of Manufacturing Operations
•Two major categories of manufacturing costs:
1.Fixed costs -remain constant for any output level
2.Variable costs -vary in proportion to production output level
Velocity of piston = Volumetric flow rate / Area of Cylinder cross
section, v=Q/A
Rotational Hydraulic Piston
Resolution of ADC

Rotational Speed = proportionality constant X volumetric flow rate,
Force is fluid pressure by cross sectional area, F=pA
•Adding fixed and variable costs
where TC= total costs, FC= fixed costs (e.g., building, equipment, taxes),
VC= variable costs (e.g., labor, materials, utilities), Q= output level.
•Unit Cost UC= TC/Q
Overhead Rates
Factory overhead rate:
Corporate overhead rate:
where DLC = direct labor costs
Uniform Annual Cost, Capital Recovery Factor and Machine Rate
•(A/P,i,n): Capital Recovery Factor to annual interest rate, i: interest rate
(or rate of return), n: number of years of service life
(A/P,i,n)=(1+𝑖)𝑛(1+𝑖)𝑛−1, (interest table available)
•UAC: Uniform Annual Cost
•Cm: Machine Rate (hr/yr),
•CL: direct labor rate ($/hr)
UAC=IC x (A/P,i,n)
Cm=UAC/(work hrs/yr)
Cost of Equipment Usage
Hourly cost of worker-machine system:
Co= CL(1 + FOHRL) + Cm(1 + FOHRm)
where Co= hourly rate, $/hr; CL= labor rate, $/hr; FOHRL= labor factory
overhead rate, Cm= machine rate, $/hr; FOHRm= machine factory
overhead rate
spindle speed [ rev/min]=
milling cutter.. N= ]v
(m/min)]/ pi*D
Feed rate calculation
Fr (mm/min_ = N (rev/min) x
nf (teeth) x f (mm/tooth)
Vt= fr= lead screw rotational
speed x leadscrew pitch=N x
Theta =360/ (ns ( # of motor
step angles)
Open Loop Lathe Pulse Frequency fp
Fp= nsrgfr/60p….. N= fr/p
Closed Loop Lathe Calculation
Fp=ns x fr/60p
Controller and System Resolution
Computer Controller:
• System Resolution:
1/(2^B- 1)
Number of bits 32 used or 64
CR= max (CR1,CR2)
Torque-Speed Calculation
where E K and K is the voltage constant of the motor
T=K I where K is the torque constant of the motor
Torque-Speed Calculation