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DIAGRAM AND APPARATUS

APPARATUS

1. Membrane Test Unit (Model TR14)


2. Digital Weighing Balance
3. Stopwatch
4. Beaker

MATERIAL

1. Sodium chloride.
2. Water.
3. Polyamide Film (AFC90)
4. Polyamide Film (AFC40)
5. Cellulose Acetate (CA202)
6. PVDF (PVDF)

MATHODOLOGY/PROCEDURE

General start-up procedure


1.

All the valves were making sure initially closed.

2.

A sodium chloride solution was prepared by adding 100g of sodium chloride into 20L of
water.

3.

The tank was filled up with the salt solution that was prepared in step 2. The feed was
maintained at room temperature.

4.

The power for control panel was turned on. All sensors and indicators were checked to
functioning properly.

5.

Thermostat was switched on and the thermo oil level was checked to make sure it is
above the coil inside thermostat. The thermostat was checked if connections were
properly fitted.
The temperature was adjusted at the thermostat to maintain feed temperature.

6.

The unit is now ready for experiments.

Experiment procedure

1.

The experiment was started with membrane 1. Valves V2, V5, V7, V11 and V15 were
opened.

2.

To set the maximum working pressure at 20 bars, the plunger pump (P1) was switched on
and valve V5 was slowly closed. The pressure value at pressure gauge was observed and
the pressure regulator was adjusted to 20 bars.

3.

Valve V5 was opened. Then, membrane maximum inlet pressure was set to 18 bars for
Membrane 1 by adjusting the retentive control valve (V15).

4.

The system was allowed to run for 5 minutes. Sample from permeate sampling port was
collected and the sample was weighed using digital weighing balance. The weight of
permeates was recorded every 1 minute for 10 minutes.

5.

The step 1 to 5 was repeated for Membrane 2, 3 and 4. The respective sets of valves were
opened and closed and the membrane maximum inlet pressure was adjusted for every
membrane.
Membrane

Open Valves

Sampling Valves

Retentive control

Membrane

valve

maximum inlet
pressure(bar)

V2, V5, V7, V11 Open V19 and


and V15

6.

12

V17

10

V18

8.5

close valve V13

V2, V5, V10, V14 Open V22 and


and V18

V16

close valve V12

V2, V5, V9, V13 Open V21 and


and V17

18

close V11

V2, V5, V8, V12 Open V20 and


and V16

V15

close V14

The graph of permeate weight versus time was plotted.

General shut-down operation

1.

The plunger pump was switched off.

2.

Valve 2 was then closed.

3.

All liquid in the feed tank and product tank were drained by opening valves V3 and V4.

4.

The entire pipes were flushed with clean water. V3 and V4 were closed; the clean water
was filled to the feed tank until 90% full.

5.

The system was run with the clean water until the feed tank is nearly empty.

REFERENCES

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Membrane_technology
http://vedyadhara.ignou.ac.in/wiki/images/6/63/Unit_11_Membrane.DOC_1.pdf

http://www.epa.gov/ogwdw/disinfection/lt2/pdfs/guide_lt2_membranefiltration_final.pdf

APPENDIX