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Emily Fox

Unit 3 Help To Keep Children Safe

Task 1 – Health and Safety

K1 The setting’s safety, protection and emergency procedures.

Accidents and first aid

First aid items are kept in the office in a lockable drawer unit.
During school hours the administrative staff will deal with children
who are injured, unwell etc and at lunchtimes by the midday staff.
The appointed first aiders are known to all staff and pupils.

Parents’ names, addresses and contact numbers are kept in the


office.

All children’s accidents should be noted n the office book or on the


midday staff’s notepad. Children with head injuries are to be given a
‘bump’ letter to inform parents of the incident. Staff accidents must
be reported to the Finance Officer.

A mop and bucket is available in the caretaker’s room if needed.


Crystals are available for covering sickness. Rubber gloves must be
worn when cleaning away blood or other bodily spillages.

Procedure for accident reporting:

a) Report accident to named member of administrative staff


b) They will complete an accident form
c) In the case of notifiable incidents the before mentioned
staff member and/or the head teacher will contact HSE.
School security and strangers

All entry doors to the school have a coded security system or can
only be accessed using an electronic key fob. All staff and visitors
wear a lanyard and/or name tag. It is a matter of courtesy and
security for all visitors to give advance notice of their visit. A
balance has to be achieved which ensures that the child is safe (for
example that the staff know who is to collect the child at the end of
the day) but which is welcoming to people who have good reason to
be there.

During the school day all side gates to the school remain locked and
are only opened at the start and end of the day by the caretaker.
The car park also has a coded security lock which can be opened by
staff for visitors on appointment. Staff are present on the
playgrounds at the end of each day to ensure children are collected
and leave the school safely.

It is the duty of all staff to remain vigilant at all times and to


challenge any unidentified persons immediately.

Fire procedures.

The signal for Emergency Evacuation is the continuous ringing of the


alarm. The place for assembly is the playground. It is the duty of
anyone discovering a fire to activate the fire alarm.

Alarm points are situated at various points around the school, within
easy access of all areas. Alarm bells are placed so that they can be
heard from every area in the building.

Teachers will lead classes to the assembly point playground.


Registers will be brought out by the administrative staff.

Administrative, kitchen, cleaning and learning support staff and


visitors are to make their way to the assembly point. Administrative
and learning support staff will check the toilets, library and working
spaces outside the classrooms.

Anyone not in a class when the alarm sounds is to make their way
directly to the assembly point.

The nearest exit door should be used and doors closed behind you as
you go out.

At the assembly point teachers will take a roll count and report to
the Head teacher if anyone is missing. Every person must be
accounted for.

The Head or Deputy Head teacher will instruct a member of staff to


search the school if anyone is reported missing. No other person is
to leave the assembly point.

Permission to return to school will be given by the Head teacher or


Fire Officer present.

Fire-extinguishers are located at strategic points around the school.


They must not be moved. If one is accidently activated make sure
the office staff are informed so that arrangements can be made for
it to be refilled.

There are CO2 extinguishers placed around the school for electrical
fires. Liquid or foam must not be used. There are fire blankets for
the ‘quad cooker’.

Emergencies
If you are first on the scene of an accident or emergency send for
help as soon as possible. This should be the school’s designated first
aider and/or an ambulance. Do not leave the casualty unattended.
Reassure the casualty and any other children present and make sure
no-one else is at risk. If you are not trained in first aid, or are
unsure of what to do, do not attempt anything other than averting
any further danger.

Where a child has been badly injured their parents should be


informed immediately. They need to know exactly what happened and
where the child is now i.e. which hospital.

Personal hygiene.

All pupils and staff are encouraged to wash hands and use sanitizer
after using the toilet, contact with animals and after coughing or
sneezing. Tissues should be used when needed then binned. Toilet
facilities are cleaned and inspectected regularly.

K2 Health and Safety Laws Including General Responsibilities.

Health and Safety at Work Acts.

-Buildings and services should be well-maintained and designed to


ensure safety for users.

-Cleanliness and sanitation must be observed in food preparation and


in the general environment.

-Equipment must be safely used and safely stored.

-Working practices must be observed that promote health and


safety for clients.

-A written statement of safety policy should be brought to the


attention of all employees.
Every employer has a duty to protect employees at work and to keep
them informed about health and safety issues. In general, the
employer’s duties include:

-making the workplace safe and without risks to health;

-ensuring that equipment is safe and safe systems of work are set
and followed;

-ensuring that articles and substances, such as cleaning materials


and medicines, are moved, stored and used safely, according to
COSHH legislation;

-providing adequate welfare facilities;

-supplying information, training and supervision necessary for the


health and safety of employees.

In addition, the employer must:

-draw up a health and safety policy statement and bring it to the


attention of all employees;

-provide, free, any protective clothing or equipment specifically


required by health and safety law;

-report certain injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences to the


enforcing authority;

-provide adequate first-aid facilities;

-consult a safety representative about issues which affect health


and safety in the workplace.

The employee has legal duties too, which include:

-taking reasonable care of their own health and safety and that of
others who may be affected by what is, or is not, done;
-co-operating with the employer on health and safety issues;

-not interfering with, or misusing, anything provided for the


employee’s health, safety or welfare.

In addition to health and safety polices, there are also standards


and codes of practice which give specific guidance for specific types
of workplace. Premises in which children are cared for and taught
must be large enough, and should provide a separate area for the
care of babies and toddlers if applicable; and in addition:

-low level glass (e.g. in doors and cupboards) should be safety glass
or covered with boarding or guards;

-sharp corners on low level furniture should be padded;

-fire exits must be accessible and unlocked at all times;

-electric sockets should be covered;

-floor surfaces should be clean and free of splinters;

-access should be available for prams and wheelchairs;

-kitchen facilities must be adequate in terms of hygiene, storage and


safety.

K3 The Duty Of All Within The Sector To Safeguard Children.

It is every member of staff’s responsibility to ensure safety is


maintained throughout the setting. Pupils need to be encouraged to
think and act in a safe manner, so that they develop their own sense
of awareness.

If you notice, and report, a matter which is not followed through,


you should take the matter further. Approach the head teacher or
governing body and they will advise you on what to do next.
K4 Regulations Covering Manual Handling And The Risks Involved.

As part of the Manual Handling Operations Regulation 1992,


employers should ensure all staff follow correct guidelines when
lifting pupils or equipment. Staff have a duty to protect themselves
under the Health and Safety at Work Act.

-always check the weight before attempting to lift;

-get someone to help you whenever possible;

-when lifting, bend your knees, keeping your back straight;

-do not attempt to lift something which is too heavy for you.

To lift a child, make a four-handed seat with another adult by


grasping each other’s wrists. The child can then sit on the seat
supporting themselves by placing an arm round each adult’s
shoulders.

K5 Safety Factors And Recognised Standards Of Equipment And


Materials.

The prevention of accidents.

Childhood accidents can be reduced by the following means:

-be a good role model;

-make the setting as accident proof as possible;

-teach children about safety – make them aware of dangers in their


environment;

-never leave children unattended;

-always buy goods displaying the appropriate safety symbol.


Safety symbols.

The Kite Mark. This means that the B.S.I. has checked the
manufacturer’s claim that their product meets the specific
standards.

The Safety Mark (found on gas cookers and other gas appliances).
The product has been checked to ensure it meets the requirements
of the B.S.I. for safety only.

The Lion Mark. Only found on British-made toys. It means they have
met the safety standards required.

The CE Mark. Products comply with European and British safety


standards.

Other safety standards include:

-Fire resistant furniture;

-BEAB mark (found on electrical goods);

-Toxic substance;

-Corrosive substance;

-Highly flammable substance;

-Harmful or irritant substance.

K6 Routine Checking, Maintenance Of Equipment And Safe Storage.

Equipment must be checked regularly for broken parts and sharp


edges. Any outside play areas should be checked in the early morning
before school for dangerous litter, e.g. broken glass and needles
that may have been thrown into the area. Ensure any cupboards
containing cleaning equipment are stored safely and are inaccessible
to children. Toilet and washing facilities should be checked regularly.
Children and adults should always wash their hands after toileting,
before eating and after handling pets. Checks need to be made to
ensure it is not possible for a child to get out of the building or
grounds by themselves.

K7 Safe Layout And Organisation Of Rooms, Equipment, Materials


And Outdoor Spaces.

Young children are usually unaware of the extent of dangers in the


environment. They are keen to explore everything that they
encounter, and this curiosity involves touching and often tasting
objects which may be poisonous or unhygienic. A child attending a
nursery class for the first time, for example, may find that much of
the equipment in daily use is unfamiliar and will require them to learn
new skills. Potentially dangerous items include:

-climbing frames;

-large blocks;

-wheeled toys;

-scissors;

-slides.

Added to this list must be the presence of other children – collisions


in the play area are common, especially involving wheeled toys and
slides.

Always be aware of the needs and abilities of all pupils using the
area and take precautions to avoid accidents, i.e. make sure chairs
are pushed in and the floor is clear, especially if any pupils are
visually impaired. Always make sure there is sufficient space
available for all pupils to work safely.
When preparing learning materials and equipment always check there
are enough resources to complete activities before you begin.
Ensure you know where items are stored and whether you have
access to these areas. Teachers need to make sure they plan
activities at times when areas or resources are available and not in
use by another class.

Outdoor areas should be checked regularly to ensure the safety of


pupils and staff. Perimeter fences and gates need to be kept secure.
Any litter or animal mess needs to be cleared before pupils enter
the area. Make sure all staff and pupils are aware of how to use any
equipment safely.

K8 How To Adapt The Environment To Ensure Safety For All Pupils.

All children should be considered when planning activities and


setting out materials and resources. The environment may need to
be adapted to suit the needs of some particular pupils.

Things to consider are:

Light – may need to be adjusted for pupils with impaired vision.

Accessibility – pupils in wheelchairs need to be given access to the


same activities as other pupils. Furniture and resources may have to
be moved to create wheelchair access.

Sound – some pupils may have an increased sensitivity to sound.


Avoid loud noises when possible and be aware of the effects
unavoidable noise will have on the pupils.

K9 Using Safety Equipment And Safety In Respect Of Animals,


Plants, Sandpits And Outdoor Spaces.

Safety equipment such as socket covers, safety gates, cupboard


door locks, cooker guards and window catches are more likely to be
used in a nursery or Early Years setting. However, working with some
SEN pupils may require you to use some of these. Always refer to
the manufacturer’s guidelines when setting up and packing away
equipment. Any faulty or broken equipment should be removed,
reported and replaced.

Some schools may keep animals or allow children and staff to bring
in pets as part of a topic or activity. Ensure pupils know how to
handle the animals safely and to treat them with respect, keeping
any health and safety issues in mind. Always supervise any activity
involving contact with animals and ensure children and staff follow
good hygiene practice, i.e. washing of hands after contact.

There can be serious potential danger if outdoor areas are not


monitored correctly. Any ponds or sandpits need to be covered
securely when not in use. Equipment should only be used if there is
adequate space available and all equipment should be checked at the
start of the activity. Any equipment needs to be put away safely at
the end of the lesson. Be aware of any plants in the area which may
be dangerous, i.e. thorns, nettles and poisonous plants, which need to
be reported and removed.

K10 Good Hygiene Practice.

Good personal hygiene practice should always be followed by pupils


and staff.

Immunisations for staff should be kept up to date as, when working


with children, you are more vulnerable to picking up and carrying
infections.

Nursery classes, schools and hospitals must have a policy for dealing
with body fluids which must be followed at all times. A child may be
HIV positive or have Hepatitis B without the adult’s knowledge. All
local authorities issue guidelines on the safe disposal of body fluids,
which specify:

-wearing disposable latex gloves when dealing with blood, urine,


faeces or vomit;

-washing the hands after dealing with spillages – even if gloves have
been worn;

-using a 1% solution of hypochlorite to cover any blood spillages. The


area should then be wiped over with a gloved hand using disposable
cloths; the cloths must then be discarded into a bag which is sent
for incineration;

-avoiding sharp instruments that could result in injury;

-covering any skin abrasion with a waterproof plaster.

Extra care must be taken if any body fluid comes into contact with
anyone else’s broken skin. The affected area should be washed with
soap and water and bleeding encouraged in order to flush out any
contamination. An accident form should then be completed and
medical advice sought.

K11 Familiarity With Adult/Child Ratio Requirements.

The adult/child ratio will change according to the activity and any
special requirements of pupils present. The legal requirement is 1
teacher for every 30 pupils. This does not take into account SEN or
Statemented pupils which require additional adult support.

K12 How To Supervise Children Safely.

When supervising pupils you need to be aware of any possible risk


factors and how likely they are to happen. Take into account the age,
needs and abilities of the pupils involved. Encourage pupils to be
aware of their environment and to consider for themselves, what
risks may be present and how they could avoid them.

There are very few activities which are completely risk free. A
balance between safety and risk needs to be achieved, in order to
challenge pupils whilst minimising risk. If children are not given the
opportunity to explore and discover things for themselves they will
not learn to protect themselves and others around them.

K25 Legislation, Guidelines And Policies Which Form The Basis For
Action To Safeguard Children.

The Every Child Matters guidelines were put into place to ensure
every organisation involved with children work together to give all
children the support they need to be healthy, safe, happy, make a
positive contribution and achieve economic well-being.

The main points are:

-there should be a close working relationship between agencies;

-there should be a central database containing records of all


children;

-there should be an independent children’s commissioner for


England;

-there should be a children’s and families board;

-Ofsted will set a framework to monitor children’s services.

This led to The Children’s Act 2004 which required that all these
guidelines became a legal requirement.