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np

Chapter:01
Filter: Filter can be considered can be considered as frequency selective networks. A filter is
required to separate an unwanted signal from a mixture of wanted and unwanted signals.
The filter specification are generally given in terms of cutoff frequencies, pass
band (P.B) and stop band (s.b) regions. P. B is the frequency band of wanted signal and S.B
is the frequency band of unwanted signal. An ideal filter should pass the wanted signal with
no attenuation and provide infinite attenuation.
Depending upon the components used, filters can be classified as:
1. passive filters: Filters which are the compotnet such as R,L,C are the passive filters. The
Gains of such filters are always less than or equal to unity (i.e GS1). It is to be noted the
L and C are filter components, but R is not.
2. Active filters: The filters which use the components such as transistors, op-amp etc are
the active filters. The Gains of such filters are always greater than or equal to unity. ( G
1)

## Gain and Attenuation:

i/p
V1(t)

Filter
network

o/p
V2(t)

Let us consider the filters network with i/p V1(t) having power P1 and o/p V2(t) having
power p2 as shown in fig1. Then the transfer function is given by T(s) = V2(s)/V1(s)
Where , V1(s) and V2(s) are the Laplace Transform of V1(t) .
Also, T(s) = T(jw) =

v 2 ( jw)
v1 ( jw)

## Then the voltage gain in db is given by ,

Av = 20log10 T ( jw) dB .(1)
Or in term of power , the power gain is given by,
Ap = 10 log10

p1
p2

## Now, the voltage attenuation is given by ,

= 1/Av
= -20log T ( jw) dB.(2)
From equation 1 and 2 ,we can write,
1

0.05Av..(3)

T ( jw) = 10

T ( jw) = 10

-0.05

.(4)

## Types of filters: ( According to the function)

Filters are classified according to the functions they are to perform. The pattern
of PB and SB that give rise to the most common filters as defined below:
1. Low pass filters: (LPF): A LPF characteristics is one in which the PB extend from
= 0 to = c where c is know as cut off frequency.
A

PB

SB
w

wc
Fig. 1(a)

2. High pass filter: A high pass filter is a compolement of a low pass filter in that the
frequency range form o to c is the SB and from c to infinity is the PB.
A

SB

PB
wc
Fig. 1(b)

3. Band pass filter ( BPF): A BPF is one in which the frequency extending form L (or
1) to u (2 ) are passed while signals at all other frequencies are stopped.
A

SB

PB
wc
Fig. 1(c)

SB
w

## 4. Band stop filter(BSF): A BSF is complement of BPF where signal components at

frequencies form 1 to 2 are stopped and all others are passed. These filters are
sometimes known as Notch filters.
A

PB

SB

PB
w

Fig. 1(d)

Notch filter

5. All pass filters (APF): It is a filter which passes all range of frequencies , i.e , PB
2

A

PB
w
Fig. 1(e)

## Non- ideal Characteristics:

Filter

Gain curve

1. LPF

Attenuation curve

TB

0.707

Wp

Wc

Wp Wc Ws

Ws

2.HPF

Ws WcWp
TB

1. From the attenuation curve it to be noted that in the pass band the attenuation is
always less then a maximum value. Designated as max
2. In the stop band the attenuation is always larger then a minimum value designated as
min .
3. Band between PB and SB so defined are known as transition bands. (TB).
Bilinear Transfer function and its poles and zeroes:
We know,
T(s) = P(s)/Q(s) = N(s)/D(s)
T(s) =

a m s m + a m 1 s m 1 + ........... + a1 s + a 0
bn s n + bn 1 s n 1 + ............ + b1 s + b0

## When , m = n = 1, then the T(s) of equation (i) will be bilinear , i.e

T (s) =

P( s) a1 s + a 0
=
Q( s ) b1 s + b0

a1 ( s + a o / a1 )
b1 ( s + b0 / b1 )

G ( s z1 )
G ( s + z1 )
or T ( s ) =

( s p1 )
(s + z 2 )
3

If z1< p1

If p1< z1

## Here, G = a1/b1 = Gain

Z = -a0/a1 = a zero
P1 = -b0/b1 = a pole
Date:2065/4/22
Realisation of filter with passive elements:
Let us now see how the bilinear transfer function and its various special cases can be
realized with passive elements.
+
v1

+
-

c
-

Fig 1.
Plot the magnitude and phase response of the ckt shown in fig (1) and identify the filter.
Solution:
Applying kirchoffs law for fig 1
V1 = R1 +
V2 =

1
idt................(i )
L

1
idt......................(ii )
L

## Taking laplace transform of equation (i) and (ii)

1
I ( s )..................(iii )
cs
1
I (s)
V2 (s)
cs
V2 (s) =
=
1
V1 ( s )

I ( s) R +
cs

V1 ( s ) = RI ( s ) +

4

1
1
= cs =
Rcs + 1 RC ( s + 1 / RC )
cs
1
RC
=
S + 1 / RC
W0
T (s) =
S + W0

Where, W0 = 1/RC
Now , for magnitude plot,
T(s) = T(jw) = W0/(jw+W0)
T ( jw) =

w0
w 2 + wo

Now when
W = 0 T ( jw) = 1
W= wo T ( jw) = 0.707
W = , T ( jw) = 0
T(jw)

1
0.707

Wc

## Fig. 2. Magnitude plot

For phase plot:
(jw) = tan-1(o/w0) tan-1(w/wo)
(jw) = tan-1(w/w0)
When,
W = 0 , (j0) = 0
W = wo , (jwo) = -45
W = , (j ) = - 90

5

90

45

Wo

-45

-90

2.
R1

R1

v1

+
-

R1

v2
-

## Above figure can be modified as:

1

3
v1

+
-

From figure the potential of node 2, is V1/2 and the potential at node 3 is Vs R/(1+1/cs)
V2 = V1/2 - Vs R/(1+1/cs)
V1/V2 = - RCS/RCS+1
T(s) = R(S+1- 2RCS)/2(RCS+1) = -{(RCS+1)/2(RCS+1)}
= RC(S+1/RC)/2RC(s+1/RC)
Where Wo = 1/RC
T(jw) = -1/2 {(jw-wo)/(jw+wo)}
For magnitude plot ,
T ( jw) =

1
2

w 2 + ( w0 ) 2
w 2 + w0

6

T(jw)

T ( jw) =

1
2

Phase plot:
(jw) = tan-1(-w/wo) - tan-1( w/wo)
(jw) = -2tan-1 (w/wo)
when,
w = 0, (jw) = 0
w = 0, (jw) = -90
w= , (jw) = -180

90

45

Wo

-45
-90
-135
-180

From the magnitude plot, we see that the networking is all pass filter.
Assignment:
3.
+
v1

+
-

v2

4.

7

c1

R1
+
-

v1

R2

v2

5.
R1

+
R2

+
-

v1

v2

C2
-

Date: 2065/4/28
Example :04
c1

R1
v1

+
-

R2

v2

Y1 = c1s+1/R1 =
Z1= 1/Y1 =

R1C1 S + 1
R1

R1
R1C1 S + 1

## Now applying kirchoffs voltage law, for fig (i).

V1 = z1i+R2i
V1(s) = (z1s+R2)I1(s)
And ,
V2(s) = R2I(s)
T(s) =

V2 ( s)
R2
=
=
V1 ( s ) Z 1 ( s ) + R2

R2
R1
+ R2
R1C1 S + 1

R2 ( R1C1 S + 1)
=
R1 + R2 R1C1 S + R2

R1 R 2 C1 ( S +

1
)
R1C1

R + R2
R1 R2 C1 S + 1

R2 R1C1

8

S+

1
R1C1

1
1
+
R 2 C1 R1C1
S + 01 S ( 01 )
Or, T(s) =
=
S + 02 S ( 02 )
S+

> 01
And , 02
or , 02 < 01

-wo1

wo2

## For Magnitude plot:

T(jw) =

jw + w01
=
jw + w02

w 2 + w01

w 2 + w02

Now at w= 0, T ( j 0) =
At w = ,

T ( j ) =

w01
R2
=
w02 R1 + R2

w01
=1
w02
T(jw)

1
R2
R1 +R2
W

w=0

T(jw) =

jw + w01
jw + w02

## Where, w01= 1/R1C1

W02 = 1/R1C1+1/R2C2
w

## Therefore, (jw) = tan 1 tan 1

w01
w02
(jw) = z p
Since direct phase plot of above expression is very complicated, we will go it by indirect
method. First we will plot the zero phase and then the pole phase and finally find the net
pole zero phase.
Zero plot (z)
9

w
= tan 1 ( wR1C1 )
w
01

( z ) = tan 1

Now at w = 0
(z) = (j0) = 0
(z) = (jw0)= 45
Now at w =
(j ) = 90
Pole plot (p)
(p) = tan-1(w/w01)

w
1
= tan
1
1
+

R1C1 R2 C1

Now at, w = 0
p = (j0) = 0
at w = w02
p = (w02) = 45
at w = , p = (j ) = 90
(jw)

zero plot
90
pole zero plot

45
wo2
w=0

wo1

-45
Pole plot
-90

Thus the magnitude response of the above network shown that it is a high pass filter with dc
gain R2/(R1+R2) and phase plot signifies it is leading type.
Insertion Gain and insertion loss:

10

T(jw)

wo

wo

wo

w
Insertion gain

T(jw)

wo

w
Insertion gain

One of the important factor that should be consider in design is that the minimum value of
should be zero degree. But this is not true in practical case since we are using active element
, this need not be the case because the active element may provided the gain greater than
one (1). If it is necessary to meet the specification exactly then it will be necessary to provide
ck t to reduce the gain. We call this unwanted gain as the insertion gain. On the other hand
there is a loss in the components of passive filter so it provides access attenuation and we
call this loss as insertion loss. To overcome this problem additional compensation circuit is
required.
Chapter- 2
Normalization and Renormalization:
In most of the cases we consider the values of R, L S& C to be the order of unity. It is very
difficult to built the capacitor of 1 f and inductor of 1 H . Besides this the practical values of
capacitors available in the electronic circuit is of the order of microfarad or Pico farad. The
circuit considered so for have normalized elemental values but practically these values are
not realizable. So we perform scaling to get the realizable components.
There are mainly two reasons for resorting the normalized design.
1. Numerical computation become simple and it is easier to manipulate the numbers of
the order of unity.
2. If we have the normalized design of
the filter then it is easy to generate the
11

## filter of similar characteristics of varying center frequency and impedance level

without redesigning the whole circuit.
The actual or the required elemental values of the
Filter ckt which is obtained after scaling is called demoralized values of the circuit.
Scaling: While designing the ckt sometimes the value of components may not be available
so we change them with the available one, which is called scaling. To obtained the elemental
values of the required filter we amplitude and frequency scale the normalized design.
Types of scaling:
1. Impedance (Magnitude or amplitude) scaling: In this scaling, the magnitude of the
impedance is increased or decreased. To scale in magnitude , z(s) (the impedance) is
multiplied by a constant factor Km .

Z(s)

## If Km . 1, then it is called scale up.

If Km< 1, then it is called scale down.
Let, Rold = old value of Resistor.
Lold = old value of inductor
Cold = old value of capacitor.
The new values of R, L and C are given by
Rnew = Km Rold .(i)
Also,
XLKm = Lold S Km = (KmLold)S = LnewS
Lnew = Km Lold .(ii)
Again,
Xc Km = 1/cold s . Km =

C new =

1
C old

Km

1
C new .S

C 0ld
.(iii)
Km

Example 01:
Perform Impedance scaling to the following network.

12

R=1 ohm
+

+
V2

V1

C =1F

Solution:
Rold = 1
Cold = 1 F
Now , let us assume that,
Cnew = 10 F
Note: Generally we assume new value of capacitor 1F or 10 F.
We know that
Cnew = Cold/Km
Km = Cold/Cnew = 1F/10 F = 105
Therefore, Rnew = Km .Rold
= 105 * 1
Rnew = 100K
R=100k
+

+
V2

C =10 uf

V1
-

## Fig(ii) scaled ckt.

The transfer function for fig. (i) ,
Told(s) = 1/(s+1)
1
R new C new
And, Tnew =
= 1/s+1
1
S+
R new C new

Thus we see that there is no change in the following transfer function while doing magnitude
scaling.
Date: 2065/5/3
2. Frequency scaling:
In frequency scaling our objective is to scale the frequency without affecting the
magnitude of the impedance , i.e
ZL = ( = XL) = LS = jWL
Z L = WL is a constant.
Similarly,
Zc ( = Xc) = 1/cs = 1/ jwc
13

Zc =

1
is constant.
wc

## To do so any change in w must be compensated by corresponding change in L and c

If, w = old corner frequency
= new corner frequency.
= Kf w
Where,
Kf = frequency scaling factor.
If Kf > 1, then it is called expansion scaling
If, Kf < 1 , then it is called compression scaling.
o
Expansion

o = 10

o = 10

Compression

o = 10

o = 1

Also, if T(jw) is old Transfer function, then the new transfer fucnti is T(j )
= T (jKfw)
The resistance is unaffected by frequency scaling , i.e
Rnew= Rold .(v)
For inductor,
Xl = Ls = jwL = jwkf . L/kf
Or, XL = j(wkf) ( Lold/kf) since, L = Lold
= j ( Lold/kf)
Lold = Lold / Kf .(vi)
For capacitor,
Cnew = Cold/ kf(vii)
14

## 3. Both magnitude and Frequency scaling:

It is not necessary that we scale magnitude and scale in frequency separately. We can do
both at once. Cobining all the above equations.
Rnew = KmRold .(Viii)
Lnew = Km/kf. Lold (ix)
Cnew = Cold/Km.kf .(x)
These three equations are know as element scaling equations.
Example 01:
1
1F

Solution:
W0 = 1 , = 1000
Therefore, kf = o/wo = 1000
Now we know that
Cnew = Cold /kf = 1F/ 1000 = 1 mF
And , Rnew = Rold = 1
1k
1mF

Now,
1
R0ld C old
1
Told(S) =
=
1
s +1
s+
Rold C old
1
R new C new
10
And, Tnew(s) =
=
1
s + 10
s+
R new C new

Example 02:
R=1/10

1F

15

## Perform frequency scaling with o = 1

Example 03:
R1

v1

C1
R2

v2

T(s) = (s+0.5)/(s+3)
Perform magnitude and frequency scaling separately with wo = 3 and 0 = 300.
Solution:
The transfer function of the above figure is
s+

T(s) =

1
R1C1

1
1
s+
+
R1C1 R 2C1

.(i)

But given ,
T(s) = (s+0.5)/(s+3) .(ii)
Comparing equation (i) and (ii)
1/R1C1 = 0.5
R1C1 = 2 ..(iii)
Again, ( 1/R1+ 1/R2)1/C1 = 3..(iv)
Let , C1= 1 F
For equation (iii) R1 1 = 2
R1 = 2
Therefore from equation (iv)
(1/2 + 1/R2) 1/2 = 3
Therefore, R2 = 2/5
In order to perform magnitude scaling
R1old = 2
R2old = 2/5 = 0.4
Cold = 1 F
Say, C1new = 10 F
Then, Km = Cold/Cnew = 1F/ 10 F
Km = 105
Therefore, Rnew = km R2old = 105 0.4 = 40 k
The selected ckt will be :

16

200k

40.4F

v1

40k

v2

## Again for frequency scaling,

Wo = 3 , 0 = 3000
Therefore , kf = o/ wo = 3000/ 3 = 1000
Therefore, R1new = R1old = 2
R2new = R2old = 0.4
C1old = C1old/kf = 1F/ 1000 = 1 mF.
Example 04:
R2= 1/100

C2= 1/10 F

_
R1= 1

C1= 1 F

## Perform magnitude scaling to the ckt given.

Note: Take Cnew as the new value of capacitor for Cold where Cold represents the largest
value in the circuit.
Solution:
Here, R1old = 1
R2old = 2
C1old = 1 F
C2old = 1/10 F.
Take, Cnew = 10 F.
Then for, magnitude scaling,
Cnew = Cold/km
Km = C1old/ C1new = 1F/ 10 F = 105
Therefore, C2new = C2old/km = 0.1 F/ 105
C2new = 1 F
Similarly,
R1old = km. R1old = 105 1 = 100 k
R2new = km. R2old = (1/100). 105 = 1 k.
1k

_
100k

10 uF

17

## Fig: Magnitude Scaling Ckt.

18

Chapter: 3
One port and two port passive network:
Positive real function: The filter circuit is complex transfer function that may be realizable
depending upon weather the transfer function exhibits PRF properties. I the transfer function
is PRF only ckt is realizable. There are two types of passive network : [i] one port network
[ii] Two port network.
I(s)
V(s)

I2(s)

I1(s)

1- port
n/w

V1(s)

2- port
n/w

## One port network: Let us suppose of fig of 1(a),

Then, z(s) = V(s) / I(s)
If V(s) = 3s+2
I(s) = 1
Then, z(s) = 3s+2
= Ls +R
3H

V(s)

Thus , the function is realization but if, z(s) = 3s-2 , then it is not realizable.
Date: 2065/ 5/10
Why? (
)
(i)

If F(s) denote the function in S-domain, the F(s) indicates either driving point
impedance or driving admittance. Which ever is concern to us.
(ii) F(s) should be for real value of S.
(iii) The value of F(s) must be greater than or equal to zero. i.e Re[f(s)] 0.
Thus in brief a PRF must be real and +ve .
If F(s) = LS = jWL
L must be +ve.
F(s) = 1/CS = 1/jwc
C must be +ve
F(s) = R
R must be +ve.
Properties of Passive n/w.
A passive network is one
(i)
The element of which one are +ve and real.
19

(ii) The average Power dissipated (APD) by the n/w. for a sinusoidal i/p must be +ve.
For one port n/w APD = 1/2 Re[ z(s)][I(s)]2 0
Properties of PRF:
1. If F(s) is +ve and real , then 1/F(s) is also +ve and real.
2. The sum of DRFS is always PRF but the difference may not be PRF.
Example: Z1(s) = 5s+ 3 (PRF)
Z2(s) = 2s+ 5 ( PRF)
Then, z1(s)+z2(s) = 7s+8 (PRF)
But, Z1(s) Z2(s) = 3s-2 (not PRF)
3. The Poles and zeros of PRF cannot be in the right half of the S-Plain.
4. Only poles with real residues can exists on the jw axis.
Example: F(s) = 6s/(s2+ 2 )
In this case, S = j
Residue = real and +ve.
5. The poles and zeroes of PRF Occurs in pairs.
6. The highest power of numerator and denominator polynomial may differ atmost by
unity.
S 5 + 4 S 4 + 3S 3 + 3S 2 + 3S 1 + 2
Example:
S 6 + 4 S 4 + 2 S 3 + 3S 2 + 3 K

7. The lowest power of numerator and denominator polynomial may differ atmost by
unity.
Example:

S 5 + 4 S 4 + 3S 3 + 3S 2 + 3S
S 6 + 4 S 4 + 2 S 3 + 3S 2 + 3 K

8. The real part of F(s) must be greater than or equal to zero. i.e Re[F(s)] 0
But , if Re[F(s)] = 0 , then the ckt do not consist resistive components. Hence only
capacitive and inductive components are presents. Hence only capacitive and inductive
components are present . Such a n/w whose transfer function satisfies this condition is
known as lossless n/w.
Example: Determine weather the function is PRF.
(i)
z(s) = 2s2+5/s(s2+1)
Hence , z(s) = 2s2+5/s(s+1)
A/s + Bs/(s2+1) = A/s + B/ (s2+1)/s
A=

B=
=

2s 2 + 5
.s
s ( s + 1) s = 0

2 s 2 + 5 ( s 2 + 1)
.
s
s ( s 2 + 1)
s2

2(1) + 5
= 3
(1)

## Z(s) = 5/3 + -3s/(s2+1)

Here, (-3) , the residues ( s2 = -1) is ve , therefore z(s) is not PRF.
(ii)

z(s) =

( s + 1)( s + 4) s ( s + 4) + 2( s + 4)
=
( s + 1)( s + 3) s ( s + 3) + 1( s + 3)

20

s 2 + 6s + 8
s 2 + 4s + 3
2s + 5
=1+
( s + 1)( s + 3)
= z1 ( s ) + z 2 ( s )
2s + 5
A
B
3 / 2 1/ 2
Where z2(s) =
=
+
=
+
( s + 1)( s + 3) s + 1 S + 3 s + 1 s + 3
3 / 2 1/ 2
+
Therefore, z(s) = 1 +
s +1 s + 3
=

It is not PRF.
8 s 3 + 4 s 2 + 3s + 1
8 s 3 + 3s
s 2 + 2s + 8
Y(s) =
s ( s + 4)

(iii)

z(s) =

(iv)

## Basic ckt Synthesis Techniques:

Any one port n/w each can be
impedance function z(s) . i.e
F ( s) =

represented by either

## admittance function Y(s) or

a n s n + a n 1 s n 1 + a n 2 s n 2 + ............. + a1 s + a 0
bm s m + bm 1 s m 1 + bm 2 s m 2 + ............ + b1 s + b0

P(s)
Q( s)
N ( s)
=
D( s)
Z ( s)
=
P( s)
=

## Design of LC Ckt . (Loss less ckt):

Consider a impedance function as
E n ( s) + On ( s)
E m ( s) + Om ( s)

Z(s) =

Where En(s) and Om(s) denote the even parts of numerator and denominator respectively
and On(s) and On(s) denote odd part.
N (s)
s5 + s4 + s3 + s + 1
=
6
5
4
3
2
s + s + s + s + s + s + 1 Q( s )

Z(s) =

( s 4 + s 2 + 1) ( s 5 + s 3 + 5)
+
E n ( s)
On ( s)
( s 6 + s 4 + s 2 + 1) ( s 5 + s 3 + 1)
+
E m ( s)
O m ( s)

## For the loss less function , it is to be noted that,

Re[z(s)] = 0 .(i)
E n ( s) + On ( s) E m ( s) Om ( s)

E m ( s) + Om ( s) E m ( s) Om ( s)
E n ( s ) E m ( s ) + On ( s ) E m ( s ) E n ( s )Om ( s ) On ( s )Om ( s )

Now, z(s) =
=

E m ( s) Om ( s)
2

21

E n ( s ) E m ( s ) + On ( s ).Om ( s )

O n ( s ) E m ( s ) E n ( s )O m ( s )

E m ( s ) + Om ( s )
E m ( s) Om ( s)
E n ( s ) E m ( s ) On ( s ).Om ( s )
2

= Re[ z(s)] =

(ii)

E m ( s) Om ( s)
2

## Therefore from equation (i) and (ii).

E n ( s ) E m ( s ) On ( s ).Om ( s )

=0
2
2
E m ( s) Om ( s)
E n ( s ) E m ( s ) On ( s).Om ( s ) = 0
E n ( s ) E m ( s ) = On ( s).Om ( s )
E m ( s) On ( s)
=
.(iii)
Om ( s ) E m ( s )

The above equation (iii) indicates that LC ckt is even to odd ( or odd ) to even function.
Properties of LC Ckt:
1.

a n s n + a n 2 s n 2 + a n 2 s n 4 + ............. + a 0
F ( s) =
bm s m + bm 2 s m 2 + bm 4 s m 4 + ............ + b0

The coefficients an and bm must be real and +ve and F(s) must be even to odd or odd to even
function.
2. The highest power of numerator and denominator can differ atmost by unity ( in this
case it is 2). So does the lowest power.
3. The succeeding power of s in numerator and denominator must differ by the order of
s 4 + 17 s 2 + 165s 0
2 all the way through . Example:
s 3 + 4s

4. The poles and zeros must be alternatively placed on the jw axis and lie only on the
imaginary axis.
5. There must be either a pole or a zero at the origin.
Example: Test whether the following function is LC.
(i)
z(s) = K (s2+1)(s2+5)/(s2+2)(s2+10) k>0
It is not LC ckt function because,
1. There is neither pole or zero at the origin though the pole zero are alternatively placed on
the imaginary axis.
2. It is not even to odd or odd to even function.

(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

Z(s) = z(s2+1)(s2+9)/s(s2+4)
Z(s) = k s(s2+4)/(s2+1)(s2+3)
Z(s) = s5+4s3+5/(4s4+s2)

, k> 0

Date: 2065/5/12
Design of LC ckt by Fosters Method:
In this case ,
F(s) =

k0
2k s
+ 2 i 2 + ............ + k s .(i)
S s + wi

## This equation may represent z(s) or Y(s)

Case I : ( i.e when F(s) = z(s))

22

Then,
k0
2k s
+ 2 i 2 + ............ + k s
S s + wi

Z(s) =
Here,

## - ko/s will represent a capacitive reactance of 1/ko F.

- 2ki(s)/(s2+w2) will represent LC parallel combination.
Having capacitor of value 1/2ki F and inductor of value 2ki/wi2. Thus the final circuit will
be:
1/k

z(s)

2ki/wi

.......

1/2ki

This method of circuit synthesis is known as foster impedance or series or 1st method for LC
ckt.
Case II
In this case , F(s) = Y(s) , then equation (i) becomes
Y(s) =

k0
2k s
+ 2 i 2 + ............ + k s
S s + wi

Here,
- KO/s represents admittance of inductor having value of 1/ko H.
- K s represent admittance of capacitor having value K F.
- 2ki(s)/s2+w2 represents admittance of series LC combination having inductor of value
1/2ki H and capacitor value wi2/2ki
The ckt can be realize as :

1/2ki

1/k
wi 2 /2ki

This method of circuit synthesis is known as foster admittance or parallel or 2nd method for
LC ckt.
Example 01: Design a Foster series n/w for the following n/w.
s ( s 2 + 4)
F ( s) =
2( s 2 + 1)( s 2 + 9)

Solution:
It is Fosters series n/w
23

s ( s 2 + 4)
F ( s) = z ( s) =
2( s 2 + 1)( s 2 + 9)
s ( s 2 + 4)
As
Bs
Now, z ( s) = 2
= 2
+ 2
2
2( s + 1)( s + 9) s + 1 s + 9

Where, A =

s ( s 2 + 4)
( s 2 + 9)
.
s
2( s 2 + 1)( s 2 + 9)
s 2 = 1
1+ 4
=
= 3 / 16
2( 1 + 9)

Therefore, A = 3/16
s ( s 2 + 4)
( s 2 + 9)
.
s
2( s 2 + 1)( s 2 + 9)
s 2 = 9
9+4
5
5
=
=
=
2(9 + 1) 2 8 16

And B =

Therefore, B = 5/16
z (s) =

(3 / 16) s (5 / 6) s
+ 2
= z1 ( s ) + z 2 ( s )
s2 +1
s +9

## The ckt will be as follows.

L 1= 3/16 H

z(s)

L 2 = 5/144 H

C1 =16/3 F

C2 = 16/5 F

The first part of z(s) ( i.e z1(s) ) represents parallel LC combination having inductor L1
of value 3/16 H and capacitor of value 16/3 F.
The 2nd part of z(s) (i.e z2(s) ) represents parallel LC combination having inductor L2 of
value 5/144 H and capacitor C2 of value 16/5 F.
Example 02: Design Foster parallel n/w for the function
F ( s) =

s ( s 2 + 4)
2( s 2 + 1)( s 2 + 9)

Solution:
It is Fosters parallel n/w
s ( s 2 + 4)
F ( s) = Y ( s) =
2( s 2 + 1)( s 2 + 9)
s ( s 2 + 4)
As
Bs
= 2
+ 2
Now, z ( s) = 2
2
2( s + 1)( s + 9) s + 1 s + 9

s ( s 2 + 4)
( s 2 + 9)
.
Where, A =
s
2( s 2 + 1)( s 2 + 9)
s 2 = 1
24

1+ 4
= 3 / 16
2( 1 + 9)

Therefore, A = 3/16
s ( s 2 + 4)
( s 2 + 9)
And B =
.
s
2( s 2 + 1)( s 2 + 9)
s 2 = 9
9+4
5
5
=
=
=
2(9 + 1) 2 8 16

Therefore, B = 5/16
Y (s) =

(3 / 16) s (5 / 6) s
+ 2
= Y1 ( s ) + Y2 ( s )
s2 +1
s +9

## The ckt will be as follows:

Figure:
The first part of Y(s) ( i.e Y1(s) ) represents series LC combination having inductor L1 of
value 16/3 H and capacitor of value 16/3 F.
The 2nd part of Y(s) (i.e Y2(s) ) represents series LC combination having inductor L2 of
value 16/5 H and capacitor C2 of value 144/5 F.
Example 03: Design Foster parallel n/w for the function F ( s) =
Solution:
It is Foster Parallel ,
F ( s) = Y ( s) =
=

2( s 2 + 1)( s 2 + 9)
s ( s 2 + 4)

2 s 4 + 20 s 2 + 18
s 3 + 4s

S3+4s )2s4+20s2+18( 2s
2s4+8s2
12s2+18

12 s 2 + 18
Therefore, Y(s) = 2s + 3
s + 4s
12 s 2 + 18
= 2s +
s ( s 2 + 4)

## Y(s) = Y1(s) + Y2(s)

Now Y2(s) = 2s +
Y(s) = 2s +

12 s 2 + 18 A
Bs
9 / 2 (15 / 2) s
= + 2
=
+ 2
2
s
s ( s + 4) s s + 4
s +4

9 / 2 (15 / 2) s
+ 2
= Y1 ( s ) + Y2 ( s ) + Y3 ( s )
s
s +4

Here Y1(s) = 2s , so C1 = 2 F
25

2( s 2 + 1)( s 2 + 9)
s ( s 2 + 4)

9/2
, So, L1 = 2/9 H
s
(15 / 2).s
And Y3(s) = 2
s +4

Y2 (s) =

L2 = 2/15 H
C2 = 8/15 F
Therefore, The final ckt will be

L 2 =2/15 H
L 1= 2/9H

C1 = 2 F

C2 = 8/15 F

## Fig. Fosters parallel n/w of LC ckt.

Assignment:
1. z(s) =

2( s 2 + 1)( s 2 + 9)
s ( s 2 + 1)

2. Y(s) =

2( s 2 + 2)( s 2 + 4)
( s 2 + 3)( s 2 + 1)

Date: 2065/5/17
Continued Fraction method or cauer method for LC Ckt
1. case- I
It is removed by successive removal of pole at . The ckt will be as follows:
L1

L2

C1

....
C2

Cn

L1

V(s)

C1

L2

C2

....
C3

Cn

## Fig. For F(s) = Y(s)

Example 01: Synthesis the following function in cauer form.
26

Z(s) =

2 s 5 + 12 s 3 + 16 s
s 4 + 4s 2 + 3

Solution:
In cauer n/w we proceed as follows:
S4 +4s2+3) 2s5 + 12s3 + 16s (2s
2s5+8s3+6s

z1(s)

Y2(s)
4s3+10s) s4 + 4s2 +3 (s/4
S4 + 10s2/4
3S2/2+3) 4S3 +10S (8s/3
Z3(s)
3
4S +8S
Y4(s)
2S) 3S2/2 +3 (3s/4
2
3s /2
3) 2s (2s/3
2s
2/3

8/3

2H

1/4

Z(s)

Z5(s)

3/4

## Fig. Cauer n/w for LC series ckt

Example: 02: Y(s) =

Y(s)

2 s 5 + 12 s 3 + 16 s
s 4 + 4s 2 + 3

8/3 F

2F

2/3 F

## Fig: Cauer n/w for LC parallel ckt.

Example:03: Synthesis the following ckt in cauer form.
(i) Y(s) =

s ( s 2 + 2)( s 2 + 4)
( s 2 + 1)( s 2 + 3)

(ii) Z(s) =

s ( s 2 + 2)( s 2 + 4)
( s 4 + 1)( s 2 + 3)

Cauer II:
This is the case of removal of pole at origin.
C1

C2

L1

....
L2

Ln

27

## Example:01: Synthesize the following function in cauer form.

Z(s) =

s 4 + 4s 2 + 3
2 s 5 + 12 s3 + 16 s

Solution:
Since Z(s) is the case of pole at origin (i.e s = 0 ) z(s) can be rewrite as:
Z(s) =

3 + 4s 2 + s 4
16 s + 12 s 3 + 2 s 5
16s+12s3+2s5 ) 3+4s2+ s4 (3/16s
3+9s2/4+ 3s4/8

z1(s)

7s2/4+5s4/8)16s+12s3+2s5 (64/7s
Y2(s)
16s+40s3/7
44s3/7+2s5) 7s2/4+5s4/8 (49/176s
Z3(s)
2
4
7s /4+44s /88
3s4/44) 44s3/7 +2s5 ((44)2/21s
Y4(s)
3
44s /7
2s5) 3s2/44(3/88s
3s2/44
16/3

Z(s)

176/40

7/64

Z5(s)

88/3

21/44.44

## Fig. Cauer II n/w for LC ckt

s 4 + 4s 2 + 3
Example:02: Y(s) = 5
2 s + 12 s 3 + 16 s
7/64

Y(s)

16/3

21/1936

176/49

88/3

## R-C one port n/w: (R-C impedance /R-L admittance)

1. Foster 1st method:
In this case,
F(s) = z(s) , gives R-C impedance n/w.

28

1/k

z(s)

.......

1/k1

## Foster method defines F(s) as

F(s) = z(s) = ko/s + k1/(s+1)+ k2/(s+2) + +k
Here,
- ko/s represent capacitive reactance having capacitor of value 1/ko F.
- k represent resistor of value k .
- ki/(s+i) represents RC parallel in which the resister has a value of ki/i and a
capacitor has value of 1/ki F.
Properties of RC impedance N/w:
1. the poles of RC impedance n/w are on the ve real axis.
2. As in LC ckt, residues of poles (kis) are real and +ve i. z(s ) must be PRF.
3. At two critical frequencies i.e when s = o , i.e = 0 when s = i.e =
4. z(0) = if C0 is present
= Ri , if C0 is missing
5. z( ) = k , R is present
= 0, R is missing
6. z(0) z() is always true.
7. The critical frequency nearest to the origin must be a pole.
8. The poles and zeroes must be alternatively placed.
Example:01 State giving reasons which of the following if not RC impedance.
( s + 1)( s + 4)( s + 9)
s ( s + 2)( s + 5)
( s + 1)( s + 8)
(b) Z(s) =
( s + 2)( s + 4)
( s + 2)( s + 4)
(c) Z(s) =
( s + 1)
( s + 1)( s + 2)
(d) Z(s) =
s ( s + 3)

(a) Z(s) =

## Example:02: Synthesis the following function in Foster series form: F(s) =

Solution:
Since it is foster series function z(s) =

6( s + 2)( s + 4)
s ( s + 3)

## This is the RC impedance n/w.

Now,
(i)
z(0) = , C0 is present .
(ii) z( ) = , R is also present.
29

6( s + 2)( s + 4)
s ( s + 3)

## Z(s) = ko /s + k + k1/(s+3) = ko /s + k1/(s+3)+6

Ko =

6( s + 2)( s + 4)
.s
= (6.2.4)/3 = 16
s=0
s ( s + 3)

K2 = 2
Z(s) = 16/s + 2/(s+3) + 6
The component values are as follows:
16/s 1/cos c0 = 1/16 F
R R = 6
2/(s+3) R1 = 2/3 and C1 = F
The ckt will be:
1/16

2/3

.......
1/2

z(s)

Date: 2065/5/19

6( s + 2)( s + 4)
F(s) =
s ( s + 3)
6( s + 2)( s + 4)
F(s) = z(s) =
s ( s + 3)

= 6+ 16/s + 2/(s+3)
Forster parallel method for R-C one port n/w:
In this case,
F(s) = Y(s)
Y(s) = ko/s + k1/(s+1)+ k2/(s+2) + +k
... ...
R1

R2

L1

L2

Lo

Fig. (i) R-L admittance n/w for foster 2nd method in this case
- ko/s represents inductor of value 1/ko
- k represents inductor of value 1/ko
- ki/(s+i) represents RL series ckt having inductor of value 1/ki H and resister of
value i/k .
30

Properties:
Same as RC- impedance.
Example: 01: Synthesis the following function in foster parallel.
F(s) =

6( s + 2)( s + 4)
s ( s + 3)

Solution:
Since it is Foster parallel,
F(s) = Y(s) =

6( s + 2)( s + 4)
s ( s + 3)

= 6 + 16/s + 2/(s+3)
The ckt will be:
2/3
1/16
1/6
1/2

## Fig. R-L admittance ckt from foster parallel

Continued Fraction method or cauer method for R-C impedance or R-L Admittance:
1. If F(s) = z(s) , then it yields cauer 1 n/w.
2. If F(s) = Y(s) , then it yields cauer 2 n/w.
For cauer 1 n/w:
In this case F(s) = z(s)
Example:01: Synthesize the following function cauer 1 form.
F(s) =

6( s + 2)( s + 4)
s ( s + 3)

Solution:
F(s) = z(s) =

6( s + 2)( s + 4)
6 s 2 + 36 s + 48
=
s ( s + 3)
s 2 + 3s

Now,
S2 +3s)6S2+36s+48(6
Z1(s)
S2+18s
Y2(s)
18s+48) s2+ 3s (s/18
2
S +8s/3
Z3(s)
s/3) 18s+ 4s (54
18s
Y4(s)
48) s/3 (s/3.48
s/3
The ckt will be:
6

54
1/18

1/144

## Fig. Caure 1 n/w

31

Cauer 2 n/w:
Example: 02: Realise the given function in cauer 2 n/w F(s) =

6( s + 2)( s + 4)
s ( s + 3)

Solution:
In this case,
F(s) = Y(s) =

6( s + 2)( s + 4)
s ( s + 3)

1/18

1/6

1/144

1/54

## Fig. Caure 2 method

R-L one-Port n/w: (R-L impedance or R-C admittance n/w)
1. Foster Series method: It yields R-L impedance ckt for which
F(s) = (s) = ko + kis/(s+ 1) + k2s/(s+2) + ..+ ks
k1

k2

ko

....
k1/ 1

k2/ 2

z(s)

In this case,
- k0 represent resistor of value ko .
- k s represent inductor of value k H.
- kis/(s+i) represent RL parallel ckt with resistor of value ki and inductor of value
ki/i .
This method of synthesis is know as foster series (1st) method for R-L one port n/w.
Properties of R-L impedance n/w:
1. Poles are on the ve real axis.
2. The residue of pole must be real and +ve i.e F(s) must be PRF.
3. z(0) = k0 if R0 is present.
= 0 if R0 is missing.
4. z( ) = if L is present.
= Ri if L is missing.
5. z( ) z(0)
6. Zero is nearest to the origin.
7. The pole and zero must be
alternatively placed.
32

## 2. Foster parallel method:

In this case,
F(s) = Y(s) = ko +k1s/(s+i) + k2s/(s+2) + .+ k
The ckt will be as follows:

Y(s)

1/k 0

1/k

k1/1

1/k

k2/2

This method of synthesis is known as Foster parallel method which yields R-C admittance
n/w.
Properties:
Some as that of R-L impedance except F(s) = Y(s)
4( s + 1)( s + 3)
. Realise the above function in (a) Foster series
( s + 2)( s + 6)

## (b) Foster parallel.

Solution:
Since zero is nearest to the origin , (i.e s = -1f) the function yields R-L one port n/w.
(a) Foster series: In this case F(s) = z(s) =

4( s + 1)( s + 3)
( s + 2)( s + 6)

Thus, it yields R-L impedance n/w. To check the availability of components, we use.
Z(0) = (413)/(26 ) = 1 = ko . i.e Ro is present .
Z( ) = 4 = Ri , L is missing.
z (s) /s =
K1 =

k
k
4( s + 1)( s + 3)
1
= + 1 + 2
( s + 2)( s + 6)
s s+2 s+6

4( s + 1)( s + 3)
.( s + 2)
s = 2
s ( s + 2)( s + 6)
4(2 + 1)(2 + 3)
=
2( 2 + 6)

=
K2 =

4( s + 1)( s + 3)
.( s + 6)
s = 6
s ( s + 2)( s + 6)
4(6 + 1)(6 + 3)
=
6( 6 + 2)

K2 = 5/2
z(s)/s =

1 (1 / 2).s (5 / 2).s
+
+
s
s+2
s+6

33

1/2

5/2

1/4

5/12

z(s)

## Fig. Foster series n/w

(b) Foster parallel:
In this case,
F(s) = Y(s) =

4( s + 1)( s + 3)
( s + 2)( s + 6)

## Which yields R-C admittance n/w.

Y(s) = 1 +

(1 / 2).s (5 / 2).s
+
s+2
s+6

Y(s)

2/ 5

12 /5

## Fig. Foster Parallel ckt.

Cauer Method for R-L one port n/w:
(1) If F(s) = z(s) , it is called cauer 1 method which yields R-L impedance ckt.
(2) If F(s) = Y(s) , it is called caure 2 method which yields R-C admittance ckt.
Example: 01: Synthesize the following function in
(a) caure 1 n/w. (b) cauer 2 n/w.

4 s 2 + 16 s + 12
s 2 + 8s + 12

Solution:
(a) cauer 1 n/w:
In this case
4( s + 1)( s + 3) 4 s 2 + 16 s + 12
F(s) = z(s) =
= 2
( s + 2)( s + 6)
s + 8s + 12
S2+8s+12 ) 4s2+ 16s+12 ( 4
4s2+ 32s+4s
-ve

This way the ckt cannot be realize. Therefore z(s) is rewritten in form as:
Z(s) =

12 + 16 s + 4 s 2
12 + 8s + s 2

34

## 12+8s +s2 ) 12+16s+4s2 ( 1

Z1(s)
2
12+ 8s+s
8s +3s2 ) 12+8s+s2 ( 3/2s
12+9s/2

Y2(s)

8s+16s2/7

Z3(s)

7s/2
s2 ) 5s2/7 ( 5/7
5s2/7

Y4(s)
Z5(s)

16/7

2/3

10/49

5/7

## Fig. cauer 1 n/w

(b) Cauer 2 n/w:
In this case,
F(s) = Y(s) =

4 s 2 + 16 s + 12 12 + 16 s + 4 s 2
=
s 2 + 8s + 12
12 + 8s + s 2
1/2ki

1/k
wi 2 /2ki

## Fig. Cauer 2 n/w

Assignment: 03
( s + 2)( s + 4)
Find the n/w of the form (a) Foster series (b) Foster parallel.
( s + 1)( s + 3)
( s + 1)( s + 3)
2. Realize the n/w function F(s) =
(a) 1st Foster method. (b) 2nd foster
( s + 2)( s + 4)

1. F(s) =

method.
3. Realise the n/w function Y(s) =
4. z(s) =

( s + 2)( s + 4)
as a cauer n/w.
( s + 1)( s + 3)

( s + 1)( s + 3)
Realise the function in foster and cauer n/w.
( s + 2)( s + 2)

35

( s + 2)( s + 4)
( s + 1)( s + 6)

## Two port n/w:

1. Z-Parameter
2. Y Parameter
3. ABCD Parameter
4. Transformation of one parameter to other
5. T and n/w
6. Interconnection of two port n/w
a. Cascade b. series c. parallel.

Date: 2065/5/24
Chapter: 4
Low pass Filter Approximations:
T(jw)

T(jw)

1
1

PB

SB
wo=1

Wp

Ws

## The desirable feature of low pass approximation are

1. Minimum pass band attenuation, p
2. Maximum stop band attenuation, s
3. Low transition band ratio, ws/wp
4. Simple network.
The approximation Method are:
1. Butterworth
2. Chebyshev
3. Inverse chebyshev
4. Ellipse or Cauer
5. Bessel Thomson
1. Butterworth low pass approximation: Generally signal become contaminated with
high frequency signal. It is evident that low pass filter are required to remove such
unwanted signals from the useful one. The desirable LPF response is shown in fig . 1(a)
Below the normalize frequency i.e w0 = 1, the amplitude T ( jw) is
constant and above this frequency it is zero. Pass band and stop band are clearly separated at
wo = 1. But since the ideal response can not be achieve . We make the approximation based
on the ideal response.
We make the magnitude T(jw) nearly constant in PB. In the SB, we require sharp
roll off (n-pole roll off). Where n will be large no if abrupt transition from PB to SB is
desired.
Mathematically, we can write,
T(jw) = Re[ T(jw) ] + j Im [ T(jw)]
36

## Re[T(jw)] = Real part of T(jw)

Im [T(jw)] = Imaginary part of T(jw).
Where it is to be noted that Re[T(jw)] indicates an even functions.
Where Im[T(jw)] indicates it is an odd function.
Agains,
T*(jw) = T(-jw) = Re[ T(jw)]+jIm [T(jw)] .(ii)The functions so obtained is called
conjugate of T(jw)
Thus (i) and (ii) gives
2
T(jw) T*(jw) = T ( jw) = Re[T(jw)]2 + jIm[T(jw)]2 (iii)
T(jw) T*(jw) = T(s) T*(s) = T (s)
2

## The function T (s) (or T ( jw) ) is called magnitude squared function.

Example 01: Find the magnitude square function for
T(s) = (s+2) / (s3 + 2s2 + 2s+3)
T(s) = -s+2 / -s3 + 2s2 2s +3
2
T (s) = T(s) . T(-s)
= (2+s)/(s3+2s2 +2s+3) (2-s)/(-s3 +2s2 2s+3)
= ..
The magnitude square function is an even function which can be represented by using a
numerator and denominator polynomial that are both even, i.e
A( w 2 )
B( w 2 )
A + A2 w 2 + A4 w 4 + ........... + A2 n w 2 n
2
T ( jw) = 0
B0 + B 2 w 2 + B4 w 4 + ........... + B 2 n w 2 n
A0
2
T ( jw) =
2
B0 + B2 w + B4 w 4 + ........... + B2 n w 2 n
T ( jw) =
2

## Here A2 = A4 = A2n = 0 (assumption).

The choice has been made as per our inspection on the roll off that was directly dependent on
the number of poles. This means larger the difference between degree of A and B , we get
the larger roll-off . This will give us a direct n-pole roll off for Tn(jw) or Tn(s) which will be
know as All pole function.
Special case:
We assume ,
B 2 = B4 = 0
B2n = (1/w0)2n. B0 and A0 = B0
Now , putting these assumption in the equation (i) we get,
T ( jw) =
2

Ao
B0 + B 2 n w 2 n
Bo

1
B0 +
w0

2n

B0

37

1
1 +
w0

T ( jw) =

2n

w 2 n

w
1 +
w0

2n

.(ii)

In generalize condition,
wo = 1
2

T ( jw) =
2

T ( jw) =

.(iii)

1 + (w )
1

2n

1 + (w)

2n

(iv)

## From equation (iv) the following property can be written.

1. At w = 0 , i.e T(j0) = 1 for all values of n.
2. At w = 1 (=w0), i.e T(j1) = 0.707 for all values of n.
3. At w = , i.e T(j )= 0 for all value of n.
4. For large values of w; Tn(jw) exhibits larger roll off.
5. Butterworth response , also known as, maximally flat response, is all pole functions.
6. Butterworth (BU) response can be expanded in Taylors series from as:
1

T ( jw) =

1 + (w)

2n

= (1+w2n)-1/2
= 1+ . w2n + (1/2)2. (w2n)2/2! - ..
1 . w2n
In Taylor series,
1

T ( jw) = 1 w 2 n
2

..(v)

Again we know ,
1

T ( jw) =

1 + (w )

2n

Putting jw = s
2

T (s ) =

1
2n

1
1
1
=
=
2n
2n
s
1 + (1) n s 2 n
1+ s
1 + 2n
j
(1) n

s
1 +
j
1
2
T (s ) =
(vi)
1 + (1) n s 2 n

## Which gives the butterworth response in s-domain

Evaluation of T(s) for BU Response:
(i)
For n = 1 equation (vi) becomes
38

2

T (s ) =

1
1 s2

s2 =1
s = 1
2
T ( s) = 1/(1-s)(1+s)
= 1/(1+s). 1/(1-s)
= T(s) . T(-s)
T(s) = 1/(s+1)

NOTE:
(i)

## If sn = -1, then, s=1

(180+k360)/n, k = 0, 1..(n1) in s domain.

(ii)

If sn =-1, then, S = 1
k360/n, k =0,1, 2.(n-1)

Date: 2065/5/29
Butterworth transfer function (continued )
(ii)
For n = 2
Equation (vi) becomes ;
T ( s) =
2

1
1 + (1) 2 s 4
jw

135

45

225

315

1
1+ s4

## To get the poles ,

1+s4 = 0
S4 = -1
S = 1 (180 + k360 )/4 , k = 0, 1, 2, 3 [since n = 4]
S = 1 45 , 135 , 225 , 315
The poles that lie on the left half of s-plane are:
S = 1 135 , 225
Or S = -0.0707 j0.707 = s1, s2
1
( s s1 )( s s 2 )
1
=
( s + 0.707 j 0.707)( s + 0.707 + j 0.707)
1

T(s) =

(iii)

s 2 + 2s + 1

For n = 3
39

1
1 + (1) 3 s 6
1
=
1 s6

T ( s) =

## To get the pole

1-s6 = 0
S6 = 1
S = 1 k360/n , k = 0,1,2 (2n-1)
S = 1 0, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300
The poles that lie on left half of s-plane are
S = 1 120, 180, 240
Or, = 1120, 1 180, 1 240
S1 = -0.5 + j0.866
S2 = -1+j0
S3 = -0.5 - 0.866j
1
( s s1 )( s s 2 )( s s 3 )
1
=
( s + 1)( s 0.5 0.866 j )( s + 0.5 0.866 j )
1
=
( s + 1)( s 2 + s + 1)

T ( s) =

jw
120

60

180

240

320

## Order and cutoff frequency for Butterworth:

It is to noted that, at w =wp , = p = max
And at w = ws , = s = min
We know that
T ( s) =
2

1
w
1 +
wo

2n

= -20log T (s)

40

= -20log10

1 + w
w
o

2n

1
2n 2

= -20log10 1 +
wo
w
1 +
wo

= 10log10

2n

.(i)

w
/10 = log10 1 +
wo

10

/10

w
= 1 +
wo

2n

2n

2n

wo
w

wo

w=

= 10 /10 -1

## = (10 /10 -1)1/2n

w
1

(10 / 10 1) 2 n

Now at w = wp , = max
wp

wo =
(10

max/ 10

1)

.(ii)

1
2n

and at w = ws , = min
ws

wo =
(10

min/ 10

1)

..(iii)

1
2n

## equating (i) and (ii) can be equated as:

wp
(10

max/ 10

wp
wo

wp

w
o

1)

1
2n

ws

(10 max/ 10 1)

(10

min/ 10

1)

1
2n

1
2n
1

(10 min/ 10 1) 2 n

2n

(10 max/ 10 1)
(10 min/ 10 1)

2n

w
(10 max/ 10 1)
20 log p = log
(10 min/ 10 1)
wo
wp
(10 max/ 10 1)

/
2
log
n = log
w
(10 min/ 10 1)
o
41

## Now let us find expression for transition band ratio , i.e

TBR = ws/wp , where , TBR = Transition band ratio.
Ws/wp = [(10 min/10 1)/(10 max/10-1)]1/2n .(v)
Example 01: Consider a filter using a butterworth response to realize the following
specifications of LPF.
max = 0.5 dB
min = 20 dB
wp = 1000 rad/sec
ws = 2000 rad/sec
Determine the order and cut off frequency for the filter.
Solution:
n = 4.83 5
wo = 1234.12 rad/sec
Note: Always choose higher value of n ( i.e the order of filter )because it provides larger
roll off which decreases attenuation.

Date: 2065/6/2
2. Chebyshev Approximation Method For LPF :
T(jw)

T(jw)

BU-R

C-R

Wo

Wo

## The generalize low pass filter can be represented by

2

Tn ( jw) =

1
1 + [ Fn ( w)] 2

.(i)

For Butterworth
Fn(w) = (w/wo)n
With w0 = 1
Fn (w) = wn
Similarly to butterworth we have to determine the function Fn(w) for chebyshev response
for which the concept of Lissagious figure is required.
Lissagious figure:

42

Horizontal plate
Line of axis
sin
Vertical plate

n=1

n=2
n=3
n=4

## Fig(ii) (b) Lissagious figure for n = 1,2,3 and 4

When adjustable frequency multiple of fixed frequency is applied , stationary figures are
obtained which are know as Lissagious figures.
Analysis:
Let the deflection due to voltage on horizontal plates be
x = coskT .(ii)
Where , k = 2 /T
The deflection due to voltage on vertical plates will be then,
y = cosnkT .(iii) Where n is integer and proves the multiple frequencies.
From (ii),
KT = cos-1x
y = cosn cos-1x ..(iv)
cn(x) = cosn cos-1x which is the equation for Lissagious figures.
Example: If n = 4
Assume, = cos-1x
x = cos
Then,
y = cos4

x
0
1
22.5
0.924
45
0.707
67.5
0.383
90
0

4
0
90
180
270
360

y
1
0
-1
0
1

43

y
1

0.383

x=1

0.707

-1

## # Analyse the same for n = 3 and 5.

Chebyshev magnitude Response:
We know that ,
1
1 + [ Fn ( w)] 2
Where Fn (w) = cn(w) ; 1
2

Tn ( jw) =

## Where cn(w) = cosn cos-1w

Therefore the magnitude square response will be
1

Tn ( jw) =

1+ 2 c n ( w)
2

.(vi)

This function (i.e cn(w)) is valid within the range w = 1. However , the function must
also be valid for longer value of w for which we should refine our assumption for cn(w).
w > 1,
Let,
Cos-1(w) = jz
w = cosjz
we know that ,
cosjz =

e j ( jz ) + e j ( jz )
e z + e z
=
= coshz
2
2

cosjz = coshz
w = coshz
Z = cosh-1w
w = cosj cosh-1w
cos-1(w) = jcosh-1w
cn (w) = cosn cos-1w
= cosnj cosh-1w
= cosj(ncosh-1w)
= coshn cosh-1w
cn(w) = cosh cosh-1w , w> 1
Cn(w) = cosn cos-1w, w = 1
44

We know that,
1

Tn ( jw) =

Tn ( jw) =

1+ 2 c n ( w)
1
2

1+ 2 c n ( w)
2

w1

## Where, cn(w) = cosn cos-1w

= coshn cosh-1w
w1

and 1

1. At w = 0,
Cn(0) = cosn /2 ; 0,1,2.
Tn ( jw) =
1 for n = odd
1

for

1+ 2

n = even

2. w = 1
cn (1) = 1 for all values of n.
1

Tn ( jw) =

1+ 2
1

w=1

w=1

## Order of C-R filter:

We know , the attenuation formula is given by
= -20log Tn ( jw) dB
1

But,

Tn ( jw) =

2
1
1

=
1+ 2 c 2 ( w)
2
2
1+ c n ( w)
n

2
1

= - 20log
2
2

1
+

c
(
w
)
n

= -10log

1
1+ 2 c n ( w)
2

= 10 log 1+ 2 c n 2 ( w) (vii)
= 10log 1+ 2 (cos n cos 1 w) 2
for w > 1,
= 10 log 1+ 2 (cosh n cosh 1 w) 2
Now ,

w 1

............(ix)

45

## max occurs when , cn(w) = 1

equation (vii) reduces to ,
= max = 10 log ( 1+ 2 .1)(x)
max / 10 = log ( 1+ 2 .1)
1+ 2 = 10 max/10
= (10

max/ 10

1)

1
2

.(xi)

Date: 2065/6/7
Here
we know that
w = wnp , then, 2 c n 2 ( w) = 1
1
= cosh(n cosh 1 wnp )
[since wnp >1]

1
Cosh-1(ncosh-1whp) =

1
Cosh-1(ncosh-1whp) =

-1
-1 1
Cosh whp = 1/n. cosh ( )

1
wnp = cosh(1/n. cosh-1( )) (xii)

c n ( wnp ) =

## Wnp = cosh [1/n. cosh-1({10max/10 -1}1/2)]

Now = min when w = ws
min = 10 log10(1+ 2 c n 2 ( ws )
min/10
2
2 c n ( ws ) = 10
1
2
-1
2
(cosh ncos ws) = 10 min/10-1
Or, ( cosh ncosh-1ws)2 = (10 min/10-1)/ (10 max/10-1)
n cosh-1ws = cosh-1 [(10 min/10-1)/ (10 max/10-1)]1/2

## n = {cosh-1 [(10 min/10-1)/ (10 max/10-1)]1/2}/cosh-1ws ..(xiii)

Example: Given wp = 1 , ws = 2.33 , max = 0.5dB , min = 22 dB. Calculate n for
Butterworth and chebyshev filters which filter would you select.
Solution: For Butterworth filter , the order is given by
n = log10[(10 max/10-1)/(10 min/10 -1)]/ 2 log (wp/ws)
= log[(100. 5/10 -1)/(1022/10 -1)]/2log (1/2.33)
= 4.234 5
n for BU = 5
For Chebyshev the order is given by ,
n = cosh-1[(10min/10-1)/(10max/10-1)]/cosh-1(2.33)
= 2.89 3
46

n for chebyshev = 3 .
Since the order of chebyshev filter (i.e n =3) is less then the order of butterworth filter (i.e n
= 5) and both filter provides the same roll- off for the specification, n would choose
chebyshev filter.
Chebyshev poles location and network function:
We know
1

T ( jw) =

1+ c n ( w)
2

..(i)

## Substituting s = jw equation (i) becomes,

1

T (s ) =

1+ 2 c n ( s / j )
2

..(ii)

## To determine the poles,

1+ 2 c n ( s / j ) = 0
2

cn (s / j) = j

1
(iii)

Again,
Cn (s/j) = cosn cos-1(s/j)
Let
Cos-1(s/j) = x = u + jv
Then, cn(s/j) = cosnx = cosn (u+jv)
= cosnu. Cosnjv sinnu. Sin njv
= cosnu coshnv jsin nu . sinh nv
=0 j

## Thus, comparing , we get,

Cosnu . cosh nv = 0
-sinnu. Sinhnv = 0

[ cosjnv = coshnv
[ sinjnv = jsinhv]

## The minimum value of

Coshnv = 1, coshnv not equal to 0
cosnu = 0
Or cosnuk = cos(2k+1). /2,
Uk = (2k+1) /2n .(v)
Now ,
-sinnuk = sinhnvk =

k = 0,1,2.

## But, sin nuk = +- 1

+-1 . sinhnvk =
1

-1 1
Nvk= sinh ( )

1
Vk = 1/n. sinh-1( )

Or sinhnvk =

47

## Again, we know that

Cos-1 (s/j) = x = u +jv
s/j = cosx = cos(u+jv)
in general,
sk = jcos(uk +jv)
= j[cosuk .cosjv sinuk. sinjv]
= j[cosuk . coshv jsinuk. sinhv ]
Sk = sinuk. sinhv + jcosuk. coshv (vi) , k = 0,1,2.(2n-1)
Again,
Sk = sin[(2k +1) /2n] sinhv + jcos[(2k+1) /2n] coshv
Or , sk = k + jwk ..(viii)
Where,
k = sin[(2k+1) /2n] sinhv .(ix)
Wk = cos[(2k+1) /2n] coshv ..(x)
Form euation (ix) ,
k2/sin2 hv = sin2[ ( 2k+1) /2n] ..(xi)
and from quation (x)
w2k/cos2hv = cos2 [ (2k+1) /2n] ..(xii)
Now adding equation (xi) and (xii) we get,
k2/sin2 hv+ w2k/cos2hv = 1 .(xii)
Which is equation of ellipse . Therefore we can say that the poles of chebyshev filter lie on
the ellipse.

Date: 2065/6/9
Example:01 Obtained the 4th order network function of a low pass chebyshev filter with
max = 0.75 dB
Solution: n = 4 max = 0.75 dB
Now = ( 10max/10 -1)1/2 whp = cosh (1/n. cosh-1 (1/))
= (100.75/10 -1)1/2 = 0.434
And whp = cosh ( 1/n. cosh-1(1/)) =
Pole location is given by
48

## Sk = sinuk sinhv + jcosuk coshv

Where, uk = (2k+1) ./2n ; k = 0, 1, 2n-1
V = 1/n. sinh-1(1/)
uo = /8 u1 = 3/8 , u2 = 5/8, u3 = 7/8 , u4 = 9/8
u5 = 11/8 u6 = 13/8 , u7 = 15//8
v = 0.393
s0 = 0.154 + 0.996j
s1 = 0.373+ 0.413j
s2 = 0.373 0.413j
s3 = 0.154-0.996j
s4 = -0.154 0.996j
s5 = -0.373 0.413j
s6 = -0.373 + 0.413j
s7 = -0.154 + 0.996j
The transfer function (or n/w function) for forth order chebyshev filter is given by ,
T(s) = 1/(s+s4)(s+s5)(s+s6)(s+s7)
jw
S0

S7

S1

S6

S2

S5
S4

S3

Home Assignment:
Example:02: Determine the network function for 3rd order chebyshev LPF with max = 0.75
dB ( =p ; pass band attenuation)
Date: 2065/6/14
Inverse chebyshev low pass approximation:

49

T (jw)

T (jw)

Ideal LPF

BU-Response

T (jw)

T (jw)

inverse-Chebyshev-response

Chebyshev-respone

1- T (jw)

## Fig: intermediate stage to obtain inverse chebyshev response.

2

Tic(jw)

Fig: The reciprocal value of w of intermediate stage give the value of w in I-C response.
We know the response of chebyshev is given by
1

T ( jw) =

1+ 2 c n ( w)
1
2
2

1- Tc ( jw) = 1-

1+ 2 c n ( w)
2

2 c n ( w)
2

1+ 2 c n ( w)
2

50

2 c n (1 / w)
2

TIC ( jw) =

(i)

1+ 2 c n (1 / w)
2

Where,
TIC ( jw)

## is the magnitude square response for I-C.

We know ,
cn(1/w) = cosncos-1(1/w)
at for w = 1
cn(1) = 1 for all value of n
Thus equation (i) becomes
2 .1
1+ 2
2 .1
TIC ( j.1) =
.
1+ 2
2

TIC ( j.1) =

(ii)

We know that ,
min = -20log TIC ( j.1) dB (iii)
Using equation (ii) on equation (iii) , we get,
= min = -20log TIC ( j.1) dB
2
= - 20log
2
1+

1/ 2

1+ 2

= 10log 2

min = 10 log [ 1+
Or , 10min/10 -1 =

= 10

min/ 10

10

1
}
2

1
2

1
2

. (iv)
Again in general, the attenuation formula can be written as:
2 c n 2 (1 / w)
= -10log

2
2
1+ c n (1 / w)

= 10 log 1 +

2
2 c n (1 / w)
1

Now at w = wp = max
Then above equation becomes

= max = 10 log 1 +

(10 max/10 1) =
2

c n (1 / w p ) =

2
2 c n (1 / w p )
1
1

2 c n (1 / w p )
2

1
1
. max/ 10
2
(10
1)

51

(10 min/ 10 1)
c n (1 / w p ) =
(10 max/ 10 1)
2

(10 min/ 10 1)
.(v)
(10 max/ 10 1)

c n (1 / w p ) =

## [ wp < 1, 1/wp > 1]

Thus equating equation (v) and (vii)
(10

min/ 10

1)

## Coshn cosh-1(1/wp) = max/ 10

1)
(10

1
2

(10 min/ 10 1) 2
cosh 1 max/ 10

(10
1)

n=
(vii)
cosh 1 (1 / w p )

Which gives the required order for the inverse chebyshev filter.
Now , for half power frequency i.e at w = wp
TIC ( j.1) = 1/2
2

=
Which means,
2
2 c n (1 / wP ) = 1
TIC ( j.1)

c n (1 / wnp ) =
c n (1 / w) =

1
2

Coshn.cosh-1(1/wnp) =cosh-1

1

1

wnp =

1
1
1
cosh cosh 1 ( )

< 1 .(viii)

## Which gives the desire half power frequency.

Example: 01
Given, max = 0.5 dB
min = 22 dB
wp = 0.9
n=?
wnp = ?
52

Assignment:
Example:02 Differentiate between Butterworth , chevyshev and inverse chebysehev filters.
Pole zero location for inverse chebyshev:
We know that ,
2 c n (1 / w)
2

TIC ( jw) =

1+ 2 c n (1 / w)
2

## T(s). T(-s) = z(s).z(-s)/[p(s).p(-s)]

Where, z(s) z(-s) |s = jw = 2 c n 2 (1 / w)
P(s) P(-s)|s = jw = 1 + 2 c n 2 (1 / w)
For zero location:
2 c n (1 / wk )
2

0 c n 2 (1 / wk ) = 0
c n (1 / wk ) = 0

## Cosn cos-1(1/wk) = cos(k/2) for k = 1,3,5 ..(i.e odd)

ncos-1(1/wk) = k/2
1/wk = cos(k/2n) which gives the zero for inverse chebyshev.
Wk = sec(k/2n)
For poles:
1+ 2 c n 2 (1 / wk ) = 0
The poles location are similar to chebyshev.
Simply replacing wk by 1/wk
i.e if chebyshev poles = pi
Then , inverse chbyshev poles = 1/pi

## Fig. Zero location

Example:01
Given,
min = 18 dB
max = 0.25 dB
ws = 1.4 rad/sec
wp = 1 rad/sec
Find out the pole and zero for inverse chbyshev response.
53

Chapter 5
Frequency transformation:
Frequency transformation is important because the prototype LPF with any type of
approximation can be converted into high pass band pass , band stops filters within the same
characteristics easily.
T(jw)
1
0.707

Wc

## The effect of frequency transformation are:

1. Magnitude response 2. Network function
3. Location of poles and zeroes. 4. Network elements.
Types of transformation:
1. LP to LP transformation

Transformation

W0

New LPF

Old LPF

Replace s by wo/o .s
i.e
w0 = 1 ( in normalized case)
s s/0
TLP(new) (s) = TLP(old) (s/0)
For eamaple,
If
TLP(s) = 1/S+1
Then
TLP(old)(s) = 1/s+1
TLP(new)(s) = TLP(old)(s/o) = 1/(s/o)+1 = 0/(s+0)
1. For resistor:
- No change.
2. For inductor:
XL = LS
Putting s

s
0

54

XL = Lold

L
s
= old s = Lnew .S
0 0

Lnew = Lold/0
3. For capacitor:
Xc = 1/cs
Putting s

s
0

Xc =

C old

s
0

C old
.s
0

C new .s

Cnew = Cold/s
2 LP to HP Transformation:

Transformation

W0

0
w0 .s

Or , s

0
s

HPF with 0

LPF with W0

[Since w0 = 1]

THP(s) = TLP(s)

s=

0
s

= TLP

( )
0
S

Then, THP(s) =

0
+1
s

s
0 + s

## (1) For resistor:

No change
(2) For inductor:
XL = LS
Putting s

0
s

55

0
1
=
s
1

.s
L 0
1
Comparing
with 1/CS
1

.s

L
0

XL = L.

C=

1
L 0

## (3) For capacitor:

Xc = 1/cs
Putting s
XL =

0
s

1
1
s
=
=
c 0 C 0
0

.c
s

.S = LS

1
.S with LS
Comparing
C 0

L =
C 0

Date: 2056/6/15
(3) LP to BP Transformation:
T

LP

TBP(j )

(jw)

Transmission

Wp

Ws

In this case,
s w0 .

s2 + 2
u L

Here, u L = B
And w0 = 1
s .

s2 + 2
Bs

Where 02 = L. u
56

## (1) For resistor

- no change
(2) For inductor:
XL = LS
The new value of inductive reactance is given by:
s 2 + 0 2

XL = L.

Bs

XL =

L 0
L
.s +
B
Bs

L
.s +
B

1
B

L 0

.s

L
B

B
Lo2

## (3) For capacitor:

The new capacitive reactance form LP to BP is given by :
1

s + 0
Bs
2

c.

1
cs + c 0
Bs
2

1
c 0
c
s+
B
Bs

1
c
s+
B

1
B
c 0

.s

The new components (i.e inductor and capacitor) are in parallel as shown in fig. below:

Co2

LP to BS Transformation:
T

LP

TBS(j )

(jw)

Transmission

Wp

Ws

57

s

But w0 = 1,

Bs
s 2 + 0

.w0

Bs
s + 0
2

## (1) For resistor :

Resistor value remain same.
(2) For inductor:
XL = LS
XL = L.

Bs
s + 0
2

=.

1
s + 0
LBS
2

s
+ 0
LBS LBs
2

1
1
1
s+
LB
LB
.s
2
0

The new component (i.e inductor and capacitor ) are in parallel as in figure below:

LB

2
o

LB

## (3) For capacitor:

Xc = 1/cs
Xc =
c.

s 2 + 0

s2
1
1
=
=
+ 0 =
.s +
CB
CBS
CBs CBs CB
.s
2
0
2

1
Bs

s2 + 0

CB

2
o

CB

Example:01: If T(s) =
10 and u = 20.
Solution:
Then, TLP(s) =

1
s +1

1
, then change the above function from LP to BP. Given , L =
s +1

, L = 10 , u = 20

We know ,
02 = L. u = 10. 20 = 200
For Lp to BP we replace
s2 + 0
s 2 + 2000 s 2 + 200
=
=
B
(20 10) s
10 s
2

58

Thus,
10 s
1
= 2
s 2 + 200 = TBP ( s ) = 2
s + 10 s + 200
s + 200
s=
+1
10 s
10 s
10( s )
TBP(s) = 2
s + 10 s + 200

TLP

Example:02: Obtain the transfer function of the 4th order Butter worth HPF with 0 = 2
TLP(s) =

1
s + 2.61313s + 3.41921s 2 + 2.61313s + 1
4

We know that ,
s

0
s
1

## + 2.61313 0 + 3.41921 0 + 2.61313 0 + 1

s
s
s
s
4

Example:03:The filter shown in the figure below is a 4th order chebyshev low pass filter with
p = 1 dB and wp = 1. Obtain a bandpass filter from this low pass with o = 400 rad/sec and
B = 150.
+

V1

+
-

V2

Solution:
For LP to BP conversion , we replace
s2 + 0
s
Bs

## Where, o = 400 rad/sec , B = 150

Now for section A:
L = 1.2817

L
B

B
Lo2

## The new inductor value is = L/B = 1.2817/150 = 8.54 mH

and the new value of capacitor is = B/L 20 = 150/(1.28174002) = 731.45 F.
For section B:
59

C= 1. 9093

Co2

## New inductor value = B/C o2 = 150/(1.90934002)= 491.01 F

New capacitor value = C/B = 1.9093/150 = 12.72 F
For section C:
L = 1.4126

B
Lo2

L
B

For section D:

Co2

For section E:
R=1

R=1

731. 45uF
V

+
-

9. 41 mH

8. 54 mH

491uH

663. 66uF
12.72 uF

893. 71mH
6. 99 mF

Date: 2065/6/16
60

R1

I2

I1

1
Vs

Loss less

zi n

V1

R2

V2

## Fig.1 Doubly Terminated LC ladder ckt.

From figure(i)
I1= Vs/(R1 +Vin) (i)
Where,
Zin = Rin + jxin .(ii)
Since the ckt is loss less
Input power = output power
P1 = zin |I1(jw)|2 = |V2(jw)|2/R2 (iii)
From equation (i) and (iii)
zin|Vs(jw)|2/(R1+zin) = |V2(jw)|2/R2
or , |V2(jw)|2/|vs(jw)|2 = zin R2/(R1+zin)2 ..(iv)
Now for matched source.
R1 = zin
Which means
V1 = vs/2
P1max = |v1(jw)|2/R1 = |vs(jw)|2/4R1
Also it is to remember that ,
P2 = |v2(jw)|2/R2
|(jw)|2 = p2/p1max = [|v2(jw)|2/R2]/ |vs(jw)|2/4R1 = 4R1/R2. |v2(jw)/vs(jw)|2 ..(vi)
Form equation (iv) and (vi)
|H(jw)|2 = 4R1/R2. {zin R2/(R1+zin)}
= 4R1zin/ (R1+zin)2 = 1- (R1-zin)2/(R1 +zin)2
(R1-zin)2/(R1 +zin)2 = |(jw)|2
= reflection coefficient
( R1 z in ) 2
( s). ( s) =
( R1 + z in ) 2

( s) =

( R1 z in )
.....................(vii)
( R1 + z in )

## From equation (vii) , we get

1 (s)
1st zin
1 + (s)
1 + (s)
z in = R1 .
-----------2nd zin
1 ( s)
z in = R1 .

..(viii)

## Generally we take R1 = 1. Both impedances in equation (viii) are reciprocal impedance.

Synthesis of Doubley Terminated LC ladder with equal terminal (All pass filter)
61

## For butterworth response:

T ( jw = H ( jw) =
2

N ( s) N ( s)
1
=
2n
D( s) D( s)
1+ w

[since w0 = 1]

1
w 2n
=
1 + w 2n 1 + w 2n
s n .( s ) n
w 2n
=
=
(ix)
D( s ).D( s ) D( s ).D( s )

( s ) = 1 H ( s ) = 1 H ( jw) = 1
2

( s). ( s) =

w 2n
1 + w 2n

Now,
For n = 1
D(s) = s+1
[since T(s) = H(s) = 1/S+1]
Form equation (ix)
(s) = sn/D(s)
= s1/s+1 = s/s+1
s
1 ( s)
s +1 s
= 1. s + 1 = .
zin1 = R1 .
s
1 + (s)
s +1+ s
1+
s +1
1
Zin1 = .
.............(a)
2s + 1
1

## Zin2 = 2s+1 .(b)

Zin2 = 2s+ 1 = Ls + R
i.e L = 2, and R = 1
The ckt will be
R1

vs

+
-

R2

## From equation (a) , zin1 = 1/(2s+1) i.e c = 2, and R = 1

+
1

vs

+
-

1 v2
2
-

For n = 2
D(s) = s2+2s + 1
( s) =

sn
sn
= 2
D(s) s + 2 s + 1

1 s 2 /( s 2 + 2s + 1)
(s 2 + 2s + 1 s 2 )
1 ( s)
=
= 2
zin1 =
1 + (s)
1 + s 2 /( s 2 + 2s + 1)
(s + 2s + 1 + s 2 )
62

( 2s + 1)

zin1 =

..(a)

(2s 2 + 2 s + 1)

Similary,
2 s 2 + 2s + 1

Zin2 =

2s + 1

.(b)

## 2 s+1) 2s22+2 s +1 (2.s

z1(s)
2s +2 s
1 ) 2.s + 1( 2 s Y2(s)
2 s
1) 1 (1
z3(s)
1

+
-

vs

1.41

1 v2
1.41
-

2
1

vs

+
-

1.41
1

1.41

## Home work : For n = 3 and n = 4

Date: 2065/6/17
Synthesis of Doubly Terminated LC - Ladder with unequal termination: ( R1 R2) :
For R1 R2 the butter worth response is given by ,
H ( jw) =
2

H 2 ( 0)
2
= T ( jw)
2n
1+ w

Generally we take,
R1 1 and R1 R2
R1
+
- Vs

I1
Zin

I2

LC

R2 V2

63

V2
Vs

## From which we get ,

R2
R2 + R1

T(0) =

Now we know
4 R V (s)
H ( s) = 1 . 2
R2 Vs (s)

H (s) =
2

4 R1
2
. T (s)
R2

H (S ) = 2

R1
.T ( s )
R2

H (0) = 2

R1
R
R2
.T (0) = 2 1 .
R2
R 2 R1 + R 2

H ( 0) = 2

R 2 .R1
R1 + R 2

Example:01: Realize the doubly terminated ladder filter with a Butter worth response for n
= 3, R1 = 1, R2 = 2 .
Solution:
We know, for unequal termination ( i.e R1 R2) the Butterworth response is given by,
H ( jw) =
2

H 2 ( 0)
1 + w 2n

Here, n = 3, R1 = 1 & R2 = 2
H2(0) =

4 R2 .R1

(R2 + R1 )

H ( jw) =
2

4 .1 .2

(1 + 2)

8
9

8/9
1 + w 2n

## The reflection coefficient function is

( jw) = 1 H ( jw)
2

8/9
1 + w 2n 8 / 9 1 / 9 + w 2n
=1
=
=
1 + w2n
1 + w 2n
1 + w 2n
1 / 9 ( s / j ) 23 1 / 9 + ( s / j ) 6
=
1 + w 23
1 + w6
1 / 9 ( s ) 6 (1 / 3) 2 ( s 3 ) 2 (1 / 3 s )(1 / 3 + s )
2
Or, ( s) =
=
=
1 s6
1 s6
1 s6

( jw) =
2

( s ). ( s ) =

(1 / 3 + s 3 ) (1 / 3 s 3 )
.
D(s)
D( s)

## Where, D(s). D(-s) = 1- s6

64

( s) =

1/ 3 + s3
D( s)

For n = 3,
D(s) = s3+2s2 + 2s+1 (from table)
The first impedance is ,

1/ 3 + s3
1 ( s)
s 3 + 2 s 2 + 2s + 1
Zin1 =
=
1 ( s)
1/ 3 + s3
1+ 3
s + 2s 2 + 2s + 1
1

2s 2 + 2s + 2 / 3
Zin1 = 3
.(a)
2 s + 2s 2 + 2s + 4 / 3
2 s 3 + 2s 2 + 2s + 4 / 3
..(b)
Zin2 =
2s 2 + 2s + 2 / 3

## 2s2+2s+2/3 ) 2s3+2s2 +2s + 4/3 ( s

3

z1(s)

2s +2s +2/3.s
4/3.s+4/3 ) 2s2 +2s+ 2/3 (3/2. s
2s2+2s
2/3 ) 4/3.s +4/3(2s

Y2(s)
z3(s)

4/3.s
4/3 ) 2/3 (1/2
2/3
+
-

Y4(s)

2
2/3

Home Assignment:
Try it for n = 1, 2, 3 and 4 , for unequal terminal i. e R1 = 1 and R2 = 2.
[ for n = 4, D(s) = s4+2.16s3+3.14s2+2.6s+1]
Review of ideal and non ideal properties of operational amplifiers, GBP, CMRR,
Inverting and non inverting A/F.

65

## Fundamental of Active filter circuit: Ideal & Non-ideal properties of op-amp.

 Gain Bandwidth product( GBP)
 CMRR & its importance.

## The main advantage of Active filter: Small in size

 Provide grater amplification
 Cheaper than passive filter.






## Extra Vcc is required

Sensitive to temperature
Low gain at high temperature
Low gain at high frequencies
CMRR should be high

## Certain important configuration of op-amp:Rf

R

Vo =

Rf
R

Vo

.Vi

(2) Non-investing:Rf
R

Vo

Vi

RF
Vo = 1 +
Vi
R

(3)Integration:-

66

c
R

Vi

Vo

1
1 1
.Vi =
Vi
RCS
RC S

Vo =
If R1=1 & C = 1, then
Vo
1
=
Vi
S

## I.e. Integrator always contributes polo.

(4) Differentiator:Rf

Vo

Vi

Vi O Vo O
=
1
R
CS

Vo = (CRS )Vi
If Ro= 1& Co= 1, Then
Vo
= S
Vi
(5) Summer:-

Rf
R1
V1
V2

Vo

R1

Vo =

RF
(V1 + V2 )
Ri

67

Rf
R1

V1
V2

Vo

R1
Rf

Vo =

RF
(V2 V1 )
Ri

Z1

V1

V2

From fig.
R(S) =

V1 ( S ) Z 2
=
V1 ( S )
Z1

## (a) T(S) = -K/S

Since, the above T(S) contributes polo we can reduce the T(S) with T(S) of integrator
I.e. T (S ) =

1
K
=
RCS
S
1
RC
If R=1, then,
C=1/K
K=

1/k

R =1

## Thus the design will be

(b) T(S)= -KS
(Do yourself)
(c) T(S) = -K(S+a1)
We can compare with the general T(S) of investing type ie.
T(S) =

Z2
Z1
68

V2

Z2
= k (S + a1 )
Z1

1
y
y
Or 2 = 1 = k ( S + a1 )
1
y2
y1
If y 2 = 1, then,
Y1 = KS+Ka1

Y2
Y1

1/ka1

1
+

V2

1/ka1
Fig:- Design for R(s) = - (s + a1)
(d) T(S) =

K
S + P1
1/k

Z2
K
=
Z 1 S + P1

k/p1

y1
K
=
y 2 (S + P1 )
y1
1
=
y 2 (S + P1 )
K
y1=1, then
y2 =

V2

## fig: Design for T(S)= -K/(S+P1)

S + P1 S P1
= +
K
K K

(e) T(S) =

ks
s + p1

Z2
1
=
1
P
Z1
+ 1
K KS

1
1/k
V1

k/p1

If Z2=1, then,

69

V2

Z1 =

1
P
+ 1
K KS

(f) T (S ) = K

S + q1
S + P1

s + q1
Z2

= K
Z1
s + p1
s + q1
y1

= k
y2
s + p1
Let y1= ks + kq1
Then, y2 = s + p1

1
k

1/p1

V1

V2

1/ka1

k (s + q1 )
(s + p1 )

## # 2nd approach of above problem

(Do
Do Yourself)
Yourself

(2)Non-investing type:-

V1

V2

Z2
Z1

(a) T(S) =

a1-p1/p1
+

k (s + q1 )
(s + p1 )

Where, q1>p1

1/a-p1

Comparing,

1+

s + q1
z2

= k
z1
s + p1

V2

70

s + q1
z2
1
= k
z1
s + p1
=

ks + kq1 s p1
s + p1

z2 s (k 1) + (kq1 p1 )
=
z1
(s + p1 )
For, k = 1
z2 q1 p1
=
z1 s + p1

y1
=
y2

T(s) =

k (s + q1 )
for k = 1
(s + p1 )

1
s
p1
+
q1 p1 q1 p1

If y1 = 1, then
y2 =

s
p1
+
q1 p1 q1 p1

For, k 1

z 2 s (k 1) + (kq1 p1 )
=
(s + p1 )
z1

1200

We assume,
Kq1 = p1
K = p1/q1

s ( p1 q1 )
z
s (k 1)
q1
2 =
=
z1 (s + p1 )
(s + p1 )

V1

z2
p q
= 1 1
q1
z1
1 + p1 / s
p1 q1
q1

If z2 =

## Design for T(s) =

Then, z1 = 1 + p1 / s
# 2nd approach

y1
=?
y2

k (s + q1 )
(s + p1 )

## for k 1 & p1 >q1

(Do Yourself)

Example:- 01
Realize 1st order inverting which satisfy the following T(s)
T(s) =

1000
s + 1000

We know that,
z2 1000
=
z1
s + 100

71

V2

y1
1000
1
=
=
s
y2 s + 1000
+1
100
If y1=1 then,
y2 =

s
1
+ 1, c =
1000
1000

Example:-02
Realize the 1st order Non- inverting filter with following T(s)
T (s ) =

s+4
s+8

## soln:- For the case given,

T(S) = 1 +

z2 s + 4
=
z1 s + 8

z2 s + 4 s 8 4
=
=
z1
s+4
s

Or,

The direct approach does not provide the required design; we go in the following manner.

Here, P1 =8
Q1=4
Ie, p1=q1
Let, k =

T ( s) =

p1 8
= =2
q1 4

2(s + 4 ) 1
.
(s + 8 ) 2

(s + 4 ) 1
= 2
( 1)
(s + 8 ) 2

= T1 ( s ).T2 (s ).T3 (s )
For, T1(S) =
1+

2( s + 4 )
(s + 8)

z2 2 s + 8 s 8
=
z1
(s + 8 )

z2
s
=
z1 s + 8
y1
s
=
y2 s + 8
If y1= S, then y2 = S + 8

72

1
+

1 ohm

z2
1000
=
z1 S + 1000

1 ohm

## It is law pass response,

If, Ri =

V2

1/8

RC-CR Transformation:T (S ) =

1mf
V2

1
1
=
= 1k
Ci 1mf
& Ci =

1F

1 1
= = 1F
Ri 1

V1
z
s
T(s) = 2 =
z1 s + 1000

1000

V2

It is the transformation by which a low pass filter can be converted into a high pass filter by the
simple change in the component Value i.e. In this case Ri is replace by Ci and Ci=1/Ri and Ci is replaced by
Ri and Ri=1/Ci.

CHAPTER:- 8
Biquad circuits:Consider a 2nd order filter as shown below:L
- At low freq, c behaves as line open cut so, V2 = V1

+
-

V2

c
v (s )
T(s) = 2 =
v1 (s )

## At high freq. c behave as line short cut V2= O

Hence, it is a low pass filter.

1
cs
R + LS +

1
cs

1
Lc
=
R
1
s2 + s +
L
Lc
73

R
1
=0
S+
L
LC
&, for loss less ckt , ie, if R= 0,
Then, S2+ 1/Lc =0

To get poles, S 2 +

Or, s = j

LC

= jwo where, wo =

Lc

## Poles are imaginary and conjugate,

Quality factor:-(Q)
WoL
R
It is defined as the ratio of inductive reactance at frequency Wo to the resistance.
Now,
Q=

L 1 L
=
LC R R C
1

Q=
Also,
T (s ) =

Wo R
=
Q L

Wo 2
Wo
S2 +
S + Wo 2
Q

. (i)

V1

V2

Wo1 .Q

Wo
.S + Wo 2 = 0
Q

## Let, the poles be, j then,

D(S) = (S + + j )(s + j )

D(S) = S 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 0 (ii)
Comparing equation (i) and (ii)
2 =

Wo
Q
=

&

2 + 2 = Wo 2

Wo
2Q

& = Wo 1

1
4Q 2

## Typing Biquad current:-

74

2

Gw0
A typical Biquad ckt can be represented as, T(s) =
w
2
s 2 + 0 s + w0
Q

## Where, G = Gain & choice of inverting and non inverting.

In normalized case, i.e. for w0 = 1
T (s ) =

G
.. (i)
s
2
s + +1
Q

## Equation (i) can be implemented if G & Q ate given,

Let us go for inverting type of design
i. e. T (s ) =

v2
=
v1

G
s
s2 + +1
Q

G
s
s2 + +1
Q

s
Gv1 = s 2 + + 1v2
Q

1
Gv1 = s s 2 + + 1 v 2
Q

v2 =

v2 =

Gv1
v2

1
1
s s + s s +
Q
Q

v2

1
s +
Q

v2

1
s s +
Q

Gv1 1
vs

v2 =

[ 1]. (ii)

1
1 s
s + s +
Q
Q

## The equation (ii) is cascade Realization costing of 3 steps:

Stage:-1

1
G

v +
v1 ii (a)
1 2

1
s+
s +

Q
Q

Stage:-2
1
.. ii (b)
s

75

1

Stage:-3
(-1) =

ii(c)

+
For stage 1, we need more analysis:

Z3
Z2

V1

Z1

V3

From figure
v3 =

z3
z
.v1 3 .v2
z1
z2

1
1
v3 = z 3 v2 + v1 .. (iii)
z1
z 2
From equation ii (a)

v3 =

1
1
s+
Q

[ 1v2 + ( G )]v1

v
1
1
v3 =
2 + v1 . (iV)
1 1
1
s+

Q
G
Comparing eqn (iii) & (iV)
z3 =

1
s+

1
Q

z 2 = 1 (a resistor)
z2 =

1
(a resistor)
G

76

For , z 3 =

1
s+

Or, y3 = s +

1
Q

1
Q

1

Q
1
1/Q
V1

V2

V3

## The overall ckt will be,

1
1
1/Q

1
1

V2

Fig: This is ring of 3 ckt and is popularly known as two Thomas Biquid.

R3

V1
V2

R2

C2

R1

R4
V3

R5
R5
V4

## Fig:-General Two Thomas Biquid.

From figure,
1
c1 s
v3 =
1
R1 +
c1 s
R1

v4 =

v2 v1
+ (i)
R2 R3

1
v3 (ii)
R4 c 2 s

v2 = v4 (iii)
From eqn (ii) & (iii)
v2 =

1
v3 (iv)
R4 c 2 s

77

V2

R4 c2 s.v2 =

T (s ) =

R1
c1 s v2 v1
+
1 R2 R3
R1 +
c1 s

v2
=
v1

1
R3 R4 c1c2

1
1
s +
s+
Rc1
R2 R4 c1c2

(V)

v
T (s ) = 2 =
v1

Gw0
(Vi)
w0
2
2
s + .s + w0
Q
2

## Comparing eqn (V) & (Vi)

w0 =
2

1
R2 R4 c1c2

w0 =
2

Also,
or,

1
(Vii)
R2 R4 c1c2

1
2
= Gw0
R2 R4 c1c2

1
1
= G.
R2 R4 c1c2
R2 R4 c1c2
R2
.(Viii)
R3

or, G =
Finally,

w0
1
=
Q R1c1
or,

1
1
=
R1c1
R2 R4 c1c2
Q
2

Q=

R1 c1
(ix)
R2 R4 c1c 2

With,

c1 = c 2 = 1
& R2 = R4 = 1
We get,
W0 = 1

G=

1
R3

1
G
Q = R1
R3 =

78

R1 = Q
The important property of the Biquid ckt is that it can be orthogonally turned. It means
(a) R2 can be adjusted to a specified Value of w0.
(b)R1can then be adjusted to give specified of Q without changing w0, which has been already adjusted.
(3) Finally, R3can be adjusted to give the desired Value of G fir the ckt without changing w0 & Q which has
These three steps are known as tuning algorithm.
Sallen key Biquad circuit:C1

R1
V1

R2 Va
+

C2

V2

RA RB

## Fig: Sallen-key Biquad

From fig (i),

v2
R
= 1 + A = k . .(i)
v1
RB
v2
(ii)
k
Applying Nodel Analysis at mode a,
Va =

V a Vb V a 0
+
= 0 (iii)
1
R2
S
C2
Applying Nodal analysis at node b,

vb v1
+
R1

v2
k + vb v 2 = 0
1
R2
c1 s

vb

1
v
1
1 v2

Or, Vb +
+
1 v 2 c1 s = 0
R1 R2 R3 R2 k R1
1
v
1

1
Or, Vb +
+ c1 s 1 v 2
+ c1 s = 0
R1 R2
R1
R2 k

## Similarly, rearranging eqn (iii)

v2
v2
k v3 + k = 0
1
R2 R2
c2 s

1
v
c s

+ 2 v2 b = 0
R2
R2 k k
79

1
c s
Or, vb = R2
+ 2 v 2 .(Vi)
k
R2 k
Thus from eqn (V) & (Vi)

c s 1
v
1
R2
+ 2 +
+ c1 s v 2 1 v 2
+ c1 s = 0
k R1 R2
R1
R2 k

R2 k

1
1

c s 1
v
1
Or, R2
+ 2 +
+ c1 s
+ c1 s v 2 = 1
k R1 R2
R2
R2 k

R2 k

T (s ) =

T (s ) =

v2
=
v1

1
R1 R2 c1c 2

1
(1 k ) s + 1
1
s 2 +
+
+

R1 R2 c1c 2
R1c1 R2 c1 R2 c 2
2

Gw0
. (Viii)
w0
2
2
s + s + w0
Q

## Comparing eqn (Vii) and (Viii)

G=k

w0 =

R1 R2 c1c 2

w0
1
1
1 k
=
+
+
Q R1c1 R2 c1 R2 c 2
Design I (equal elements Values):In this case,
R2 = R1 = R = 1
& C1 = C2 = C = 1
For which,
W0 = 1
K = 3

R
1
= 1+ B
Q
RA

## Now, let us take,

RA = 1 then,
RB = 2- 1/Q
In this case the final ckt will be,
C1= 1

R1= 1 R2= 1
V1

C2 = 1

V2

B = 2-1/Q
1
RA=R

80

Design II (unity gain design):In this case k = 1
This is turn require d the non inverting ckt to be replaced by a Voltage followers.
We keep,
R1 = R2 = 1
We know,

w0
1
1
1 k
=
+
+
Q R1c1 R2 c1 R2 c 2

Or,

w0 1 1
= +
Q c1 c1
w0
2
=
Q c1

Also, W0 =

1
R1 R2 c1c 2

1
c1c 2

## But, we take, in normalized case,

W0 = 1
C1C2 = 1
C1= 1/C2
Thus, C1 = 2Q

2Q

C2 = 1/2Q
The final ckt will be,

1
+

V2

V1
1/2Q

## Design II (equal capacitance of equal feed bake):In this case,

C1 = C2 = C = 1
RA = RB = R = 1
K= 1+RB/RA = 2
W0 = 1

w0 1
1
1 1 2
= =
+
+
Q Q R1 R2
R2
R1 = Q
Also, W0 =
2

1
=1
R1 R2 c1c 2

R2 = 1/Q
The final ckt will be,

81

1

1/Q

1 +
1

V2
1

Example:- 01
Design a 4th order Butterworth filter using equal element of Sallen Key ckt. Then Let w0 =2 1000
rad/sec & use capacitor of 0.1F
n

## Sol .:The 4th order Sallen Key in blocks can be represented by

2nd
2nd orderr

1st
1st order

From table,
Q1 = 0.54 and Q2 = 1.31
st
For 1 stage:Wo = 1, Q1 = 0.54
& for equal element design in Sallen key,
R1 = R2 = 1
& C1 = C2 =1
RA = 1,
RB =2 1/Q = 2 -1/0.54
RB = 0.148
nd
For 2 stage:WO = 1
Q2 = 1.31
R1 = R2 = R = 1
C1 = C2 = C = 1
RA = 1
RB =1/Q2 = 2-1/1.31 = 1.236
The design should be for,
= 2 1000
& C = 0.1 f
We can apply both magnitude and frequency scaling at once.
Now, we know,

C new =

C old
1
=
= 235.54
6
C new .kf 0.1 10 2 1000

## For 2nd stage,

RBnew = Km RBold = 1591.54*1.236 = 1967.14
The ckt will be,

82

0.1F

0.1 F

1.6k

V1

1.6k

0.1F

1.6k

1.6k

1.6 k

23 6
1.6k

V2
2k

Fig: 4th order butter worth active Salleney biquad with equal element design
for W = 2 1000 rad / sec & C = 0.1F .
Gain adjustment (EqualiZation in Sallen key:T (S ) =

KWo 2
.. (i)
Wo
2
2
.S + Wo
S +
Q

In Butterworth,
T (jo) = 1 or 0 dB
But in equation (i) T (jo) = k (k>/1) which needs to be equalized.
Ra
R1
+

V1

Fig:- i(a)

V1

Rb

Vb

fig:- i(b)

## If H is considered to be the gain provided by fig i(b) which is such that,

H. k = 1
Also it is to noted that, in Sallen key,
G=K
Also, H. G = 1
H =1/G
Now, T (S) =

Vb
Rb
=
V1 Ra + Rb

## Also, we should remember that,

Ra Rb
= R1
Ra + Rb
Now, solving the above equation by setting R=1, we get Ra = 1/H
In term of G the Value of Ra & Rb is
Ra = G

Rb =

G
G 1

83

In term Q Ra and Rb can be expressed as,
Ra = 3

1
Q

G = K =
Rb =

3Q 1
2Q 1

3 1
Q

## Gain Enhancement (Increment) in Sallen key:C1

R1
V1

R2

RB RA

C2

V2
Ra
Rb

We have, gain,

R
1
= 1+ A
Q
RB

K = 3

But, sometimes for given Q the Value of gain will be Very small and amplification to our need. Although
the separate ckt for gain enhancement can be used, the Sallen key ckt itself can be modified to compensate
the gain, using additional arrangement of two resistor as, shown in the fig (ii)
Let, C1 = C2 = C
& R1 = R2 = R then,
T(S) = of sallen key will be,

k
R C2
T(S) =
1
3 k
S2 +
.S + 2 2
R C
RC
2

Where, =

Rb
Ra + Rb

Wo 3 k
=
Q
RC

Q=

1
3 k

For a given Value of Q the gain k can be increased to our requirement by proportionally decreasing the
new factor .
84

High pass sallen key:In this case,
THP(S) =

GS 2
Wo
.S + Wo 2
S 2 +
Q

Applying RC-CR transformation in active low pass Sallen key biquid, in the non-inverting terminals we get
the following final ckt THP(S) as,
1/C1
1/R1 1/R 2
V1

V2

RA R B

1/C2

THP(S) =

KS 2
1
1
K 1
1
.S +
S 2 +
+
+
R1 R2 C1C 2
R2 C 2 R2 C1 C1 R1

Where, WO =

1
R1 R2 C1C 2

G=k
Wo
1
1
k 1
=
+
+
Q
R2 C 2 R2 C1 R1C1

1/C1

## Band pass Sallen key Biquad:R1

C2

In this case,
V

1 +

C1

R3

.S
R1C1

TBP(S) =
1
R1 + R2
1
1
1 k
S 2 +
+
+
+
.S +
R1 R2 R3C1C 2
R1C1 R3 C 2 R3C1 R2 C1

RA R B

Where,
WO =
Q=

R1 + R2
R1 R2 R3C1C 2
WO

1
1
1
1 k
+
+
+
R1C1 R3C 2 R3C1 R2 C1

85

V2

G=

k
R1C1

1
1
1
1 k
+
+
+
R1C1 R3C 2 R3C1 R2 C1

## Also, in standard from,

W
G O .S
Q
TBP(S) =
W
S 2 + O .S + WO 2
Q
Where, W1 = WO Bw/2
W2 = WO + Bw/2
And, Q =

WO
WO
=
Bw W2 W1

## Band stop Sallen key:-

G S 2 + WO
TBS(S) =
W
2
S 2 + O .S + WO
Q

R1

R2
+

V1
C1

V2

C2
R A RB

Assuming,
R2 = R1 = R
C1 = C2 = C
R3 = R/2
We obtained,

K S 2 + 2 2
R C

TBS(S) =
4(1 k )S
1
S2 +
+ 2 2
RC
R C
WO =
Q=

1
RC

1
4(1 k )

G = K = 1+

RB
RA

86

# Use equal amount design to obtain Bond pass Sallen key Biquad with WO =1 & Q =10. Also find the
upper band & lower band frequency. When WO =1000Hz
WO =1
Q = 10
W1, W2 if WO = 1000Hz

R1 + R2
R1 R2 R3C1C 2

WO =
Q=

WO

1
1
1
1 k
+
+
+
R1C1 R3C 2 R3C1 R2 C1

G=

k
R1C1

1
1
1
1 k
+
+
+
R1C1 R3C 2 R3C1 R2 C1
R2
R1

V1

C1

C2

V2

R3
RA R B

R1 = R2 = R3 = R
C1 = C2 = C =1
From which, we get,

2R
2
=
B
R
R

WO =
But,
WO = 1

RW = 2
Also,

10 =

1
2
2
2
10 =
4k =
K = 4
4k
4k
10
10
R

From which,
K = 4

2
R
= 4
= 3.86
10
10

Again,
k
3.86
=
= 27.28
4 k 4 3.86
G = 27.28
G=

The required gain (K=3.86) for design parameter WO = 1 & Q =10 is less than the gain (G = 27.28), so
gain must be reduced. For this, we need the two resisters (Ra & Rb). Sampling by replacing R1 so, that,
Ra =G =27.28

87

G
27.28
=
= 1.04
G 1 27.28 1
Again, We know,
K = 1+RB/RA

Rb =

For, RA = 1
RB = k-1 + 3.86 1 = 2.86
The required final ckt will be:1/2

V1

27.28

1.04

1/2

V2

1 2.86

Now,
New frequency = 1000HZ = 0
Frequency scaling factor kf =

0
= 1000
w0

Cnew = cold/kf

## Or, Cnew = 1/1000 = 1mf

C1new = C2new = 1mf
Now for upper band and lower band frequency 0 = Q/BW

BW = Q/ 0 = 10/1000 = 0.01
1 = 0 BW/2 = 1000-0.01/2 = 999.999HZ
2 = 0 + Bw/2 = 1000+0.01/2 = 1000.005HZ
Question:-.1 Design a 4th order butterworth active Sallen key law pass filter with unity gain. Realise it with
practical components.
Question:-.2 Design a 5th order butterworth active Sallen key law pass filter with equal feed back resistance
and equal capacitance Values. Then use, w0 = 2 1000rad/sec and C = 1F .

Question:-.3 Design a 4th order buttterworth active Sallen Key low pass filter with equal element design.
Multiple feed back Biquad current:-

C2

R2
V1

R1

R2

V2

C1

## Fig(i) low pass MFB

88

1
v
R1R3c1c2
T(s) = 2 =
(i)
v1
1 1
1
1
1
2
s + +
+ s +
c1 R1 R2 R3
R2 R3c1c2

In standard form,
Gw0
T (s ) =
.(ii)
w0
2
2
s + s + w0
Q
2

## Comparing eqn (i) & (ii)

1
R2 R3c1c2

w0 =
2

1
R2 R3c1c2

w0 =

And,

w0 1 1
1
1
= +
+
Q c1 R1 R2 R3

and, G = R2/R1
Equating (i) can be modified in the form,
T (s ) =

v2
Gb0
= 2
..(iii)
v1
s + b1s + b0

Where, b0 = W02

## Design in terms of bo & b1

Let, C1 = 1F
bo =

1
R 2 R3 C 2

G=

R2
R1

& b1 =

1
1
1
+
+
R1 R2 R3

Solving,

2C 2 bo

R2 =
b1 + b1 2 4C 2 bo (1 + G )

Example: 01
Design a biquad ckt for G = 5, b1 = 1.2 & bO

=1
89

Here, given,
G=5
b1 = 1.2
bO =1
bo = 1 WO = 1
& we know,
b1 =

Wo
Q

Q=

WO
1
=
= 0.833
b1 1.2

Also,
R2
=5
R1
Let,

## C1= 1F (Choose higher)

C2 = 0.05F (Choose lower Value)

For which,

2 0.05 1
R2 =

2
1.2 + 1.2 4 0.05 1(1 + 5)

=16.89
17

R2 = 17
But,
5=

R2
R1

R1 =

R2 17
=
5
5

R1 = 3.4
Again,
bo =

1
R2 R3C2

Or, R3 =

1
bo R2C2

1
1 17 0.05
R3 = 1.18
=

## The final design will be

90

16.89
V1

0.05

1.18

3.4

V2

It is to be noted that,

11
1
1 1
1
1
+
+ = 1
+
+
= 1.2 = b1
C1 R1 R2 R3 3.4 16.89 1.18

## High pass MFB:C2

R2

C3

V1
R1

V2

In this case,
C1 2
.S
C2
T(S) =
C + C2 + C3
1
S2 + 1
+
R2C2C3
R1R2C2C3
The standard form is,
T(S) =

With,

GS 2
GS 2
= 2
.. (ii)
S + b1 s + bO
WO
2
2
.S + WO
S +
Q

C1 = C3 = 1F
G = C1 /C2 = 1/C2
C2 = 1/G

Also,
bO =

1
R1 R2 C 2 C3

b1 =

C1 + C 2 + C 3
R2 C 2 C 3

## Now, bo can rewritten as,

b1 =

2+

1
G

R2
G

2 + S
R2 b1
G
= R2 =
G
b1

91

2G + 1
R2 =
(iV)
b
Similarly,

bO =

R1 =

1
=
Rl R2 C 2 C 3

1
G
=
(2G + 1) . 1 .1 R1 (2G + 1)
R1
b1
G

Gb1
..(V)
b0 (2G + 1)

Equation (iii), (iV) & (V) show that the component Value (with C1 = C2 = 1 ) can be adjusted from the
design parameters G, b0 and b2

92

## Band pass MFB:-

C2
V1

R2

R1

C1

V2

1
.s
R1c 2
T(s) =
1
1
1
s +
s 2 +
+
R1 R2 c1c 2
R2 c1 R2 c 2

Where,
w0 =
2

1
= b0
R1 R2 c1c 2

w0
1
1
=
+
= b0 Q =
Q R2 c1 R2 c 2

G=

R1 R2
c2
c
+ 1
c1
c2

R2 c1
R1 (c1 + c 2 )

It is to be noted that,

Q=

w0
w0
=
Bw w2 w1

Where, w1 = w0

Bw
2

Bw
2
* Band step filter for MFB (cfkm} ug]{)
And w2 = w0 +

93

KHN Biquad (kerwin Huelsman-Newcomb):The general KHN Biquad ckt is given by;
R1
C

Rf
R

R2

C
R

V1

V2

R3

## Fig (i) universal KHN-Biquid

If we consider only high pass, the ckt will be as follows:

V1

R3
R2 + R3

R1

V2
V3

VHP =

Rf
+

R2

w 2 R3
Rf
R2 Rf w0

1 +
v1 +
1 +

VHP RF 0 VHP
s

R1
R2 + R3
R1 s

2
2

w0
1
1
w0
1
.VHP
VHP & VLP =
V BP =
VHP
sin ce, VBP =
VHP =
Rcs
s
Rcs
Rcs
s

## Thus in general, blocks,

VHP

High pass
Filter (V HP)

-Wo VHP
S

Band pass
filter(VBP)

(-W o)2V HP
S

Low pass
Filter(V LP)

But the standard form of KHN is giVen by, (for the 1st stage)
2

VHP = kv1

1 w0
w
VHP 0 V HP
Q s
s

Where,
Rf/R1 = 1
R3/R2 = 2Q-1
K = 2- 1/Q
W0 = 1/Rc
KHN Biquad ckt is also called universal biquad ckt because from its Various stages as shown in fig (i), low
pass prototype, high pass prototype and band pass prototype can be achieve from a single ckt.

94

V HP

Chapter:-9

Sensitivity:Let us consider the following two fig (i) & (ii) with

L2
L1 = 0.9956H
C1 = 0.91097F
R1 = 1,
K=1
R3 = 1.0143
R4 = 8.9422
C2 = 0.1F
C3 =1F

V1

R1

C1

Fig:- (i)

R3

R4

V1

V2

Fig:- (ii)

1.10251
s + 1.09735 + 1.10251
At W = 0, i.e. T(yo) = 1 which indicates that both gives the Butterworth response.
Now, let us assume that all elements are increased by 1%

The transfer function of both the ckts are same which is T(s) =

## For passive |T(y0)| = 0.99168 gain reduced 0.83%

& for-active, |T (y0)| = 0.98308 gain reduced 1.7%
Thus, it proves that passive filters are less sensitive to element changing than active filters.
Definition of sensitivity:If x is the element & y is the design parameter for example R may be element & w0 may be the
y

y
x y
%changeiny
y
= .
defined by, =
=
%changeinx x
y x
x
x
y

x dy

= y dx
x

## If S = 2 then 1% change in x, result 2% change in y.

If S = 0.1 than 1% change in x, result 0.1% change in y.
* Sensitivity is known single parameter sensitivity

## First order sensitivity

Differential sensitivity
Classical sensitivity
Bode sensitivity
* Properties of first order sensitivity:y

x dky x dy
=
=
(i) =
ky dx
y dx x
x

95

ky

=
x
y+k

(ii)

x d (k + y )
x dy x dy y
=
=
y+k
dx
y + k dx y dx y + k
y+k

y
=
y + k x

1
dy
1 dy
1
dy
= x.
= .
= . 1
1
y 1 xy d ( x )
xy dx
d
.dx
dx
x

(iii)

Where, k = constant

1
x

Or,

1
x

1 dy 1
1 dy
x
. 2 = 1
=
dy
xy dx x
x y dx
y.
dx
y

=
1
x
1
y

(iV) =
x

y1 y 2

(V)

= +

y1

y2

1
(Vi) =
nx
xn
y1
y2

y1

y2

(Vii)

ln y

(ix)

exp ( y )

(x)

1
=
ln y x
y

= y

96

We know,
2

T(s) =

Gw0
w
2
s 2 + 0 s + w0
Q

## We need to find out,

w

SR 0 , SL 0 , SR , S Q L , S Qc
from figure,
1
Lc
T (s ) =
R
1
s2 +
+
Ls Lc
1
w0 =
=
Lc

Comparing,

Q=

(2) S R

= L .C

1
2

1
2

L C

1
2

1
2

= L2 C 2 R 1

1
1
d 2 2
L
C
=0
dR

1 1

d L2 C 2 R 1
R d (Q )
R
= 1
= .
= 1 1 1 .
R
Q dR
dR
L2 C 2

(4) S Q L =
w0

1
2

L.w0 L.L .C
=
R
R

R d (w0 )
.
=
w0 dR

(3) S W0 Q =

(5) Sc

1
2

LC

1
2

1
2

w0 R
=
Q L

Or,

(1) S R 0 =

1
2

1
2

1
2

(6) Sc =
Q

1
2

## Sensitivity of active Biquad ckt:(1) Two Thomas Biquid

In this case,

w0 =

1
1
1
1
1

= R2 2 R4 2 c1 2 c2 2
R2 R4c1c2
2

Q=

1
1 1
1
R1 c1

= R1R2 2 R4 2 c1 2 c2 2
R2 R4 R 2

G = R2 R3

1) S RlWO =

1
2

97

2) S RW4O =

1
2

3) SCW1O =

1
2

4) SCW2O =

1
2

S RW2O, R4 , C1 ,C 2 =

1
2

Similarly,
5)

S RQ1 = 1

6) S RQ2 =

1
2

7)

S RQ1 =

1
2

8)

SCQ1 = +

1
2

9)

SCQ2 =

1
2

10) S RG2 = 1
11)

S RG3 = 1

(1) S RW2O =

1 R2 d (WO )
=
.
2 WO d (R2 )

1 1 1 1
d R22 .R42 .C1 2 .C2 2
R

= 2.
WO
d (R2 )
3

R2
1
. .R2 2 .R4 2 .C1 2 .C2 2
WO 2
3

1
R2 . .R2 2 .R4 2 .C1 2 .C2 2
2
=

1 2
.R2
1
= 2 3 =

2
R2 2
3

WO =

1
R1R2C2C1

1
R1R2C1C2
Q=
1
1
(1 K )
+
+
R1C1 R2C1
R2C2

98

K =1+

RB
RA

Sensitivity

K = 3

1
. (1)
Q

## Equal capacitance and

feedback resistance
(K = 2) (2)

1)

S RQ1

1
+Q
2

1
+Q
2

2)

S RQ2

1
Q
2

3)

SCQ1

1
+ 2Q
2

1
+Q
2

4)

SCQ2

1
2Q
2

5)

S kQ

3Q-1

2Q

6)

S RQA

1-2Q

-1

7)

S RQB

2Q-1

8)

S Rk A

9)

S RkB

( 2Q 1)
(3Q 1)
( 2Q 1)
(3Q 1)
High sensitive

1
Q
2

1
Q
2

1
2

1
2
Moderately sensitive

(1) Design (1) is the simplest implementation interim of element Values out its disadvantage is that it is
highly.
(2) Design (2) is less sensitive them design (1) in sensitivity is achieved at the expense of large
(3) Design (3) is the least sensitivity is achieved at the expense of large capacitor Value spread.
1
Q. Derive S RQ1 = + Q in Sallen key equal amount design.
2

Multiparameter sensitiVity:Let,
Y = f (x1, x2, x3 .. xn)
Then,
n
xi
y
= S
y
i =1
xi xi
y

Let, R1, R2 Rn be the receptivity group and C1, C2, Cn be the capacitive group and

## 1 , 2 ,.............. n be the capacitive gains.

Then,

99

y
R n y C k y
y m
(i)
+ S
= S
+ S
y i=1 Ri R i=1 Ci C i =1 i

Thus, we can define the multiparameter sensitivity as the combined effect of all the individual sensitivity
in a particular ckt and is generally express as shown in eqn (i).

100

Chapter:-10

Higher order Active filter:The higher order active filter, in terms of transform function, can be defined by,
T (S ) =

## am s m + am1s m1 + ......... + a1s + ao

bn s n + bn1s n1 + ......... + b1 + bo

If n is even, then, the higher order active filter in cascade realization may be expressed as:

## a2i s 2 + a1i s + aoi

T ( S ) =
2
i =1 b2 i s + b1i s + boi
n/2

T (S ) =

## au s + ao1 (n+1)/ 2 a2i s 2 + a1i s + aoi

b s 2 + b s + b
b11s + bo1
1i
o1
2i

Example 01:Design a low pass Butterworth active Sallen key filter with unity Voltage gain. The design filter ckt
must meet the following specification.

max = 0.5d 3
min = 10d 3
Choose appropriate element Values so that the filter can be practically realized.
Soln:-

## The order of Butterworth filter is given by

n=

max
log 10
1
10

= 4.83
=5
The filter is of 5th order (i.e. n = 5)

1st order
Q1 = 0.5

2nd order

2nd order

Q2 = 0.62

Q3 = 1.62

Also w0 = 1
For given condition
0 =

wp
(10)

## For 1st stage:R

+
C

101

1
Here, T(s) = Rc
1
s+
Rc
w0 =1
1/Rc =1

Or, Rc = 1
Let, Cnew = 0.1 F
Again we also need to perform frequency scaling with
Kf =

0
= 1263.2
w0

## Applying both magnitude and frequency scaling

Cnew =

cold
kf .km

1
1263.2 km
km = 7616.40

Or, 0.1 F =

Rnew = km Rold
= 7916.40 X 1 = 7.916k

2nd stage:+

## In unity Voltage gain of Sallen key

W0 = 1
& R 1, R 2 = 1
C1 = 2Q
C2 = 1/2Q
Where, Q = 0.62
C1 = 1.24F
C2 = 0.806F
Applying magnitude and frequency scaling
Let,

C1new = 0.1 F

## Or, C1new = C1 old/kmkf

Km = 9816.34
C2new =

c2old
0.806
=
= 0.065F = 65.03nF
kmkf 9816.34 1263.2

Similarly,

102

R1new = R2 new = kmRold = 9816.34 1 = 9.8
For 3rd stage:wo = 1
R1 = R2 = 1
C1 = 2Q, C2 =1/2Q
For, Q = 1.62
C1 = 2Q = 2 X 1.62 = 3.24F
C2 = 1/2Q = 1/2X1.62 = 0.308F
For let C1new = 0.1 F
C1new =

3.24
Cold
=
= 25649.14
kf .km 0.1 10 6 1263.2

C2 new =

C2old
0.308
=
= 9.51nF
km.kf 25649.14 1263.2

## R1new = R2 new = kmR1old = 25649 1 = 25.64k

Therefore the final ckt will be,
0.1 F
7.961k

9.8k

9.8k

65.04F

0.1 F
25.64k
25.64k

9.51 F

Fig: - 5th order low pass Butterworth active Sallen key Biquad with unity Voltage gain.
Ex: 02; Design a 5th order low pass Butterworth filter with F0 = 1 kHz and capacitance of
Of 0.1 F. Implement this ckt in MFB.

Example:- 03
implement the same in two Thomas.

Example:- 04
In some application filter ckt must meet the following specification.

max = 0.5dB

min = 20dB
ws
=2
wp
The design must be highest sensitivity low pass Butterworth active Sallen key filter with unity Voltage gain.
Chose appropriate element Values so that the filter can be realized.
Also calculate the sensitivity of Q with 1% incorrect in Values of filter elements due to some
reason.

103

Chapter: - 11

## Simulation of passive n/w: Tellegen proposed a mode called gyrator where.

V1 = kI2............(i)
V2 = kI1..(ii)
For the fig (i) shown below
I2

I1
+

Greater

V1

IL

V2

ZL

## Here, k is a real constant

Now, let ZL be the load, then,
V2 = ZLIL
Or, V2 = -ZLKL
From equation (i) and (ii)

v
V1 = k 2
ZL
( kI1 )
(from eqn (ii))
Or, V1 = k
Z

Or,

v1 k 2
=
I1 Z L

Zin =

K2
= Z i1
ZL

If ZL is capacitor, then,
ZL=

1
cs

Z in = k2cs = Leq .s
Where,
Leq = k2c
I2

I1
+

Greater

V1

V2

Leq

I1
V1

I2
V2

## Fig:-(iii) symbol for Gaygrator

104

GIC (General Impedance Converter):It was developed by Antoniou, So also called Antoniou GIC.
+
Z1

V1 I 1

V3

Z3

Z2

Z4

I2

V2

I1

I2

V1

V2

GIC

## Fig:- (ii) symbol for Gic

It is to be noted that,
V1 = V2
& I1 = -I2
From fig (i)
I1 =

v1 v3
z1

I2 =

v2 v4
z4

v1 v4
[ v1 = v2 ]
z4

Also, I1 = -I2

Or,

v v
v3 v1
= 4 1
z2
z3

Or,

I1 z1 I1 z4
=
z2
z3

Or, I1 =

z2 z4
.I 2
z1 z3

We know,
Z in =

v1 z1 z3 v2
=
. [ v1 = v2 ]
I1
z2 z4 I 2
= k

v2
I2

Where,

105

k=

z1 z3
z2 z4

## Let, ZL be the lead, then,

v2 = Z L I L = Z L I 2
Or,

v2
= Z L
I2

Thus,
Zin = kZL
Z in =

z1 z3
.Z L = Leq.S
z2 z4

Always,
ZL = R L
Z1 = R1
Z3 = R3
1
and Z4 = R4 then,
c2 s

Now, if z2 =
zin =

R1R3c2
.RL .s = Leq.S
R4

In this case, k =
Also, I1 =
Or, I1 =

R1R3C4
R2

z2 z 4
I2
z1 z3

1
.I 2
ks

Or, I 2 = ksI1

I 2 : I1 = ks : 1
Thus the representation will be
I2

I1
KS:1

RL
Leq
Gic

## It is to be noted that this is the case of Grounded inductor simulation.

Example:- 01
Simulate the following ladder ckt with GIC.

106

1.618

1.618

+
-

1.618

0.618

0.618

V1

Soln.
We need to simulate L2 &L4 with GIC
For, L2
We know that,
L2eq = KRL
Let, Z2 =1/c2s
& Z1 = R1
Z3 = R3
Z4 = R4
If R1 = R2 = R4 = 1
& C2 = 1, then,
L2eq = RL
RL = L2eq = 0.618
RL = 0.618
Similarly, for L4
RL = 0.618
The final ckt will be,
1

1.618

0.5

+
-

1.618

V1
1
1

0.618
0.618

107

L

V2

V1

1:KS

KS:1

V1

V1

V2

GIC

GIC

V2
2

## From fig 1(a)

V1 V2
= Leq .s .. (1)
I1
From fig (a) (c),

V 1 = V 11
V2 = V21
Also,

I11 = ksI1
I 21 = ksI 2

. (ii)

I11 = I 21

I1 = I 2

.. (iii)

I 21 = KSI1
Also,

V11 V21
=R
I 21
Or,

V1 V2
=R
KSI1

Or,

V1 V2
= KRS ..(iV)
I1

## From eqn (i) & (iV),

Leq = K.R

R=

Leq
K

. (V)

Where,

108

2
2

K=

R1 R2C 2
or ,
R4

R1 R3C4
R2

Example:- 01
Simulate the following ladder ckt with GIC.
L4

L2

R1

V1

C1

C3

C5

RL

## Ladder Design with frequency dependent Ve resistor (FDNR):We know,

Z in =

Z1Z 3
.Z L .. (i)
Z2Z4

If,
Z1 =

1
c1s

Z3 =

1
C3 S

ZL = R L
Z2 = R2
Z4 = R4
Then, eqn (i) becomes,
1 1
.
c1s c3 s
zin =
.RL
R2 R4

RL
R2 R4c1c3 s 2

zin =

1
(ii)
Ds 2

Where,
D=

R2 R4c1c3
RL

Put, s = jw
1
(iii)
Dw2
Equation (iii) define FDNR
Then, zin =

Process,
Let us consider the following simple RLC ckt.

109

L

+
V1

1/R

R.1/S

LS.1/S

1/CS . 1/S

C=D

## The final ckt will be,

L

1/R

1/R
C1
C=D

R2
+-

R4

RL

Here,
D=

R2 R4c1c3
RL

If, R2 = R4 = 1 & c3 = c3 = 1
Then,
RL =

1 1
=
D c

Example:-02
R1

+
-

C3

C5

RL

V1

## Realize the above ckt

110

Leapfrog simulation of ladders:Consider a ladder circuit,
L4

L2

R1

L6

C3

+
-

RL

C5

V2

V1

I1
V1

+I 3

Y1

+
-

I5
+

Y3

ZV2 V2

V4

Z4

Y5

Z6

V6

Fig :-1(b)
From figure, (b)
I1 = y1 (V1-V2)
V2 = Z2 (I1-I3)
I3 = y3 (V2-V4) __________(i)
V4 = Z4 (I3-I5)
I5 = y5 (V4-V6)
V6 = Z6I5
Recall that,
Y = Gx can be represented in the form
(2) Y = X1+X2
X

X1

or,

X2

X2

(3) y = m1x1+m2x2

X1

m1

or,

X1

m1
Y
m2

X2
m2

X2

111

Modifying eqn (i) set,
I1 = y1 (V1+ (-V2))
V2 = Z2 (I1+ (-I2))
I3 = y3 (V2 + (-V4))
V4 = Z4 (I3+ (-I5))
.(ii)
I5 = y5 (V4+ (-V6))
V6 = Z6I5

V1

I1

I1

y1

I1

Z2

V2

Y3

I3

-V4
I1

V4

V4

Z4

Y5

I5

-V6

I5

Z6

V6

-1

V1

y1

-1

z2

V2

y3

-1

z4

-1

112

V4 +
-1

y5

z6

v6

In active ckt, we can not realize the current, so we replace all the currents by their respective Voltages.
i.e, we replace,
I V1
Y Ty
Z TZ
From eqn (iii)
I1 y1
= (v1 v2 )
y
y
or, VT 1 = Ty1 (v1 v2 )
Also, v2 = z2 (I1 I 3 )
=

z2
(I1 I 3 )z
z1

v2 = Tz2 (vI 1 vI 3 )

## Thus eqn (ii) can be rewritten as,

VI1 = Ty1 (V1-V2)
V2 = TZ2 (VI1-VI3)
VI3 = Ty3 (V2-V4)
V4 = TZ4 (VI3-VI5)
.(iii)
VI5 = Ty5 (V4-V6)
V6 = TZ6VI5
-1

V1

Ty1

-1

Tz2

V2

Ty3

-1

Tz4

-1

## Modifying eqn set (iii)

-VI1 = -Ty1 (V1-V2)
-V2 = TZ2 (-VI1+VI3)
-VI3 = -Ty3 (-V2+V4)
V4 = TZ4 (VI3-VI5)
-VI5 = -Ty5 (V4-V6)
-V6 = TZ6 (-VI5)

.(iv)

113

V4 +
-1

Ty5

Tz6

v6

-1

V1

Ty1

-VI1

Tz2

-V2

Ty 3

Tz4

VI3

V4 +

Ty5

VI5

Tz 6

v6

## Certain important op-Amp configuration:-

(1)

R
R

V1

(3)

(2)
V2

V1

R
R

V2

1.18

(4)

V1

R
R
+

V3

R1

V2

R
V1

C2
+

V2

Example:-:01
Design a 4th order low pass Butterworth filter with

1
power frequency of 104 rad/sec. The filter must be
2

0.7654

1
+
-

1.848

y3

y1
z2

1.848

z4

1
0.7654

Soln:-

Iy1

Tz2

Ty3

## From fig (i)

Z1 = R1+L1S

114

Tz1

1
1
L1
y1 =
=
R1 + L1S s + R1
L1
z2 =

1
c2 s

y3 =

1
L3s

y4 = c4 +

1
c4

1
RL
z4 =
=
RL
RL c4 s + 1 s + 1
c4 RL
=

RL c4 s + 1
RL

Now,
1
1
L1
L1
y1 =
Ty1 =
R
R
s+ 1
s+ 1
L1
L1

z2 =

1
1
1

Tz2 =
= ( 1)
c2 s
c2 s
c2 s

y3 =

1
1
Ty3 =
L3 s
L3s

c4
z4 =
Tz4 = 1
1
1

s+
s+

c4 RL
c4 RL

1
c4

-Ty1

Tz2

R1
C2

Ty3

Ty4

Comparison

115

1
1
L1
R1c2
Ty1 =

RL
1
s+
s+
L1
R2c2

Tz2 =

[R1 = R2 = 1]

1
1
1
= ( 1)
( 1)

c2 s
Rcs
c2 s

Ty3 =

1 1

L3 s Rcs

c4
Yz4 = ( 1)
1

s+ c R

4 L

[R = 1]

[R = 1]

( 1) R1c2
1

s+ Rc

2 2

[R1 = R2 = 1]

## Now, for frequency and magnitude scaling

kf = 104
Let, km =104

Now scale.
In summary, leapfrog simulation can be done in the following steps.
(1) Choose a suitable low pass prototype which meets the following specifications.(see table 13.1 of van
valkenbutg)
(2) Perform freq transformation if necessary.
(3) Identify the various y & z in the form of block diagram.
(4) Select the leapfrog block diagram to simulate the ckt.
(5) Find the active ckt that realize each of the blocks.
(6) Arrange the ckt with necessary components.
(7) Scale the ckt to meet the actual requirements.

116

Chapter:-12
The Mos switch
G

SD
B

## Preferred for voice frequency filters

If VGS<VT, switch off, behave as open ckt between S & D.
If VGS>VT, switch on, behave as short ckt between S & D.
100M
OFF
10k

ON

ON

OFF

TC

## TC is the time period.

fc =

1
= Switching frequency
TC

## The equivalent representation for such case is

O

S
Fig:- SPST Switch

## Again, consider the two phase clock.

117

TC

Note that, the frequency do not overlap and when 1 , is OFF, 2 is ON, and vice versa.
The representation for these cases will be
P2

P1

2
Fig:- SPDT( SIngle pole double through switch)

118

a

V1

Vc
1

V2

## The equivalent ckt for S/W is

R
C
When S/W is brought to position b,
V2 = -VC
V2 =-V1
This show that DPDT S/w acts as an inverter
Q. How can you use DPDT as an Inverter?
Simulation of resistor by switched capacitor
1+

+2

V2

V1

- 2

Let us assume SPDT switch as shown in fig (i) let V1 (t) be the i/p voltage, if s/w is at
position a then the eqn ckt will be:

R1

CR
The capacitor will get charge for

1 = R1CR
V1
0.63V1
V2
I1

## Now let us more the switch to position b.

The charge transferred will be
q = CR (V1-V2)
The current in this is

119

i (t ) =

q
= CR (v1 v2 )
t

C R (v1 v2 ) (v1 v2 )
=
Tc
Rc

1
fcCR

RC =

## Switched capacitor for op-amp based angle operation:(1) Integrator

C
R

V1

V2

V1

V2

From fig
R=

1
fxC R

v2
=
v1

1
C
= fc. R .s
1
c
.c.s
fcCR

T (s ) = fc.

CR
.s
c
(2) loosy Integrator
R1
C3
R
V1

C2
+

V2
V1

C2
+

V2

Here,

R1 =

1
1
& R3 =
fcc1
fcc3

c1
v
c2
2 =
v1 s + fc c3
c2
fc

## (3) Adder Integrator

120

C2

C2

R0

V0

V0
+

R1

V1

C0

V2

V1

V2

C1

v2 =

1
1
v0
.v1
R0c2 s
R1c2 s

= fc

c0 1
c 1
. .v0 fc 1 . .v1
c2 s
c2 s

(4) Inverting
Rf
R1
V1

Cf

C1

V2

V1

V2

1
v2 cfs c1
=
=
1
v1
cf
c1s

1
v2
Rf
c
fccf
=
=
= 1
1
v1
R1
cf
fcc1

v2
c
= 1
v1
cF

(5)
C2

R1
V0
V1

R1
R1

R2

V2

-V 1

R1

v2
1
1

=
v2 = ( v1 ).
v1 R1c2 s
R
c
s

1 2
Thus, the ckt using switched capacitor will be,
C2
C1

V2

V1

v2
c
= fc. 1 .s
v1
c2
(6)

121

V2

C2

c1
V1

R1

V1
V2

R1

V0

C1

c2

V2

v2
1
=
(v1 v2 )
v1 R1c2 s

Example:-01
Realize the given circuit by switched capacitor.
C 2= 0.10 F
R1=10k
V1

V2

C2= 0.10 F

C 2= 0.10 F
R1=10k
V1

R 1=10k
V2

V1

V2

v2
1
=
v1
R1c2 s
But, R1 =

1
fcc1

v2
c 1
= fc. 1 .
v1
c2 s

## = R1c2 = 10 103 0.01 10 6 = 10 4

or, R1c2 =

1 c1
. = 10 4
fc c2

1 c1 4
. 10
fc c2

Let, fc = 10 kHz

1
c1
,
= 10 4
3
10 10 0.01 10 6

c1 = 0.01F
First order filter:-

122

V0

V1
V1

C2

1
R1c2
T (s ) =
1
s+
R1c2

V2

C1

T (s ) =

fc

c1
c2

s + fc

c1
c2

R4
C4
R3
V1

C2
+

V2

C1

C2
C3

V2

C1

s+
c
R3c1
T (s ) = 1
c2 s + 1

R4c2

s + fc. 3
c
c1
T (s ) = 1
c2 s + fc. c4

c2

1
1
& R4 =
sin ce : R3 =

fcc3
fcc4

123

C 2 V2

Example:- 01
Design a switched capacitor filter from the following plot.

3
102 10

10 10

-20dB

## From the plot,

T (s ) =

(s + a )(s + b )
( s + c)(s + d )

(s + 10 )(s + 10 )
(s + 10 )(s + 10 )
3

(s + 10 )3 s + 104

=
2
5
s + 10 s + 10

= T1 (s ) T2 (s )
for,

T 1(s ) =

(s + 10 ) .(i)
(s + 10 )
3
2

## Comparing eqn (i) with

c

s + fc 4
c
c1
T (s ) = 1
c2 s + fc c4

c1

Take, fc = 10 kHz
C1 = C2 =10 pf
C3 = 1 pf
C4 = 0.1pf
For,

(s + 104 )
T2(s) =
(s + 105 )
Comparing,
c

s + fc 3
c
c1
T (s ) = 1
c2 s + fc c4

c1

C1 = C2 =10 pf
C3 = 10 pf
C4 = 100 pf
124

C4
C2

V1

C2
C3

V2
C1

C1

Example:-02
dB Gain

6dB

0dB
120

T (s ) =

220

400

(s + 100)(s + 400)
(s + 200)2

125