Medieval Christian Thought RELG 296 MWF 11:50-1:05 Dewing 310 Instructor: Adam Kotsko Office: Humphrey House 109

Office Hours: Monday and Wednesday, 1:15-2:30; Thursday, 1:00-3:00 E-mail: Course Description This course traces the emergence of the distinctively Western form of Christianity in what are now known as the “middle ages.” It begins with the work of the African Latin theologian Augustine, whose work was in dialogue with the key questions of the patristic era but whose idiosyncratic concerns deeply shaped the distinctive character of Western theology. It ends with the so-called “medieval synthesis” of Thomas Aquinas and with the emergence of the lay spiritual movements (specifically among women) that were to lay the groundwork for the Protestant Reformation. In between, it investigates the beginnings of Christian mysticism, the development of monasticism, and the medieval fascination with the sacrament of the Eucharist. Overall, then, the narrative thread moves from the earliest seeds of medieval theology to its highest realization and ends as it begins to fall apart. In order to witness this transformation at first-hand, the emphasis of the course is on engagement with primary texts. There is a significant lecture component, in order both to provide the necessary historical background and to bridge the conceptual gap that separates medieval patterns of thought from our own. The focus, however, is on guided discussion, a focus that shapes both the lectures and the written assignments. Course Goals Upon completing this course, students should: • understand the social pressures under which western medieval Christianity developed and the ways that medieval Christian thinkers related to those pressures; • identify the major thinkers who contributed to the formation of medieval theology; • identify and explain the central questions and methods of medieval Christian theology; • be able to identify the central themes and arguments of pre-modern texts and state them in a clear and sympathetic way in class discussion; and • be able to formulate criticisms in a way that is attentive to the original author’s intent and argumentation. Course Requirements 1. Readings: All readings should be completed before the class session for which they are listed. In order to focus your reading, the professor will provide two study questions per reading assignment, which you should come to class as prepared as possible to answer; writing out answers beforehand is not required but is encouraged. 2. Class Participation: Class periods will include lecture elements, but each class period will include an in-class discussion. Students are expected to arrive in class ready to discuss the assigned readings in a way that is attentive and accountable to the texts,





providing specific references to back up their points, particularly with reference to the study questions provided. Reading quizzes: On Friday of each week, students will be given a quiz in-class that will deal with two randomly selected reading questions from the week (inclusive of the questions for Friday’s reading). Quizzes will be graded; each student’s lowest quiz grade will be dropped when determining the final average of all quizzes. Analytical papers: Students will be required to write a detailed analytical summary, not to exceed five double-spaced pages, of Augustine’s Confessions (Book 11, 12, or 13) and Anselm’s Proslogion. Students must turn in a first draft of the first analytical paper one week before the due date to ensure it conforms to expectations; detailed comments will be provided. Papers should reflect the following guidelines: a. They should talk about what the author found most important, as opposed to what you found most interesting as a reader. That means first of all that the summaries should be proportional—if the author spent half the text on a given topic, you should spend roughly half your paper on it. b. The papers should be in your own words. Avoid paraphrase like the plague—it is a sign that you haven’t fully digested the material, and it produces ambiguity that could lead to accusations of plagiarism. c. You should read through your text more than once and make sure that you can confidently state the main points of the argument in your own words (perhaps talking it out with your roommate or some other long-suffering soul) before you begin writing. Paraphrase becomes most tempting when you are trying to write your paper while reading the text for the first time, which is obviously a bad idea but is sometimes attempted. d. Papers should indicate the flow of the argument—what leads the author to the next point, what he puts forth as supporting evidence, etc. e. The papers should include brief illustrative quotations, generally not to exceed one full line. You are attempting to condense a lengthy text for this assignment; don’t waste space with excessive block quotes. Somewhere between 5-8 brief quotations per page is a good guideline. All quotations must be appropriately cited, with quotation marks clearly designating the author’s original words. f. Your goal overall should be to produce a text that’s reliable, one that you yourself would trust if it was your sole study guide for an exam question on the text. Comparative papers: Students will also be required to write one paper comparing and contrasting the works of two mystical authors from among the course readings, to be chosen in consultation with the professor, focusing on the question of how one gains access to God. It should draw on the skills required for the analytical paper, but should have greater distance from the text and may include elements of evaluation in addition to analysis. Attendance: Attendance is expected, in light of the fact that this is a discussion-heavy class. While attendance will not be formally tracked, a clear pattern of absenteeism will result in a reduction in your grade. In addition, Friday quizzes are to be done in class only except under extenuating circumstances (exceptions will be dealt with on a case-by-case basis).

7. Academic integrity: All students are expected to fully abide by the Honor Code of Kalamazoo College. Collaborative study is encouraged, but all submitted work must be the student’s own. Grade summary: • Class participation: 10% • Reading quizzes: 30% • Papers: 20% each

Course Texts Required textbooks: • Augustine, Confessions (Penguin Classics) • Pseudo-Dionysius, The Complete Works (Paulist) • Bernard of Clairvaux, Selected Works (HarperOne) • Anselm of Canterbury, The Major Works (Oxford World’s Classics) • Thomas Aquinas, Summa Contra Gentiles: Book 1 (University of Notre Dame Press) • Julian of Norwich, Showings: Norton Critical Edition (Norton) Recommended supplemental textbook: • Jaroslav Pelikan, The Growth of Medieval Theology (University of Chicago Press, 1978). Other required readings, marked in the course outline with asterisks (**) will be made available via the most convenient means. Outline of Course and Reading Week 1: Augustine—hinge between patristic and medieval eras • Monday: Course introduction • Wednesday: Augustine, Confessions, books 1 and 2 • Friday: Augustine, Confessions, books 3 and 4 Week 2: Augustine (cont.) • Monday: Augustine, Confessions, books 5 and 6 • Wednesday: Augustine, Confessions, books 7 and 8 • Friday: Augustine, Confessions, books 9 and 10 Week 3: Augustine (cont.); The roots of Christian mysticism • Monday: Augustine: Confessions, books 11 and 12 • Wednesday: Augustine, Confessions, book 13 • Friday: Pseudo-Dionysius, The Divine Names (first half) Readings: Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, The Divine Names and Mystical Theology Week 4: Mysticism, Monasticism, Eucharist (Draft of Paper #1 due in class Monday) • Monday: Pseudo-Dionysius, The Divine Names (second half), Mystical Theology • Wednesday: Augustine, Sermon 211 and On the Work of Monks**; The Rule of Saint Benedict (table of contents)** • Friday: Radbertus of Corbie, On the Body and Blood of Christ (selections)**; Ratramnus of Corbie, On the Body and Blood of Christ**

Week 5: Monastic spirituality (Revised Paper #1 due in class Monday) • Monday: Bernard of Clairvaux, On Loving God • Wednesday: Bernard of Clairvaux, Sermons on the Song of Songs • Friday: Hildegard of Bingen, Scivias (selections)** Week 6: The beginnings of scholasticism • Monday: Anselm of Canterbury, Proslogion • Wednesday: Gaunilo, On Behalf of the Fool (in Anselm text); Anselm, Reply to Gaunilo • Friday: Anselm, On Free Will Week 7: The meaning of the incarnation • Monday: Anselm, Why God Became Man, book 1 • Wednesday: Anselm, Why God Became Man, book 2 • Friday: Peter Abelard, Commentary on Romans (selections)** Week 8: The “medieval synthesis”—Thomas Aquinas (Paper #2 due in class Monday) • Monday: Aquinas, Summa Contra Gentiles, books 1 through 17 • Wednesday: Aquinas, Summa Contra Gentiles, books 18 through 34 • Friday: Aquinas, Summa Contra Gentiles, books 35 through 51 Week 9: Aquinas (cont.) • Monday: Aquinas, Summa Contra Gentiles, books 52 through 68 • Wednesday: Aquinas, Summa Contra Gentiles, books 69 through 85 • Friday: Aquinas, Summa Contra Gentiles, books 86 through 102 Week 10: The flowering of women’s spirituality—Beguine mysticism • Monday: Julian of Norwich, Showings shorter text (first half) • Wednesday: Julian of Norwich, Showings shorter text (second half) • Friday: Hadewijch, Visions** Comparative paper due by noon Friday, Finals Week

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