np
Chapter:01
Filter: Filter can be considered can be considered as frequency selective networks. A filter is
required to separate an unwanted signal from a mixture of wanted and unwanted signals.
The filter specification are generally given in terms of cutoff frequencies, pass
band (P.B) and stop band (s.b) regions. P. B is the frequency band of wanted signal and S.B
is the frequency band of unwanted signal. An ideal filter should pass the wanted signal with
no attenuation and provide infinite attenuation.
Depending upon the components used, filters can be classified as:
1. passive filters: Filters which are the compotnet such as R,L,C are the passive filters. The
Gains of such filters are always less than or equal to unity (i.e GS1). It is to be noted the
L and C are filter components, but R is not.
2. Active filters: The filters which use the components such as transistors, opamp etc are
the active filters. The Gains of such filters are always greater than or equal to unity. ( G
1)
Filter
network
o/p
V2(t)
Let us consider the filters network with i/p V1(t) having power P1 and o/p V2(t) having
power p2 as shown in fig1. Then the transfer function is given by T(s) = V2(s)/V1(s)
Where , V1(s) and V2(s) are the Laplace Transform of V1(t) .
Also, T(s) = T(jw) =
v 2 ( jw)
v1 ( jw)
p1
p2
T ( jw) = 10
T ( jw) = 10
0.05
.(4)
PB
SB
w
wc
Fig. 1(a)
2. High pass filter: A high pass filter is a compolement of a low pass filter in that the
frequency range form o to c is the SB and from c to infinity is the PB.
A
SB
PB
wc
Fig. 1(b)
3. Band pass filter ( BPF): A BPF is one in which the frequency extending form L (or
1) to u (2 ) are passed while signals at all other frequencies are stopped.
A
SB
PB
wc
Fig. 1(c)
SB
w
PB
SB
PB
w
Fig. 1(d)
Notch filter
5. All pass filters (APF): It is a filter which passes all range of frequencies , i.e , PB
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PB
w
Fig. 1(e)
Gain curve
1. LPF
Attenuation curve
TB
0.707
Wp
Wc
Wp Wc Ws
Ws
2.HPF
Ws WcWp
TB
1. From the attenuation curve it to be noted that in the pass band the attenuation is
always less then a maximum value. Designated as max
2. In the stop band the attenuation is always larger then a minimum value designated as
min .
3. Band between PB and SB so defined are known as transition bands. (TB).
Bilinear Transfer function and its poles and zeroes:
We know,
T(s) = P(s)/Q(s) = N(s)/D(s)
T(s) =
a m s m + a m 1 s m 1 + ........... + a1 s + a 0
bn s n + bn 1 s n 1 + ............ + b1 s + b0
P( s) a1 s + a 0
=
Q( s ) b1 s + b0
a1 ( s + a o / a1 )
b1 ( s + b0 / b1 )
G ( s z1 )
G ( s + z1 )
or T ( s ) =
( s p1 )
(s + z 2 )
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If z1< p1
If p1< z1
+

c

Fig 1.
Plot the magnitude and phase response of the ckt shown in fig (1) and identify the filter.
Solution:
Applying kirchoffs law for fig 1
V1 = R1 +
V2 =
1
idt................(i )
L
1
idt......................(ii )
L
I ( s) R +
cs
V1 ( s ) = RI ( s ) +
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Where, W0 = 1/RC
Now , for magnitude plot,
T(s) = T(jw) = W0/(jw+W0)
T ( jw) =
w0
w 2 + wo
Now when
W = 0 T ( jw) = 1
W= wo T ( jw) = 0.707
W = , T ( jw) = 0
T(jw)
1
0.707
Wc
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45
Wo
45
90
2.
R1
R1
v1
+

R1
v2

3
v1
+

From figure the potential of node 2, is V1/2 and the potential at node 3 is Vs R/(1+1/cs)
V2 = V1/2  Vs R/(1+1/cs)
V1/V2 =  RCS/RCS+1
T(s) = R(S+1 2RCS)/2(RCS+1) = {(RCS+1)/2(RCS+1)}
= RC(S+1/RC)/2RC(s+1/RC)
Where Wo = 1/RC
T(jw) = 1/2 {(jwwo)/(jw+wo)}
For magnitude plot ,
T ( jw) =
1
2
w 2 + ( w0 ) 2
w 2 + w0
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T ( jw) =
1
2
Phase plot:
(jw) = tan1(w/wo)  tan1( w/wo)
(jw) = 2tan1 (w/wo)
when,
w = 0, (jw) = 0
w = 0, (jw) = 90
w= , (jw) = 180
90
45
Wo
45
90
135
180
From the magnitude plot, we see that the networking is all pass filter.
Assignment:
3.
+
v1
+

v2
4.
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R1
+

v1
R2
v2
5.
R1
+
R2
+

v1
v2
C2

Date: 2065/4/28
Example :04
c1
R1
v1
+

R2
v2
R1C1 S + 1
R1
R1
R1C1 S + 1
V2 ( s)
R2
=
=
V1 ( s ) Z 1 ( s ) + R2
R2
R1
+ R2
R1C1 S + 1
R2 ( R1C1 S + 1)
=
R1 + R2 R1C1 S + R2
R1 R 2 C1 ( S +
1
)
R1C1
R + R2
R1 R2 C1 S + 1
R2 R1C1
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1
R1C1
1
1
+
R 2 C1 R1C1
S + 01 S ( 01 )
Or, T(s) =
=
S + 02 S ( 02 )
S+
> 01
And , 02
or , 02 < 01
wo1
wo2
jw + w01
=
jw + w02
w 2 + w01
w 2 + w02
Now at w= 0, T ( j 0) =
At w = ,
T ( j ) =
w01
R2
=
w02 R1 + R2
w01
=1
w02
T(jw)
1
R2
R1 +R2
W
w=0
jw + w01
jw + w02
w
= tan 1 ( wR1C1 )
w
01
( z ) = tan 1
Now at w = 0
(z) = (j0) = 0
(z) = (jw0)= 45
Now at w =
(j ) = 90
Pole plot (p)
(p) = tan1(w/w01)
w
1
= tan
1
1
+
R1C1 R2 C1
Now at, w = 0
p = (j0) = 0
at w = w02
p = (w02) = 45
at w = , p = (j ) = 90
(jw)
zero plot
90
pole zero plot
45
wo2
w=0
wo1
45
Pole plot
90
Thus the magnitude response of the above network shown that it is a high pass filter with dc
gain R2/(R1+R2) and phase plot signifies it is leading type.
Insertion Gain and insertion loss:
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wo
wo
wo
w
Insertion gain
T(jw)
wo
w
Insertion gain
One of the important factor that should be consider in design is that the minimum value of
should be zero degree. But this is not true in practical case since we are using active element
, this need not be the case because the active element may provided the gain greater than
one (1). If it is necessary to meet the specification exactly then it will be necessary to provide
ck t to reduce the gain. We call this unwanted gain as the insertion gain. On the other hand
there is a loss in the components of passive filter so it provides access attenuation and we
call this loss as insertion loss. To overcome this problem additional compensation circuit is
required.
Chapter 2
Normalization and Renormalization:
In most of the cases we consider the values of R, L S& C to be the order of unity. It is very
difficult to built the capacitor of 1 f and inductor of 1 H . Besides this the practical values of
capacitors available in the electronic circuit is of the order of microfarad or Pico farad. The
circuit considered so for have normalized elemental values but practically these values are
not realizable. So we perform scaling to get the realizable components.
There are mainly two reasons for resorting the normalized design.
1. Numerical computation become simple and it is easier to manipulate the numbers of
the order of unity.
2. If we have the normalized design of
the filter then it is easy to generate the
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Z(s)
C new =
1
C old
Km
1
C new .S
C 0ld
.(iii)
Km
Example 01:
Perform Impedance scaling to the following network.
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+
V2
V1
C =1F
Solution:
Rold = 1
Cold = 1 F
Now , let us assume that,
Cnew = 10 F
Note: Generally we assume new value of capacitor 1F or 10 F.
We know that
Cnew = Cold/Km
Km = Cold/Cnew = 1F/10 F = 105
Therefore, Rnew = Km .Rold
= 105 * 1
Rnew = 100K
R=100k
+
+
V2
C =10 uf
V1

Thus we see that there is no change in the following transfer function while doing magnitude
scaling.
Date: 2065/5/3
2. Frequency scaling:
In frequency scaling our objective is to scale the frequency without affecting the
magnitude of the impedance , i.e
ZL = ( = XL) = LS = jWL
Z L = WL is a constant.
Similarly,
Zc ( = Xc) = 1/cs = 1/ jwc
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1
is constant.
wc
o = 10
o = 10
Compression
o = 10
o = 1
Also, if T(jw) is old Transfer function, then the new transfer fucnti is T(j )
= T (jKfw)
The resistance is unaffected by frequency scaling , i.e
Rnew= Rold .(v)
For inductor,
Xl = Ls = jwL = jwkf . L/kf
Or, XL = j(wkf) ( Lold/kf) since, L = Lold
= j ( Lold/kf)
Lold = Lold / Kf .(vi)
For capacitor,
Cnew = Cold/ kf(vii)
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Solution:
W0 = 1 , = 1000
Therefore, kf = o/wo = 1000
Now we know that
Cnew = Cold /kf = 1F/ 1000 = 1 mF
And , Rnew = Rold = 1
1k
1mF
Example 02:
R=1/10
1F
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v1
C1
R2
v2
T(s) = (s+0.5)/(s+3)
Perform magnitude and frequency scaling separately with wo = 3 and 0 = 300.
Solution:
The transfer function of the above figure is
s+
T(s) =
1
R1C1
1
1
s+
+
R1C1 R 2C1
.(i)
But given ,
T(s) = (s+0.5)/(s+3) .(ii)
Comparing equation (i) and (ii)
1/R1C1 = 0.5
R1C1 = 2 ..(iii)
Again, ( 1/R1+ 1/R2)1/C1 = 3..(iv)
Let , C1= 1 F
For equation (iii) R1 1 = 2
R1 = 2
Therefore from equation (iv)
(1/2 + 1/R2) 1/2 = 3
Therefore, R2 = 2/5
In order to perform magnitude scaling
R1old = 2
R2old = 2/5 = 0.4
Cold = 1 F
Say, C1new = 10 F
Then, Km = Cold/Cnew = 1F/ 10 F
Km = 105
Therefore, Rnew = km R2old = 105 0.4 = 40 k
The selected ckt will be :
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40.4F
v1
40k
v2
C2= 1/10 F
_
R1= 1
C1= 1 F
_
100k
10 uF
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Chapter: 3
One port and two port passive network:
Positive real function: The filter circuit is complex transfer function that may be realizable
depending upon weather the transfer function exhibits PRF properties. I the transfer function
is PRF only ckt is realizable. There are two types of passive network : [i] one port network
[ii] Two port network.
I(s)
V(s)
I2(s)
I1(s)
1 port
n/w
V1(s)
2 port
n/w
V(s)
Thus , the function is realization but if, z(s) = 3s2 , then it is not realizable.
Date: 2065/ 5/10
Why? (
)
(i)
If F(s) denote the function in Sdomain, the F(s) indicates either driving point
impedance or driving admittance. Which ever is concern to us.
(ii) F(s) should be for real value of S.
(iii) The value of F(s) must be greater than or equal to zero. i.e Re[f(s)] 0.
Thus in brief a PRF must be real and +ve .
If F(s) = LS = jWL
L must be +ve.
F(s) = 1/CS = 1/jwc
C must be +ve
F(s) = R
R must be +ve.
Properties of Passive n/w.
A passive network is one
(i)
The element of which one are +ve and real.
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(ii) The average Power dissipated (APD) by the n/w. for a sinusoidal i/p must be +ve.
For one port n/w APD = 1/2 Re[ z(s)][I(s)]2 0
Properties of PRF:
1. If F(s) is +ve and real , then 1/F(s) is also +ve and real.
2. The sum of DRFS is always PRF but the difference may not be PRF.
Example: Z1(s) = 5s+ 3 (PRF)
Z2(s) = 2s+ 5 ( PRF)
Then, z1(s)+z2(s) = 7s+8 (PRF)
But, Z1(s) Z2(s) = 3s2 (not PRF)
3. The Poles and zeros of PRF cannot be in the right half of the SPlain.
4. Only poles with real residues can exists on the jw axis.
Example: F(s) = 6s/(s2+ 2 )
In this case, S = j
Residue = real and +ve.
5. The poles and zeroes of PRF Occurs in pairs.
6. The highest power of numerator and denominator polynomial may differ atmost by
unity.
S 5 + 4 S 4 + 3S 3 + 3S 2 + 3S 1 + 2
Example:
S 6 + 4 S 4 + 2 S 3 + 3S 2 + 3 K
7. The lowest power of numerator and denominator polynomial may differ atmost by
unity.
Example:
S 5 + 4 S 4 + 3S 3 + 3S 2 + 3S
S 6 + 4 S 4 + 2 S 3 + 3S 2 + 3 K
8. The real part of F(s) must be greater than or equal to zero. i.e Re[F(s)] 0
But , if Re[F(s)] = 0 , then the ckt do not consist resistive components. Hence only
capacitive and inductive components are presents. Hence only capacitive and inductive
components are present . Such a n/w whose transfer function satisfies this condition is
known as lossless n/w.
Example: Determine weather the function is PRF.
(i)
z(s) = 2s2+5/s(s2+1)
Hence , z(s) = 2s2+5/s(s+1)
A/s + Bs/(s2+1) = A/s + B/ (s2+1)/s
A=
B=
=
2s 2 + 5
.s
s ( s + 1) s = 0
2 s 2 + 5 ( s 2 + 1)
.
s
s ( s 2 + 1)
s2
2(1) + 5
= 3
(1)
z(s) =
( s + 1)( s + 4) s ( s + 4) + 2( s + 4)
=
( s + 1)( s + 3) s ( s + 3) + 1( s + 3)
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It is not PRF.
8 s 3 + 4 s 2 + 3s + 1
8 s 3 + 3s
s 2 + 2s + 8
Y(s) =
s ( s + 4)
(iii)
z(s) =
(iv)
represented by either
a n s n + a n 1 s n 1 + a n 2 s n 2 + ............. + a1 s + a 0
bm s m + bm 1 s m 1 + bm 2 s m 2 + ............ + b1 s + b0
P(s)
Q( s)
N ( s)
=
D( s)
Z ( s)
=
P( s)
=
Z(s) =
Where En(s) and Om(s) denote the even parts of numerator and denominator respectively
and On(s) and On(s) denote odd part.
N (s)
s5 + s4 + s3 + s + 1
=
6
5
4
3
2
s + s + s + s + s + s + 1 Q( s )
Z(s) =
( s 4 + s 2 + 1) ( s 5 + s 3 + 5)
+
E n ( s)
On ( s)
( s 6 + s 4 + s 2 + 1) ( s 5 + s 3 + 1)
+
E m ( s)
O m ( s)
E m ( s) + Om ( s) E m ( s) Om ( s)
E n ( s ) E m ( s ) + On ( s ) E m ( s ) E n ( s )Om ( s ) On ( s )Om ( s )
Now, z(s) =
=
E m ( s) Om ( s)
2
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E n ( s ) E m ( s ) + On ( s ).Om ( s )
O n ( s ) E m ( s ) E n ( s )O m ( s )
E m ( s ) + Om ( s )
E m ( s) Om ( s)
E n ( s ) E m ( s ) On ( s ).Om ( s )
2
= Re[ z(s)] =
(ii)
E m ( s) Om ( s)
2
=0
2
2
E m ( s) Om ( s)
E n ( s ) E m ( s ) On ( s).Om ( s ) = 0
E n ( s ) E m ( s ) = On ( s).Om ( s )
E m ( s) On ( s)
=
.(iii)
Om ( s ) E m ( s )
The above equation (iii) indicates that LC ckt is even to odd ( or odd ) to even function.
Properties of LC Ckt:
1.
a n s n + a n 2 s n 2 + a n 2 s n 4 + ............. + a 0
F ( s) =
bm s m + bm 2 s m 2 + bm 4 s m 4 + ............ + b0
The coefficients an and bm must be real and +ve and F(s) must be even to odd or odd to even
function.
2. The highest power of numerator and denominator can differ atmost by unity ( in this
case it is 2). So does the lowest power.
3. The succeeding power of s in numerator and denominator must differ by the order of
s 4 + 17 s 2 + 165s 0
2 all the way through . Example:
s 3 + 4s
4. The poles and zeros must be alternatively placed on the jw axis and lie only on the
imaginary axis.
5. There must be either a pole or a zero at the origin.
Example: Test whether the following function is LC.
(i)
z(s) = K (s2+1)(s2+5)/(s2+2)(s2+10) k>0
It is not LC ckt function because,
1. There is neither pole or zero at the origin though the pole zero are alternatively placed on
the imaginary axis.
2. It is not even to odd or odd to even function.
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
Z(s) = z(s2+1)(s2+9)/s(s2+4)
Z(s) = k s(s2+4)/(s2+1)(s2+3)
Z(s) = s5+4s3+5/(4s4+s2)
, k> 0
Date: 2065/5/12
Design of LC ckt by Fosters Method:
In this case ,
F(s) =
k0
2k s
+ 2 i 2 + ............ + k s .(i)
S s + wi
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Then,
k0
2k s
+ 2 i 2 + ............ + k s
S s + wi
Z(s) =
Here,
z(s)
2ki/wi
.......
1/2ki
This method of circuit synthesis is known as foster impedance or series or 1st method for LC
ckt.
Case II
In this case , F(s) = Y(s) , then equation (i) becomes
Y(s) =
k0
2k s
+ 2 i 2 + ............ + k s
S s + wi
Here,
 KO/s represents admittance of inductor having value of 1/ko H.
 K s represent admittance of capacitor having value K F.
 2ki(s)/s2+w2 represents admittance of series LC combination having inductor of value
1/2ki H and capacitor value wi2/2ki
The ckt can be realize as :
1/2ki
1/k
wi 2 /2ki
This method of circuit synthesis is known as foster admittance or parallel or 2nd method for
LC ckt.
Example 01: Design a Foster series n/w for the following n/w.
s ( s 2 + 4)
F ( s) =
2( s 2 + 1)( s 2 + 9)
Solution:
It is Fosters series n/w
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Where, A =
s ( s 2 + 4)
( s 2 + 9)
.
s
2( s 2 + 1)( s 2 + 9)
s 2 = 1
1+ 4
=
= 3 / 16
2( 1 + 9)
Therefore, A = 3/16
s ( s 2 + 4)
( s 2 + 9)
.
s
2( s 2 + 1)( s 2 + 9)
s 2 = 9
9+4
5
5
=
=
=
2(9 + 1) 2 8 16
And B =
Therefore, B = 5/16
z (s) =
(3 / 16) s (5 / 6) s
+ 2
= z1 ( s ) + z 2 ( s )
s2 +1
s +9
z(s)
L 2 = 5/144 H
C1 =16/3 F
C2 = 16/5 F
The first part of z(s) ( i.e z1(s) ) represents parallel LC combination having inductor L1
of value 3/16 H and capacitor of value 16/3 F.
The 2nd part of z(s) (i.e z2(s) ) represents parallel LC combination having inductor L2 of
value 5/144 H and capacitor C2 of value 16/5 F.
Example 02: Design Foster parallel n/w for the function
F ( s) =
s ( s 2 + 4)
2( s 2 + 1)( s 2 + 9)
Solution:
It is Fosters parallel n/w
s ( s 2 + 4)
F ( s) = Y ( s) =
2( s 2 + 1)( s 2 + 9)
s ( s 2 + 4)
As
Bs
= 2
+ 2
Now, z ( s) = 2
2
2( s + 1)( s + 9) s + 1 s + 9
s ( s 2 + 4)
( s 2 + 9)
.
Where, A =
s
2( s 2 + 1)( s 2 + 9)
s 2 = 1
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1+ 4
= 3 / 16
2( 1 + 9)
Therefore, A = 3/16
s ( s 2 + 4)
( s 2 + 9)
And B =
.
s
2( s 2 + 1)( s 2 + 9)
s 2 = 9
9+4
5
5
=
=
=
2(9 + 1) 2 8 16
Therefore, B = 5/16
Y (s) =
(3 / 16) s (5 / 6) s
+ 2
= Y1 ( s ) + Y2 ( s )
s2 +1
s +9
2( s 2 + 1)( s 2 + 9)
s ( s 2 + 4)
2 s 4 + 20 s 2 + 18
s 3 + 4s
S3+4s )2s4+20s2+18( 2s
2s4+8s2
12s2+18
12 s 2 + 18
Therefore, Y(s) = 2s + 3
s + 4s
12 s 2 + 18
= 2s +
s ( s 2 + 4)
12 s 2 + 18 A
Bs
9 / 2 (15 / 2) s
= + 2
=
+ 2
2
s
s ( s + 4) s s + 4
s +4
9 / 2 (15 / 2) s
+ 2
= Y1 ( s ) + Y2 ( s ) + Y3 ( s )
s
s +4
Here Y1(s) = 2s , so C1 = 2 F
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2( s 2 + 1)( s 2 + 9)
s ( s 2 + 4)
Y2 (s) =
L2 = 2/15 H
C2 = 8/15 F
Therefore, The final ckt will be
L 2 =2/15 H
L 1= 2/9H
C1 = 2 F
C2 = 8/15 F
2( s 2 + 1)( s 2 + 9)
s ( s 2 + 1)
2. Y(s) =
2( s 2 + 2)( s 2 + 4)
( s 2 + 3)( s 2 + 1)
Date: 2065/5/17
Continued Fraction method or cauer method for LC Ckt
1. case I
It is removed by successive removal of pole at . The ckt will be as follows:
L1
L2
C1
....
C2
Cn
V(s)
C1
L2
C2
....
C3
Cn
Z(s) =
2 s 5 + 12 s 3 + 16 s
s 4 + 4s 2 + 3
Solution:
In cauer n/w we proceed as follows:
S4 +4s2+3) 2s5 + 12s3 + 16s (2s
2s5+8s3+6s
z1(s)
Y2(s)
4s3+10s) s4 + 4s2 +3 (s/4
S4 + 10s2/4
3S2/2+3) 4S3 +10S (8s/3
Z3(s)
3
4S +8S
Y4(s)
2S) 3S2/2 +3 (3s/4
2
3s /2
3) 2s (2s/3
2s
2/3
8/3
2H
1/4
Z(s)
Z5(s)
3/4
Y(s)
2 s 5 + 12 s 3 + 16 s
s 4 + 4s 2 + 3
8/3 F
2F
2/3 F
s ( s 2 + 2)( s 2 + 4)
( s 2 + 1)( s 2 + 3)
(ii) Z(s) =
s ( s 2 + 2)( s 2 + 4)
( s 4 + 1)( s 2 + 3)
Cauer II:
This is the case of removal of pole at origin.
C1
C2
L1
....
L2
Ln
s 4 + 4s 2 + 3
2 s 5 + 12 s3 + 16 s
Solution:
Since Z(s) is the case of pole at origin (i.e s = 0 ) z(s) can be rewrite as:
Z(s) =
3 + 4s 2 + s 4
16 s + 12 s 3 + 2 s 5
16s+12s3+2s5 ) 3+4s2+ s4 (3/16s
3+9s2/4+ 3s4/8
z1(s)
7s2/4+5s4/8)16s+12s3+2s5 (64/7s
Y2(s)
16s+40s3/7
44s3/7+2s5) 7s2/4+5s4/8 (49/176s
Z3(s)
2
4
7s /4+44s /88
3s4/44) 44s3/7 +2s5 ((44)2/21s
Y4(s)
3
44s /7
2s5) 3s2/44(3/88s
3s2/44
16/3
Z(s)
176/40
7/64
Z5(s)
88/3
21/44.44
Y(s)
16/3
21/1936
176/49
88/3
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z(s)
.......
1/k1
(a) Z(s) =
6( s + 2)( s + 4)
s ( s + 3)
6( s + 2)( s + 4)
s ( s + 3)
6( s + 2)( s + 4)
.s
= (6.2.4)/3 = 16
s=0
s ( s + 3)
K2 = 2
Z(s) = 16/s + 2/(s+3) + 6
The component values are as follows:
16/s 1/cos c0 = 1/16 F
R R = 6
2/(s+3) R1 = 2/3 and C1 = F
The ckt will be:
1/16
2/3
.......
1/2
z(s)
Date: 2065/5/19
6( s + 2)( s + 4)
F(s) =
s ( s + 3)
6( s + 2)( s + 4)
F(s) = z(s) =
s ( s + 3)
= 6+ 16/s + 2/(s+3)
Forster parallel method for RC one port n/w:
In this case,
F(s) = Y(s)
Y(s) = ko/s + k1/(s+1)+ k2/(s+2) + +k
... ...
R1
R2
L1
L2
Lo
Fig. (i) RL admittance n/w for foster 2nd method in this case
 ko/s represents inductor of value 1/ko
 k represents inductor of value 1/ko
 ki/(s+i) represents RL series ckt having inductor of value 1/ki H and resister of
value i/k .
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Properties:
Same as RC impedance.
Example: 01: Synthesis the following function in foster parallel.
F(s) =
6( s + 2)( s + 4)
s ( s + 3)
Solution:
Since it is Foster parallel,
F(s) = Y(s) =
6( s + 2)( s + 4)
s ( s + 3)
= 6 + 16/s + 2/(s+3)
The ckt will be:
2/3
1/16
1/6
1/2
6( s + 2)( s + 4)
s ( s + 3)
Solution:
F(s) = z(s) =
6( s + 2)( s + 4)
6 s 2 + 36 s + 48
=
s ( s + 3)
s 2 + 3s
Now,
S2 +3s)6S2+36s+48(6
Z1(s)
S2+18s
Y2(s)
18s+48) s2+ 3s (s/18
2
S +8s/3
Z3(s)
s/3) 18s+ 4s (54
18s
Y4(s)
48) s/3 (s/3.48
s/3
The ckt will be:
6
54
1/18
1/144
Cauer 2 n/w:
Example: 02: Realise the given function in cauer 2 n/w F(s) =
6( s + 2)( s + 4)
s ( s + 3)
Solution:
In this case,
F(s) = Y(s) =
6( s + 2)( s + 4)
s ( s + 3)
1/6
1/144
1/54
k2
ko
....
k1/ 1
k2/ 2
z(s)
In this case,
 k0 represent resistor of value ko .
 k s represent inductor of value k H.
 kis/(s+i) represent RL parallel ckt with resistor of value ki and inductor of value
ki/i .
This method of synthesis is know as foster series (1st) method for RL one port n/w.
Properties of RL impedance n/w:
1. Poles are on the ve real axis.
2. The residue of pole must be real and +ve i.e F(s) must be PRF.
3. z(0) = k0 if R0 is present.
= 0 if R0 is missing.
4. z( ) = if L is present.
= Ri if L is missing.
5. z( ) z(0)
6. Zero is nearest to the origin.
7. The pole and zero must be
alternatively placed.
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Y(s)
1/k 0
1/k
k1/1
1/k
k2/2
This method of synthesis is known as Foster parallel method which yields RC admittance
n/w.
Properties:
Some as that of RL impedance except F(s) = Y(s)
4( s + 1)( s + 3)
. Realise the above function in (a) Foster series
( s + 2)( s + 6)
4( s + 1)( s + 3)
( s + 2)( s + 6)
Thus, it yields RL impedance n/w. To check the availability of components, we use.
Z(0) = (413)/(26 ) = 1 = ko . i.e Ro is present .
Z( ) = 4 = Ri , L is missing.
z (s) /s =
K1 =
k
k
4( s + 1)( s + 3)
1
= + 1 + 2
( s + 2)( s + 6)
s s+2 s+6
4( s + 1)( s + 3)
.( s + 2)
s = 2
s ( s + 2)( s + 6)
4(2 + 1)(2 + 3)
=
2( 2 + 6)
=
K2 =
4( s + 1)( s + 3)
.( s + 6)
s = 6
s ( s + 2)( s + 6)
4(6 + 1)(6 + 3)
=
6( 6 + 2)
K2 = 5/2
z(s)/s =
1 (1 / 2).s (5 / 2).s
+
+
s
s+2
s+6
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5/2
1/4
5/12
z(s)
4( s + 1)( s + 3)
( s + 2)( s + 6)
(1 / 2).s (5 / 2).s
+
s+2
s+6
Y(s)
2/ 5
12 /5
4 s 2 + 16 s + 12
s 2 + 8s + 12
Solution:
(a) cauer 1 n/w:
In this case
4( s + 1)( s + 3) 4 s 2 + 16 s + 12
F(s) = z(s) =
= 2
( s + 2)( s + 6)
s + 8s + 12
S2+8s+12 ) 4s2+ 16s+12 ( 4
4s2+ 32s+4s
ve
This way the ckt cannot be realize. Therefore z(s) is rewritten in form as:
Z(s) =
12 + 16 s + 4 s 2
12 + 8s + s 2
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Y2(s)
Z3(s)
Y4(s)
Z5(s)
16/7
2/3
10/49
5/7
4 s 2 + 16 s + 12 12 + 16 s + 4 s 2
=
s 2 + 8s + 12
12 + 8s + s 2
1/2ki
1/k
wi 2 /2ki
1. F(s) =
method.
3. Realise the n/w function Y(s) =
4. z(s) =
( s + 2)( s + 4)
as a cauer n/w.
( s + 1)( s + 3)
( s + 1)( s + 3)
Realise the function in foster and cauer n/w.
( s + 2)( s + 2)
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( s + 2)( s + 4)
( s + 1)( s + 6)
Date: 2065/5/24
Chapter: 4
Low pass Filter Approximations:
T(jw)
T(jw)
1
1
PB
SB
wo=1
Wp
Ws
Ao
B0 + B 2 n w 2 n
Bo
1
B0 +
w0
2n
B0
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1
1 +
w0
T ( jw) =
2n
w 2 n
w
1 +
w0
2n
.(ii)
In generalize condition,
wo = 1
2
T ( jw) =
2
T ( jw) =
.(iii)
1 + (w )
1
2n
1 + (w)
2n
(iv)
T ( jw) =
1 + (w)
2n
= (1+w2n)1/2
= 1+ . w2n + (1/2)2. (w2n)2/2!  ..
1 . w2n
In Taylor series,
1
T ( jw) = 1 w 2 n
2
..(v)
Again we know ,
1
T ( jw) =
1 + (w )
2n
Putting jw = s
2
T (s ) =
1
2n
1
1
1
=
=
2n
2n
s
1 + (1) n s 2 n
1+ s
1 + 2n
j
(1) n
s
1 +
j
1
2
T (s ) =
(vi)
1 + (1) n s 2 n
T (s ) =
1
1 s2
s2 =1
s = 1
2
T ( s) = 1/(1s)(1+s)
= 1/(1+s). 1/(1s)
= T(s) . T(s)
T(s) = 1/(s+1)
NOTE:
(i)
(ii)
If sn =1, then, S = 1
k360/n, k =0,1, 2.(n1)
Date: 2065/5/29
Butterworth transfer function (continued )
(ii)
For n = 2
Equation (vi) becomes ;
T ( s) =
2
1
1 + (1) 2 s 4
jw
135
45
225
315
1
1+ s4
T(s) =
(iii)
s 2 + 2s + 1
For n = 3
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T ( s) =
T ( s) =
jw
120
60
180
240
320
1
w
1 +
wo
2n
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= 20log10
1 + w
w
o
2n
1
2n 2
= 20log10 1 +
wo
w
1 +
wo
= 10log10
2n
.(i)
w
/10 = log10 1 +
wo
10
/10
w
= 1 +
wo
2n
2n
2n
wo
w
wo
w=
= 10 /10 1
w
1
(10 / 10 1) 2 n
Now at w = wp , = max
wp
wo =
(10
max/ 10
1)
.(ii)
1
2n
and at w = ws , = min
ws
wo =
(10
min/ 10
1)
..(iii)
1
2n
max/ 10
wp
wo
wp
w
o
1)
1
2n
ws
(10 max/ 10 1)
(10
min/ 10
1)
1
2n
1
2n
1
(10 min/ 10 1) 2 n
2n
(10 max/ 10 1)
(10 min/ 10 1)
w
(10 max/ 10 1)
20 log p = log
(10 min/ 10 1)
wo
wp
(10 max/ 10 1)
/
2
log
n = log
w
(10 min/ 10 1)
o
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Date: 2065/6/2
2. Chebyshev Approximation Method For LPF :
T(jw)
T(jw)
BUR
CR
Wo
Wo
Tn ( jw) =
1
1 + [ Fn ( w)] 2
.(i)
For Butterworth
Fn(w) = (w/wo)n
With w0 = 1
Fn (w) = wn
Similarly to butterworth we have to determine the function Fn(w) for chebyshev response
for which the concept of Lissagious figure is required.
Lissagious figure:
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n=2
n=3
n=4
x
0
1
22.5
0.924
45
0.707
67.5
0.383
90
0
4
0
90
180
270
360
y
1
0
1
0
1
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0.383
x=1
0.707
1
Tn ( jw) =
Tn ( jw) =
1+ 2 c n ( w)
2
.(vi)
This function (i.e cn(w)) is valid within the range w = 1. However , the function must
also be valid for longer value of w for which we should refine our assumption for cn(w).
w > 1,
Let,
Cos1(w) = jz
w = cosjz
we know that ,
cosjz =
e j ( jz ) + e j ( jz )
e z + e z
=
= coshz
2
2
cosjz = coshz
w = coshz
Z = cosh1w
w = cosj cosh1w
cos1(w) = jcosh1w
cn (w) = cosn cos1w
= cosnj cosh1w
= cosj(ncosh1w)
= coshn cosh1w
cn(w) = cosh cosh1w , w> 1
Cn(w) = cosn cos1w, w = 1
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Tn ( jw) =
Tn ( jw) =
1+ 2 c n ( w)
1
2
1+ 2 c n ( w)
2
w1
and 1
1. At w = 0,
Cn(0) = cosn /2 ; 0,1,2.
Tn ( jw) =
1 for n = odd
1
for
1+ 2
n = even
2. w = 1
cn (1) = 1 for all values of n.
1
Tn ( jw) =
1+ 2
1
w=1
w=1
But,
Tn ( jw) =
2
1
1
=
1+ 2 c 2 ( w)
2
2
1+ c n ( w)
n
2
1
=  20log
2
2
1
+
c
(
w
)
n
= 10log
1
1+ 2 c n ( w)
2
= 10 log 1+ 2 c n 2 ( w) (vii)
= 10log 1+ 2 (cos n cos 1 w) 2
for w > 1,
= 10 log 1+ 2 (cosh n cosh 1 w) 2
Now ,
w 1
............(ix)
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max/ 10
1)
1
2
.(xi)
Date: 2065/6/7
Here
we know that
w = wnp , then, 2 c n 2 ( w) = 1
1
= cosh(n cosh 1 wnp )
[since wnp >1]
1
Cosh1(ncosh1whp) =
1
Cosh1(ncosh1whp) =
1
1 1
Cosh whp = 1/n. cosh ( )
1
wnp = cosh(1/n. cosh1( )) (xii)
c n ( wnp ) =
n for chebyshev = 3 .
Since the order of chebyshev filter (i.e n =3) is less then the order of butterworth filter (i.e n
= 5) and both filter provides the same roll off for the specification, n would choose
chebyshev filter.
Chebyshev poles location and network function:
We know
1
T ( jw) =
1+ c n ( w)
2
..(i)
T (s ) =
1+ 2 c n ( s / j )
2
..(ii)
cn (s / j) = j
1
(iii)
Again,
Cn (s/j) = cosn cos1(s/j)
Let
Cos1(s/j) = x = u + jv
Then, cn(s/j) = cosnx = cosn (u+jv)
= cosnu. Cosnjv sinnu. Sin njv
= cosnu coshnv jsin nu . sinh nv
=0 j
[ cosjnv = coshnv
[ sinjnv = jsinhv]
k = 0,1,2.
1 1
Nvk= sinh ( )
1
Vk = 1/n. sinh1( )
Or sinhnvk =
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Date: 2065/6/9
Example:01 Obtained the 4th order network function of a low pass chebyshev filter with
max = 0.75 dB
Solution: n = 4 max = 0.75 dB
Now = ( 10max/10 1)1/2 whp = cosh (1/n. cosh1 (1/))
= (100.75/10 1)1/2 = 0.434
And whp = cosh ( 1/n. cosh1(1/)) =
Pole location is given by
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S7
S1
S6
S2
S5
S4
S3
Home Assignment:
Example:02: Determine the network function for 3rd order chebyshev LPF with max = 0.75
dB ( =p ; pass band attenuation)
Date: 2065/6/14
Inverse chebyshev low pass approximation:
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T (jw)
Ideal LPF
BUResponse
T (jw)
T (jw)
inverseChebyshevresponse
Chebyshevrespone
1 T (jw)
Tic(jw)
Fig: The reciprocal value of w of intermediate stage give the value of w in IC response.
We know the response of chebyshev is given by
1
T ( jw) =
1+ 2 c n ( w)
1
2
2
1 Tc ( jw) = 1
1+ 2 c n ( w)
2
2 c n ( w)
2
1+ 2 c n ( w)
2
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2 c n (1 / w)
2
TIC ( jw) =
(i)
1+ 2 c n (1 / w)
2
Where,
TIC ( jw)
We know ,
cn(1/w) = cosncos1(1/w)
at for w = 1
cn(1) = 1 for all value of n
Thus equation (i) becomes
2 .1
1+ 2
2 .1
TIC ( j.1) =
.
1+ 2
2
TIC ( j.1) =
(ii)
We know that ,
min = 20log TIC ( j.1) dB (iii)
Using equation (ii) on equation (iii) , we get,
= min = 20log TIC ( j.1) dB
2
=  20log
2
1+
1/ 2
1+ 2
= 10log 2
min = 10 log [ 1+
Or , 10min/10 1 =
= 10
min/ 10
10
1
}
2
1
2
1
2
. (iv)
Again in general, the attenuation formula can be written as:
2 c n 2 (1 / w)
= 10log
2
2
1+ c n (1 / w)
= 10 log 1 +
2
2 c n (1 / w)
1
Now at w = wp = max
Then above equation becomes
= max = 10 log 1 +
(10 max/10 1) =
2
c n (1 / w p ) =
2
2 c n (1 / w p )
1
1
2 c n (1 / w p )
2
1
1
. max/ 10
2
(10
1)
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(10 min/ 10 1)
.(v)
(10 max/ 10 1)
c n (1 / w p ) =
min/ 10
1)
1)
(10
1
2
(10 min/ 10 1) 2
cosh 1 max/ 10
(10
1)
n=
(vii)
cosh 1 (1 / w p )
Which gives the required order for the inverse chebyshev filter.
Now , for half power frequency i.e at w = wp
TIC ( j.1) = 1/2
2
=
Which means,
2
2 c n (1 / wP ) = 1
TIC ( j.1)
c n (1 / wnp ) =
c n (1 / w) =
1
2
Coshn.cosh1(1/wnp) =cosh1
1
1
1
cosh cosh 1 ( )
< 1 .(viii)
Assignment:
Example:02 Differentiate between Butterworth , chevyshev and inverse chebysehev filters.
Pole zero location for inverse chebyshev:
We know that ,
2 c n (1 / w)
2
TIC ( jw) =
1+ 2 c n (1 / w)
2
0 c n 2 (1 / wk ) = 0
c n (1 / wk ) = 0
Example:01
Given,
min = 18 dB
max = 0.25 dB
ws = 1.4 rad/sec
wp = 1 rad/sec
Find out the pole and zero for inverse chbyshev response.
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Chapter 5
Frequency transformation:
Frequency transformation is important because the prototype LPF with any type of
approximation can be converted into high pass band pass , band stops filters within the same
characteristics easily.
T(jw)
1
0.707
Wc
Transformation
W0
New LPF
Old LPF
Replace s by wo/o .s
i.e
w0 = 1 ( in normalized case)
s s/0
TLP(new) (s) = TLP(old) (s/0)
For eamaple,
If
TLP(s) = 1/S+1
Then
TLP(old)(s) = 1/s+1
TLP(new)(s) = TLP(old)(s/o) = 1/(s/o)+1 = 0/(s+0)
1. For resistor:
 No change.
2. For inductor:
XL = LS
Putting s
s
0
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XL = Lold
L
s
= old s = Lnew .S
0 0
Lnew = Lold/0
3. For capacitor:
Xc = 1/cs
Putting s
s
0
Xc =
C old
s
0
C old
.s
0
C new .s
Cnew = Cold/s
2 LP to HP Transformation:
Transformation
W0
0
w0 .s
0
s
HPF with 0
LPF with W0
[Since w0 = 1]
THP(s) = TLP(s)
s=
0
s
= TLP
( )
0
S
0
+1
s
s
0 + s
0
s
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.s
L 0
1
Comparing
with 1/CS
1
.s
L
0
XL = L.
C=
1
L 0
0
s
1
1
s
=
=
c 0 C 0
0
.c
s
.S = LS
1
.S with LS
Comparing
C 0
L =
C 0
Date: 2056/6/15
(3) LP to BP Transformation:
T
LP
TBP(j )
(jw)
Transmission
Wp
Ws
In this case,
s w0 .
s2 + 2
u L
Here, u L = B
And w0 = 1
s .
s2 + 2
Bs
Where 02 = L. u
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XL = L.
Bs
XL =
L 0
L
.s +
B
Bs
L
.s +
B
1
B
L 0
.s
B
Lo2
s + 0
Bs
2
c.
1
cs + c 0
Bs
2
1
c 0
c
s+
B
Bs
1
c
s+
B
1
B
c 0
.s
The new components (i.e inductor and capacitor) are in parallel as shown in fig. below:
Co2
LP to BS Transformation:
T
LP
TBS(j )
(jw)
Transmission
Wp
Ws
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But w0 = 1,
Bs
s 2 + 0
.w0
Bs
s + 0
2
Bs
s + 0
2
=.
1
s + 0
LBS
2
s
+ 0
LBS LBs
2
1
1
1
s+
LB
LB
.s
2
0
The new component (i.e inductor and capacitor ) are in parallel as in figure below:
LB
2
o
LB
s 2 + 0
s2
1
1
=
=
+ 0 =
.s +
CB
CBS
CBs CBs CB
.s
2
0
2
1
Bs
s2 + 0
CB
2
o
CB
Example:01: If T(s) =
10 and u = 20.
Solution:
Then, TLP(s) =
1
s +1
1
, then change the above function from LP to BP. Given , L =
s +1
, L = 10 , u = 20
We know ,
02 = L. u = 10. 20 = 200
For Lp to BP we replace
s2 + 0
s 2 + 2000 s 2 + 200
=
=
B
(20 10) s
10 s
2
58
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Thus,
10 s
1
= 2
s 2 + 200 = TBP ( s ) = 2
s + 10 s + 200
s + 200
s=
+1
10 s
10 s
10( s )
TBP(s) = 2
s + 10 s + 200
TLP
Example:02: Obtain the transfer function of the 4th order Butter worth HPF with 0 = 2
104 rad/sec.
TLP(s) =
1
s + 2.61313s + 3.41921s 2 + 2.61313s + 1
4
We know that ,
s
0
s
1
Example:03:The filter shown in the figure below is a 4th order chebyshev low pass filter with
p = 1 dB and wp = 1. Obtain a bandpass filter from this low pass with o = 400 rad/sec and
B = 150.
+
V1
+

V2
Solution:
For LP to BP conversion , we replace
s2 + 0
s
Bs
B
Lo2
Co2
B
Lo2
L
B
For section D:
Co2
For section E:
R=1
R=1
731. 45uF
V
+

9. 41 mH
8. 54 mH
491uH
663. 66uF
12.72 uF
893. 71mH
6. 99 mF
Date: 2065/6/16
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I2
I1
1
Vs
Loss less
Ladder
zi n
V1
R2
V2
( s) =
( R1 z in )
.....................(vii)
( R1 + z in )
1 (s)
1st zin
1 + (s)
1 + (s)
z in = R1 .
2nd zin
1 ( s)
z in = R1 .
..(viii)
N ( s) N ( s)
1
=
2n
D( s) D( s)
1+ w
[since w0 = 1]
1
w 2n
=
1 + w 2n 1 + w 2n
s n .( s ) n
w 2n
=
=
(ix)
D( s ).D( s ) D( s ).D( s )
( s ) = 1 H ( s ) = 1 H ( jw) = 1
2
( s). ( s) =
w 2n
1 + w 2n
Now,
For n = 1
D(s) = s+1
[since T(s) = H(s) = 1/S+1]
Form equation (ix)
(s) = sn/D(s)
= s1/s+1 = s/s+1
s
1 ( s)
s +1 s
= 1. s + 1 = .
zin1 = R1 .
s
1 + (s)
s +1+ s
1+
s +1
1
Zin1 = .
.............(a)
2s + 1
1
vs
+

R2
vs
+

1 v2
2

For n = 2
D(s) = s2+2s + 1
( s) =
sn
sn
= 2
D(s) s + 2 s + 1
1 s 2 /( s 2 + 2s + 1)
(s 2 + 2s + 1 s 2 )
1 ( s)
=
= 2
zin1 =
1 + (s)
1 + s 2 /( s 2 + 2s + 1)
(s + 2s + 1 + s 2 )
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( 2s + 1)
zin1 =
..(a)
(2s 2 + 2 s + 1)
Similary,
2 s 2 + 2s + 1
Zin2 =
2s + 1
.(b)
vs
1.41
1 v2
1.41

2
1
vs
+

1.41
1
1.41
Date: 2065/6/17
Synthesis of Doubly Terminated LC  Ladder with unequal termination: ( R1 R2) :
For R1 R2 the butter worth response is given by ,
H ( jw) =
2
H 2 ( 0)
2
= T ( jw)
2n
1+ w
Generally we take,
R1 1 and R1 R2
R1
+
 Vs
I1
Zin
I2
LC
R2 V2
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V2
Vs
T(0) =
Now we know
4 R V (s)
H ( s) = 1 . 2
R2 Vs (s)
H (s) =
2
4 R1
2
. T (s)
R2
H (S ) = 2
R1
.T ( s )
R2
H (0) = 2
R1
R
R2
.T (0) = 2 1 .
R2
R 2 R1 + R 2
H ( 0) = 2
R 2 .R1
R1 + R 2
Example:01: Realize the doubly terminated ladder filter with a Butter worth response for n
= 3, R1 = 1, R2 = 2 .
Solution:
We know, for unequal termination ( i.e R1 R2) the Butterworth response is given by,
H ( jw) =
2
H 2 ( 0)
1 + w 2n
Here, n = 3, R1 = 1 & R2 = 2
H2(0) =
4 R2 .R1
(R2 + R1 )
H ( jw) =
2
4 .1 .2
(1 + 2)
8
9
8/9
1 + w 2n
8/9
1 + w 2n 8 / 9 1 / 9 + w 2n
=1
=
=
1 + w2n
1 + w 2n
1 + w 2n
1 / 9 ( s / j ) 23 1 / 9 + ( s / j ) 6
=
1 + w 23
1 + w6
1 / 9 ( s ) 6 (1 / 3) 2 ( s 3 ) 2 (1 / 3 s )(1 / 3 + s )
2
Or, ( s) =
=
=
1 s6
1 s6
1 s6
( jw) =
2
( s ). ( s ) =
(1 / 3 + s 3 ) (1 / 3 s 3 )
.
D(s)
D( s)
( s) =
1/ 3 + s3
D( s)
For n = 3,
D(s) = s3+2s2 + 2s+1 (from table)
The first impedance is ,
1/ 3 + s3
1 ( s)
s 3 + 2 s 2 + 2s + 1
Zin1 =
=
1 ( s)
1/ 3 + s3
1+ 3
s + 2s 2 + 2s + 1
1
2s 2 + 2s + 2 / 3
Zin1 = 3
.(a)
2 s + 2s 2 + 2s + 4 / 3
2 s 3 + 2s 2 + 2s + 4 / 3
..(b)
Zin2 =
2s 2 + 2s + 2 / 3
z1(s)
2s +2s +2/3.s
4/3.s+4/3 ) 2s2 +2s+ 2/3 (3/2. s
2s2+2s
2/3 ) 4/3.s +4/3(2s
Y2(s)
z3(s)
4/3.s
4/3 ) 2/3 (1/2
2/3
+

Y4(s)
2
2/3
Home Assignment:
Try it for n = 1, 2, 3 and 4 , for unequal terminal i. e R1 = 1 and R2 = 2.
[ for n = 4, D(s) = s4+2.16s3+3.14s2+2.6s+1]
Review of ideal and non ideal properties of operational amplifiers, GBP, CMRR,
Inverting and non inverting A/F.
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Vo =
Rf
R
Vo
.Vi
(2) Noninvesting:Rf
R
Vo
Vi
RF
Vo = 1 +
Vi
R
(3)Integration:
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Vi
Vo
1
1 1
.Vi =
Vi
RCS
RC S
Vo =
If R1=1 & C = 1, then
Vo
1
=
Vi
S
(4) Differentiator:Rf
Vo
Vi
Vi O Vo O
=
1
R
CS
Vo = (CRS )Vi
If Ro= 1& Co= 1, Then
Vo
= S
Vi
(5) Summer:
Rf
R1
V1
V2
Vo
R1
Vo =
RF
(V1 + V2 )
Ri
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V1
V2
Vo
R1
Rf
Vo =
RF
(V2 V1 )
Ri
Z1
V1
V2
From fig.
R(S) =
V1 ( S ) Z 2
=
V1 ( S )
Z1
1
K
=
RCS
S
1
RC
If R=1, then,
C=1/K
K=
R =1
Z2
Z1
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V2
Z2
= k (S + a1 )
Z1
1
y
y
Or 2 = 1 = k ( S + a1 )
1
y2
y1
If y 2 = 1, then,
Y1 = KS+Ka1
Y2
Y1
1/ka1
1
+
V2
1/ka1
Fig: Design for R(s) =  (s + a1)
(d) T(S) =
K
S + P1
1/k
Z2
K
=
Z 1 S + P1
k/p1
y1
K
=
y 2 (S + P1 )
y1
1
=
y 2 (S + P1 )
K
y1=1, then
y2 =
V2
S + P1 S P1
= +
K
K K
(e) T(S) =
ks
s + p1
Z2
1
=
1
P
Z1
+ 1
K KS
1
1/k
V1
k/p1
If Z2=1, then,
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V2
1
P
+ 1
K KS
(f) T (S ) = K
S + q1
S + P1
s + q1
Z2
= K
Z1
s + p1
s + q1
y1
= k
y2
s + p1
Let y1= ks + kq1
Then, y2 = s + p1
1
k
1/p1
V1
V2
1/ka1
k (s + q1 )
(s + p1 )
(Do
Do Yourself)
Yourself
(2)Noninvesting type:
V1
V2
Z2
Z1
(a) T(S) =
a1p1/p1
+
k (s + q1 )
(s + p1 )
Where, q1>p1
1/ap1
Comparing,
1+
s + q1
z2
= k
z1
s + p1
V2
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s + q1
z2
1
= k
z1
s + p1
=
ks + kq1 s p1
s + p1
z2 s (k 1) + (kq1 p1 )
=
z1
(s + p1 )
For, k = 1
z2 q1 p1
=
z1 s + p1
y1
=
y2
T(s) =
k (s + q1 )
for k = 1
(s + p1 )
1
s
p1
+
q1 p1 q1 p1
If y1 = 1, then
y2 =
s
p1
+
q1 p1 q1 p1
For, k 1
z 2 s (k 1) + (kq1 p1 )
=
(s + p1 )
z1
1200
We assume,
Kq1 = p1
K = p1/q1
s ( p1 q1 )
z
s (k 1)
q1
2 =
=
z1 (s + p1 )
(s + p1 )
V1
z2
p q
= 1 1
q1
z1
1 + p1 / s
p1 q1
q1
If z2 =
Then, z1 = 1 + p1 / s
# 2nd approach
y1
=?
y2
k (s + q1 )
(s + p1 )
(Do Yourself)
Example: 01
Realize 1st order inverting which satisfy the following T(s)
T(s) =
1000
s + 1000
We know that,
z2 1000
=
z1
s + 100
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V2
s
1
+ 1, c =
1000
1000
Example:02
Realize the 1st order Non inverting filter with following T(s)
T (s ) =
s+4
s+8
z2 s + 4
=
z1 s + 8
z2 s + 4 s 8 4
=
=
z1
s+4
s
Or,
The direct approach does not provide the required design; we go in the following manner.
Here, P1 =8
Q1=4
Ie, p1=q1
Let, k =
T ( s) =
p1 8
= =2
q1 4
2(s + 4 ) 1
.
(s + 8 ) 2
(s + 4 ) 1
= 2
( 1)
(s + 8 ) 2
= T1 ( s ).T2 (s ).T3 (s )
For, T1(S) =
1+
2( s + 4 )
(s + 8)
z2 2 s + 8 s 8
=
z1
(s + 8 )
z2
s
=
z1 s + 8
y1
s
=
y2 s + 8
If y1= S, then y2 = S + 8
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1
+
1 ohm
z2
1000
=
z1 S + 1000
1 ohm
V2
1/8
RCCR Transformation:T (S ) =
1mf
V2
1
1
=
= 1k
Ci 1mf
& Ci =
1F
1 1
= = 1F
Ri 1
V1
z
s
T(s) = 2 =
z1 s + 1000
1000
V2
It is the transformation by which a low pass filter can be converted into a high pass filter by the
simple change in the component Value i.e. In this case Ri is replace by Ci and Ci=1/Ri and Ci is replaced by
Ri and Ri=1/Ci.
CHAPTER: 8
Biquad circuits:Consider a 2nd order filter as shown below:L
 At low freq, c behaves as line open cut so, V2 = V1
+

V2
c
v (s )
T(s) = 2 =
v1 (s )
1
cs
R + LS +
1
cs
1
Lc
=
R
1
s2 + s +
L
Lc
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To get poles, S 2 +
Or, s = j
LC
= jwo where, wo =
Lc
Quality factor:(Q)
WoL
R
It is defined as the ratio of inductive reactance at frequency Wo to the resistance.
Now,
Q=
L 1 L
=
LC R R C
1
Q=
Also,
T (s ) =
Wo R
=
Q L
Wo 2
Wo
S2 +
S + Wo 2
Q
. (i)
V2
Wo1 .Q
Wo
.S + Wo 2 = 0
Q
D(S) = S 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 0 (ii)
Comparing equation (i) and (ii)
2 =
Wo
Q
=
&
2 + 2 = Wo 2
Wo
2Q
& = Wo 1
1
4Q 2
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Gw0
A typical Biquad ckt can be represented as, T(s) =
w
2
s 2 + 0 s + w0
Q
G
.. (i)
s
2
s + +1
Q
v2
=
v1
G
s
s2 + +1
Q
G
s
s2 + +1
Q
s
Gv1 = s 2 + + 1v2
Q
1
Gv1 = s s 2 + + 1 v 2
Q
v2 =
v2 =
Gv1
v2
1
1
s s + s s +
Q
Q
v2
1
s +
Q
v2
1
s s +
Q
Gv1 1
vs
v2 =
[ 1]. (ii)
1
1 s
s + s +
Q
Q
Stage:1
1
G
v +
v1 ii (a)
1 2
1
s+
s +
Q
Q
Stage:2
1
.. ii (b)
s
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Stage:3
(1) =
ii(c)
+
For stage 1, we need more analysis:
Z3
Z2
V1
Z1
V3
From figure
v3 =
z3
z
.v1 3 .v2
z1
z2
1
1
v3 = z 3 v2 + v1 .. (iii)
z1
z 2
From equation ii (a)
v3 =
1
1
s+
Q
[ 1v2 + ( G )]v1
v
1
1
v3 =
2 + v1 . (iV)
1 1
1
s+
Q
G
Comparing eqn (iii) & (iV)
z3 =
1
s+
1
Q
z 2 = 1 (a resistor)
z2 =
1
(a resistor)
G
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1
s+
Or, y3 = s +
1
Q
1
Q
Q
1
1/Q
V1
V2
V3
1
1
V2
Fig: This is ring of 3 ckt and is popularly known as two Thomas Biquid.
V1
V2
R2
C2
R1
R4
V3
R5
R5
V4
v4 =
v2 v1
+ (i)
R2 R3
1
v3 (ii)
R4 c 2 s
v2 = v4 (iii)
From eqn (ii) & (iii)
v2 =
1
v3 (iv)
R4 c 2 s
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V2
T (s ) =
R1
c1 s v2 v1
+
1 R2 R3
R1 +
c1 s
v2
=
v1
1
R3 R4 c1c2
1
1
s +
s+
Rc1
R2 R4 c1c2
(V)
Gw0
(Vi)
w0
2
2
s + .s + w0
Q
2
1
R2 R4 c1c2
w0 =
2
Also,
or,
1
(Vii)
R2 R4 c1c2
1
2
= Gw0
R2 R4 c1c2
1
1
= G.
R2 R4 c1c2
R2 R4 c1c2
R2
.(Viii)
R3
or, G =
Finally,
w0
1
=
Q R1c1
or,
1
1
=
R1c1
R2 R4 c1c2
Q
2
Q=
R1 c1
(ix)
R2 R4 c1c 2
With,
c1 = c 2 = 1
& R2 = R4 = 1
We get,
W0 = 1
G=
1
R3
1
G
Q = R1
R3 =
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R1
V1
R2 Va
+
C2
V2
RA RB
v2
R
= 1 + A = k . .(i)
v1
RB
v2
(ii)
k
Applying Nodel Analysis at mode a,
Va =
V a Vb V a 0
+
= 0 (iii)
1
R2
S
C2
Applying Nodal analysis at node b,
vb v1
+
R1
v2
k + vb v 2 = 0
1
R2
c1 s
vb
1
v
1
1 v2
Or, Vb +
+
1 v 2 c1 s = 0
R1 R2 R3 R2 k R1
1
v
1
1
Or, Vb +
+ c1 s 1 v 2
+ c1 s = 0
R1 R2
R1
R2 k
1
v
c s
+ 2 v2 b = 0
R2
R2 k k
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1
c s
Or, vb = R2
+ 2 v 2 .(Vi)
k
R2 k
Thus from eqn (V) & (Vi)
c s 1
v
1
R2
+ 2 +
+ c1 s v 2 1 v 2
+ c1 s = 0
k R1 R2
R1
R2 k
R2 k
1
1
c s 1
v
1
Or, R2
+ 2 +
+ c1 s
+ c1 s v 2 = 1
k R1 R2
R2
R2 k
R2 k
T (s ) =
T (s ) =
v2
=
v1
1
R1 R2 c1c 2
1
(1 k ) s + 1
1
s 2 +
+
+
R1 R2 c1c 2
R1c1 R2 c1 R2 c 2
2
Gw0
. (Viii)
w0
2
2
s + s + w0
Q
w0 =
R1 R2 c1c 2
w0
1
1
1 k
=
+
+
Q R1c1 R2 c1 R2 c 2
Design I (equal elements Values):In this case,
R2 = R1 = R = 1
& C1 = C2 = C = 1
For which,
W0 = 1
K = 3
R
1
= 1+ B
Q
RA
R1= 1 R2= 1
V1
C2 = 1
V2
B = 21/Q
1
RA=R
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w0
1
1
1 k
=
+
+
Q R1c1 R2 c1 R2 c 2
Or,
w0 1 1
= +
Q c1 c1
w0
2
=
Q c1
Also, W0 =
1
R1 R2 c1c 2
1
c1c 2
2Q
C2 = 1/2Q
The final ckt will be,
1
+
V2
V1
1/2Q
w0 1
1
1 1 2
= =
+
+
Q Q R1 R2
R2
R1 = Q
Also, W0 =
2
1
=1
R1 R2 c1c 2
R2 = 1/Q
The final ckt will be,
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1/Q
1 +
1
V2
1
Example: 01
Design a 4th order Butterworth filter using equal element of Sallen Key ckt. Then Let w0 =2 1000
rad/sec & use capacitor of 0.1F
n
1st
1st order
From table,
Q1 = 0.54 and Q2 = 1.31
st
For 1 stage:Wo = 1, Q1 = 0.54
& for equal element design in Sallen key,
R1 = R2 = 1
& C1 = C2 =1
RA = 1,
RB =2 1/Q = 2 1/0.54
RB = 0.148
nd
For 2 stage:WO = 1
Q2 = 1.31
R1 = R2 = R = 1
C1 = C2 = C = 1
RA = 1
RB =1/Q2 = 21/1.31 = 1.236
The design should be for,
= 2 1000
& C = 0.1 f
We can apply both magnitude and frequency scaling at once.
Now, we know,
C new =
C old
1
=
= 235.54
6
C new .kf 0.1 10 2 1000
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0.1 F
1.6k
V1
1.6k
0.1F
1.6k
1.6k
1.6 k
23 6
1.6k
V2
2k
Fig: 4th order butter worth active Salleney biquad with equal element design
for W = 2 1000 rad / sec & C = 0.1F .
Gain adjustment (EqualiZation in Sallen key:T (S ) =
KWo 2
.. (i)
Wo
2
2
.S + Wo
S +
Q
In Butterworth,
T (jo) = 1 or 0 dB
But in equation (i) T (jo) = k (k>/1) which needs to be equalized.
Ra
R1
+
V1
Fig: i(a)
V1
Rb
Vb
fig: i(b)
Vb
Rb
=
V1 Ra + Rb
Ra Rb
= R1
Ra + Rb
Now, solving the above equation by setting R=1, we get Ra = 1/H
In term of G the Value of Ra & Rb is
Ra = G
Rb =
G
G 1
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1
Q
G = K =
Rb =
3Q 1
2Q 1
3 1
Q
R2
RB RA
C2
V2
Ra
Rb
We have, gain,
R
1
= 1+ A
Q
RB
K = 3
But, sometimes for given Q the Value of gain will be Very small and amplification to our need. Although
the separate ckt for gain enhancement can be used, the Sallen key ckt itself can be modified to compensate
the gain, using additional arrangement of two resistor as, shown in the fig (ii)
Let, C1 = C2 = C
& R1 = R2 = R then,
T(S) = of sallen key will be,
k
R C2
T(S) =
1
3 k
S2 +
.S + 2 2
R C
RC
2
Where, =
Rb
Ra + Rb
Wo 3 k
=
Q
RC
Q=
1
3 k
For a given Value of Q the gain k can be increased to our requirement by proportionally decreasing the
new factor .
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GS 2
Wo
.S + Wo 2
S 2 +
Q
Applying RCCR transformation in active low pass Sallen key biquid, in the noninverting terminals we get
the following final ckt THP(S) as,
1/C1
1/R1 1/R 2
V1
V2
RA R B
1/C2
THP(S) =
KS 2
1
1
K 1
1
.S +
S 2 +
+
+
R1 R2 C1C 2
R2 C 2 R2 C1 C1 R1
Where, WO =
1
R1 R2 C1C 2
G=k
Wo
1
1
k 1
=
+
+
Q
R2 C 2 R2 C1 R1C1
1/C1
C2
In this case,
V
1 +
C1
R3
.S
R1C1
TBP(S) =
1
R1 + R2
1
1
1 k
S 2 +
+
+
+
.S +
R1 R2 R3C1C 2
R1C1 R3 C 2 R3C1 R2 C1
RA R B
Where,
WO =
Q=
R1 + R2
R1 R2 R3C1C 2
WO
1
1
1
1 k
+
+
+
R1C1 R3C 2 R3C1 R2 C1
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V2
G=
k
R1C1
1
1
1
1 k
+
+
+
R1C1 R3C 2 R3C1 R2 C1
W
G O .S
Q
TBP(S) =
W
S 2 + O .S + WO 2
Q
Where, W1 = WO Bw/2
W2 = WO + Bw/2
And, Q =
WO
WO
=
Bw W2 W1
G S 2 + WO
TBS(S) =
W
2
S 2 + O .S + WO
Q
R1
R2
+
V1
C1
V2
C2
R A RB
Assuming,
R2 = R1 = R
C1 = C2 = C
R3 = R/2
We obtained,
K S 2 + 2 2
R C
TBS(S) =
4(1 k )S
1
S2 +
+ 2 2
RC
R C
WO =
Q=
1
RC
1
4(1 k )
G = K = 1+
RB
RA
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R1 + R2
R1 R2 R3C1C 2
WO =
Q=
WO
1
1
1
1 k
+
+
+
R1C1 R3C 2 R3C1 R2 C1
G=
k
R1C1
1
1
1
1 k
+
+
+
R1C1 R3C 2 R3C1 R2 C1
R2
R1
V1
C1
C2
V2
R3
RA R B
R1 = R2 = R3 = R
C1 = C2 = C =1
From which, we get,
2R
2
=
B
R
R
WO =
But,
WO = 1
RW = 2
Also,
10 =
1
2
2
2
10 =
4k =
K = 4
4k
4k
10
10
R
From which,
K = 4
2
R
= 4
= 3.86
10
10
Again,
k
3.86
=
= 27.28
4 k 4 3.86
G = 27.28
G=
The required gain (K=3.86) for design parameter WO = 1 & Q =10 is less than the gain (G = 27.28), so
gain must be reduced. For this, we need the two resisters (Ra & Rb). Sampling by replacing R1 so, that,
Ra =G =27.28
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Rb =
For, RA = 1
RB = k1 + 3.86 1 = 2.86
The required final ckt will be:1/2
V1
27.28
1.04
1/2
V2
1 2.86
Now,
New frequency = 1000HZ = 0
Frequency scaling factor kf =
0
= 1000
w0
Cnew = cold/kf
BW = Q/ 0 = 10/1000 = 0.01
1 = 0 BW/2 = 10000.01/2 = 999.999HZ
2 = 0 + Bw/2 = 1000+0.01/2 = 1000.005HZ
Question:.1 Design a 4th order butterworth active Sallen key law pass filter with unity gain. Realise it with
practical components.
Question:.2 Design a 5th order butterworth active Sallen key law pass filter with equal feed back resistance
and equal capacitance Values. Then use, w0 = 2 1000rad/sec and C = 1F .
Question:.3 Design a 4th order buttterworth active Sallen Key low pass filter with equal element design.
Multiple feed back Biquad current:
C2
R2
V1
R1
R2
V2
C1
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In standard form,
Gw0
T (s ) =
.(ii)
w0
2
2
s + s + w0
Q
2
w0 =
2
1
R2 R3c1c2
w0 =
And,
w0 1 1
1
1
= +
+
Q c1 R1 R2 R3
and, G = R2/R1
Equating (i) can be modified in the form,
T (s ) =
v2
Gb0
= 2
..(iii)
v1
s + b1s + b0
Where, b0 = W02
1
R 2 R3 C 2
G=
R2
R1
& b1 =
1
1
1
+
+
R1 R2 R3
Solving,
2C 2 bo
R2 =
b1 + b1 2 4C 2 bo (1 + G )
Example: 01
Design a biquad ckt for G = 5, b1 = 1.2 & bO
=1
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Wo
Q
Q=
WO
1
=
= 0.833
b1 1.2
Also,
R2
=5
R1
Let,
For which,
2 0.05 1
R2 =
2
1.2 + 1.2 4 0.05 1(1 + 5)
=16.89
17
R2 = 17
But,
5=
R2
R1
R1 =
R2 17
=
5
5
R1 = 3.4
Again,
bo =
1
R2 R3C2
Or, R3 =
1
bo R2C2
1
1 17 0.05
R3 = 1.18
=
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0.05
1.18
3.4
V2
It is to be noted that,
11
1
1 1
1
1
+
+ = 1
+
+
= 1.2 = b1
C1 R1 R2 R3 3.4 16.89 1.18
R2
C3
V1
R1
V2
In this case,
C1 2
.S
C2
T(S) =
C + C2 + C3
1
S2 + 1
+
R2C2C3
R1R2C2C3
The standard form is,
T(S) =
With,
GS 2
GS 2
= 2
.. (ii)
S + b1 s + bO
WO
2
2
.S + WO
S +
Q
C1 = C3 = 1F
G = C1 /C2 = 1/C2
C2 = 1/G
Also,
bO =
1
R1 R2 C 2 C3
b1 =
C1 + C 2 + C 3
R2 C 2 C 3
b1 =
2+
1
G
R2
G
2 + S
R2 b1
G
= R2 =
G
b1
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bO =
R1 =
1
=
Rl R2 C 2 C 3
1
G
=
(2G + 1) . 1 .1 R1 (2G + 1)
R1
b1
G
Gb1
..(V)
b0 (2G + 1)
Equation (iii), (iV) & (V) show that the component Value (with C1 = C2 = 1 ) can be adjusted from the
design parameters G, b0 and b2
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C2
V1
R2
R1
C1
V2
1
.s
R1c 2
T(s) =
1
1
1
s +
s 2 +
+
R1 R2 c1c 2
R2 c1 R2 c 2
Where,
w0 =
2
1
= b0
R1 R2 c1c 2
w0
1
1
=
+
= b0 Q =
Q R2 c1 R2 c 2
G=
R1 R2
c2
c
+ 1
c1
c2
R2 c1
R1 (c1 + c 2 )
It is to be noted that,
Q=
w0
w0
=
Bw w2 w1
Where, w1 = w0
Bw
2
Bw
2
* Band step filter for MFB (cfkm} ug]{)
And w2 = w0 +
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KHN Biquad (kerwin HuelsmanNewcomb):The general KHN Biquad ckt is given by;
R1
C
Rf
R
R2
C
R
V1
V2
R3
V1
R3
R2 + R3
R1
V2
V3
Rf
+
R2
w 2 R3
Rf
R2 Rf w0
1 +
v1 +
1 +
VHP RF 0 VHP
s
R1
R2 + R3
R1 s
2
2
w0
1
1
w0
1
.VHP
VHP & VLP =
V BP =
VHP
sin ce, VBP =
VHP =
Rcs
s
Rcs
Rcs
s
VHP
High pass
Filter (V HP)
Wo VHP
S
Band pass
filter(VBP)
(W o)2V HP
S
Low pass
Filter(V LP)
But the standard form of KHN is giVen by, (for the 1st stage)
2
VHP = kv1
1 w0
w
VHP 0 V HP
Q s
s
Where,
Rf/R1 = 1
R3/R2 = 2Q1
K = 2 1/Q
W0 = 1/Rc
KHN Biquad ckt is also called universal biquad ckt because from its Various stages as shown in fig (i), low
pass prototype, high pass prototype and band pass prototype can be achieve from a single ckt.
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V HP
Chapter:9
Sensitivity:Let us consider the following two fig (i) & (ii) with
L2
L1 = 0.9956H
C1 = 0.91097F
R1 = 1,
K=1
R3 = 1.0143
R4 = 8.9422
C2 = 0.1F
C3 =1F
V1
R1
C1
Fig: (i)
R3
R4
V1
V2
Fig: (ii)
1.10251
s + 1.09735 + 1.10251
At W = 0, i.e. T(yo) = 1 which indicates that both gives the Butterworth response.
Now, let us assume that all elements are increased by 1%
The transfer function of both the ckts are same which is T(s) =
y
x y
%changeiny
y
= .
defined by, =
=
%changeinx x
y x
x
x
y
x dy
= y dx
x
x dky x dy
=
=
(i) =
ky dx
y dx x
x
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=
x
y+k
(ii)
x d (k + y )
x dy x dy y
=
=
y+k
dx
y + k dx y dx y + k
y+k
y
=
y + k x
1
dy
1 dy
1
dy
= x.
= .
= . 1
1
y 1 xy d ( x )
xy dx
d
.dx
dx
x
(iii)
Where, k = constant
1
x
Or,
1
x
1 dy 1
1 dy
x
. 2 = 1
=
dy
xy dx x
x y dx
y.
dx
y
=
1
x
1
y
(iV) =
x
y1 y 2
(V)
= +
y1
y2
1
(Vi) =
nx
xn
y1
y2
y1
y2
(Vii)
ln y
(ix)
exp ( y )
(x)
1
=
ln y x
y
= y
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T(s) =
Gw0
w
2
s 2 + 0 s + w0
Q
SR 0 , SL 0 , SR , S Q L , S Qc
from figure,
1
Lc
T (s ) =
R
1
s2 +
+
Ls Lc
1
w0 =
=
Lc
Comparing,
Q=
(2) S R
= L .C
1
2
1
2
L C
1
2
1
2
= L2 C 2 R 1
1
1
d 2 2
L
C
=0
dR
1 1
d L2 C 2 R 1
R d (Q )
R
= 1
= .
= 1 1 1 .
R
Q dR
dR
L2 C 2
(4) S Q L =
w0
1
2
L.w0 L.L .C
=
R
R
R d (w0 )
.
=
w0 dR
(3) S W0 Q =
(5) Sc
1
2
LC
1
2
1
2
w0 R
=
Q L
Or,
(1) S R 0 =
1
2
1
2
1
2
(6) Sc =
Q
1
2
w0 =
1
1
1
1
1
= R2 2 R4 2 c1 2 c2 2
R2 R4c1c2
2
Q=
1
1 1
1
R1 c1
= R1R2 2 R4 2 c1 2 c2 2
R2 R4 R 2
G = R2 R3
1) S RlWO =
1
2
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1
2
3) SCW1O =
1
2
4) SCW2O =
1
2
S RW2O, R4 , C1 ,C 2 =
1
2
Similarly,
5)
S RQ1 = 1
6) S RQ2 =
1
2
7)
S RQ1 =
1
2
8)
SCQ1 = +
1
2
9)
SCQ2 =
1
2
10) S RG2 = 1
11)
S RG3 = 1
(1) S RW2O =
1 R2 d (WO )
=
.
2 WO d (R2 )
1 1 1 1
d R22 .R42 .C1 2 .C2 2
R
= 2.
WO
d (R2 )
3
R2
1
. .R2 2 .R4 2 .C1 2 .C2 2
WO 2
3
1
R2 . .R2 2 .R4 2 .C1 2 .C2 2
2
=
2
R2 2
3
WO =
1
R1R2C2C1
1
R1R2C1C2
Q=
1
1
(1 K )
+
+
R1C1 R2C1
R2C2
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RB
RA
K = 3
1
. (1)
Q
1)
S RQ1
1
+Q
2
1
+Q
2
2)
S RQ2
1
Q
2
3)
SCQ1
1
+ 2Q
2
1
+Q
2
4)
SCQ2
1
2Q
2
5)
S kQ
3Q1
2Q
6)
S RQA
12Q
1
7)
S RQB
2Q1
8)
S Rk A
9)
S RkB
( 2Q 1)
(3Q 1)
( 2Q 1)
(3Q 1)
High sensitive
1
Q
2
1
Q
2
1
2
1
2
Moderately sensitive
(1) Design (1) is the simplest implementation interim of element Values out its disadvantage is that it is
highly.
(2) Design (2) is less sensitive them design (1) in sensitivity is achieved at the expense of large
resistance Value spread.
(3) Design (3) is the least sensitivity is achieved at the expense of large capacitor Value spread.
1
Q. Derive S RQ1 = + Q in Sallen key equal amount design.
2
Multiparameter sensitiVity:Let,
Y = f (x1, x2, x3 .. xn)
Then,
n
xi
y
= S
y
i =1
xi xi
y
Let, R1, R2 Rn be the receptivity group and C1, C2, Cn be the capacitive group and
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Thus, we can define the multiparameter sensitivity as the combined effect of all the individual sensitivity
in a particular ckt and is generally express as shown in eqn (i).
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Higher order Active filter:The higher order active filter, in terms of transform function, can be defined by,
T (S ) =
If n is even, then, the higher order active filter in cascade realization may be expressed as:
T (S ) =
Example 01:Design a low pass Butterworth active Sallen key filter with unity Voltage gain. The design filter ckt
must meet the following specification.
max = 0.5d 3
min = 10d 3
wp = 1000rad/sec
ws = 200rad/sec
Choose appropriate element Values so that the filter can be practically realized.
Soln:
n=
max
log 10
1
10
= 4.83
=5
The filter is of 5th order (i.e. n = 5)
1st order
Q1 = 0.5
2nd order
2nd order
Q2 = 0.62
Q3 = 1.62
Also w0 = 1
For given condition
0 =
wp
(10)
+
C
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Or, Rc = 1
Let, Cnew = 0.1 F
Again we also need to perform frequency scaling with
Kf =
0
= 1263.2
w0
cold
kf .km
1
1263.2 km
km = 7616.40
Or, 0.1 F =
Rnew = km Rold
= 7916.40 X 1 = 7.916k
2nd stage:+
C1new = 0.1 F
Km = 9816.34
C2new =
c2old
0.806
=
= 0.065F = 65.03nF
kmkf 9816.34 1263.2
Similarly,
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3.24
Cold
=
= 25649.14
kf .km 0.1 10 6 1263.2
C2 new =
C2old
0.308
=
= 9.51nF
km.kf 25649.14 1263.2
9.8k
9.8k
65.04F
0.1 F
25.64k
25.64k
9.51 F
Fig:  5th order low pass Butterworth active Sallen key Biquad with unity Voltage gain.
Ex: 02; Design a 5th order low pass Butterworth filter with F0 = 1 kHz and capacitance of
Of 0.1 F. Implement this ckt in MFB.
Example: 03
implement the same in two Thomas.
Example: 04
In some application filter ckt must meet the following specification.
max = 0.5dB
min = 20dB
ws
=2
wp
The design must be highest sensitivity low pass Butterworth active Sallen key filter with unity Voltage gain.
Chose appropriate element Values so that the filter can be realized.
Also calculate the sensitivity of Q with 1% incorrect in Values of filter elements due to some
reason.
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Chapter:  11
I1
+
Greater
V1
IL
V2
ZL
v
V1 = k 2
ZL
( kI1 )
(from eqn (ii))
Or, V1 = k
Z
Or,
v1 k 2
=
I1 Z L
Zin =
K2
= Z i1
ZL
If ZL is capacitor, then,
ZL=
1
cs
Z in = k2cs = Leq .s
Where,
Leq = k2c
I2
I1
+
Greater
V1
V2
Leq
I1
V1
I2
V2
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V1 I 1
V3
Z3
Z2
Z4
I2
V2
I2
V1
V2
GIC
v1 v3
z1
I2 =
v2 v4
z4
v1 v4
[ v1 = v2 ]
z4
Also, I1 = I2
Or,
v v
v3 v1
= 4 1
z2
z3
Or,
I1 z1 I1 z4
=
z2
z3
Or, I1 =
z2 z4
.I 2
z1 z3
We know,
Z in =
v1 z1 z3 v2
=
. [ v1 = v2 ]
I1
z2 z4 I 2
= k
v2
I2
Where,
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z1 z3
z2 z4
v2 = Z L I L = Z L I 2
Or,
v2
= Z L
I2
Thus,
Zin = kZL
Z in =
z1 z3
.Z L = Leq.S
z2 z4
Always,
ZL = R L
Z1 = R1
Z3 = R3
1
and Z4 = R4 then,
c2 s
Now, if z2 =
zin =
R1R3c2
.RL .s = Leq.S
R4
In this case, k =
Also, I1 =
Or, I1 =
R1R3C4
R2
z2 z 4
I2
z1 z3
1
.I 2
ks
Or, I 2 = ksI1
I 2 : I1 = ks : 1
Thus the representation will be
I2
I1
KS:1
RL
Leq
Gic
Example: 01
Simulate the following ladder ckt with GIC.
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1.618
+

1.618
0.618
0.618
V1
Soln.
We need to simulate L2 &L4 with GIC
For, L2
We know that,
L2eq = KRL
Let, Z2 =1/c2s
& Z1 = R1
Z3 = R3
Z4 = R4
If R1 = R2 = R4 = 1
& C2 = 1, then,
L2eq = RL
RL = L2eq = 0.618
RL = 0.618
Similarly, for L4
RL = 0.618
The final ckt will be,
1
1.618
0.5
+

1.618
V1
1
1
0.618
0.618
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V2
V1
1:KS
KS:1
V1
V1
V2
GIC
GIC
V2
2
V 1 = V 11
V2 = V21
Also,
I11 = ksI1
I 21 = ksI 2
. (ii)
I11 = I 21
I1 = I 2
.. (iii)
I 21 = KSI1
Also,
V11 V21
=R
I 21
Or,
V1 V2
=R
KSI1
Or,
V1 V2
= KRS ..(iV)
I1
R=
Leq
K
. (V)
Where,
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2
2
R1 R2C 2
or ,
R4
R1 R3C4
R2
Example: 01
Simulate the following ladder ckt with GIC.
L4
L2
R1
V1
C1
C3
C5
RL
Z1Z 3
.Z L .. (i)
Z2Z4
If,
Z1 =
1
c1s
Z3 =
1
C3 S
ZL = R L
Z2 = R2
Z4 = R4
Then, eqn (i) becomes,
1 1
.
c1s c3 s
zin =
.RL
R2 R4
RL
R2 R4c1c3 s 2
zin =
1
(ii)
Ds 2
Where,
D=
R2 R4c1c3
RL
Put, s = jw
1
(iii)
Dw2
Equation (iii) define FDNR
Then, zin =
Process,
Let us consider the following simple RLC ckt.
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+
V1
R.1/S
LS.1/S
1/CS . 1/S
C=D
1/R
1/R
C1
C=D
R2
+
R4
RL
Here,
D=
R2 R4c1c3
RL
If, R2 = R4 = 1 & c3 = c3 = 1
Then,
RL =
1 1
=
D c
Example:02
R1
+

C3
C5
RL
V1
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L2
R1
L6
C3
+

RL
C5
V2
V1
I1
V1
+I 3
Y1
+

I5
+
Y3
ZV2 V2
V4
Z4
Y5
Z6
V6
Fig :1(b)
From figure, (b)
I1 = y1 (V1V2)
V2 = Z2 (I1I3)
I3 = y3 (V2V4) __________(i)
V4 = Z4 (I3I5)
I5 = y5 (V4V6)
V6 = Z6I5
Recall that,
Y = Gx can be represented in the form
(2) Y = X1+X2
X
X1
or,
X2
X2
(3) y = m1x1+m2x2
X1
m1
or,
X1
m1
Y
m2
X2
m2
X2
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V1
I1
I1
y1
I1
Z2
V2
Y3
I3
V4
I1
V4
V4
Z4
Y5
I5
V6
I5
Z6
V6
1
V1
y1
1
z2
V2
y3
1
z4
1
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V4 +
1
y5
z6
v6
z2
(I1 I 3 )z
z1
v2 = Tz2 (vI 1 vI 3 )
V1
Ty1
1
Tz2
V2
Ty3
1
Tz4
1
.(iv)
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V4 +
1
Ty5
Tz6
v6
V1
Ty1
VI1
Tz2
V2
Ty 3
Tz4
VI3
V4 +
Ty5
VI5
Tz 6
v6
(1)
R
R
V1
(3)
(2)
V2
V1
R
R
V2
1.18
(4)
V1
R
R
+
V3
R1
V2
R
V1
C2
+
V2
Example::01
Design a 4th order low pass Butterworth filter with
1
power frequency of 104 rad/sec. The filter must be
2
0.7654
1
+

1.848
y3
y1
z2
1.848
z4
1
0.7654
Soln:
Iy1
Tz2
Ty3
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Tz1
1
c2 s
y3 =
1
L3s
y4 = c4 +
1
c4
1
RL
z4 =
=
RL
RL c4 s + 1 s + 1
c4 RL
=
RL c4 s + 1
RL
Now,
1
1
L1
L1
y1 =
Ty1 =
R
R
s+ 1
s+ 1
L1
L1
z2 =
1
1
1
Tz2 =
= ( 1)
c2 s
c2 s
c2 s
y3 =
1
1
Ty3 =
L3 s
L3s
c4
z4 =
Tz4 = 1
1
1
s+
s+
c4 RL
c4 RL
1
c4
Ty1
Tz2
R1
C2
Ty3
Ty4
Comparison
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RL
1
s+
s+
L1
R2c2
Tz2 =
[R1 = R2 = 1]
1
1
1
= ( 1)
( 1)
c2 s
Rcs
c2 s
Ty3 =
1 1
L3 s Rcs
c4
Yz4 = ( 1)
1
s+ c R
4 L
[R = 1]
[R = 1]
( 1) R1c2
1
s+ Rc
2 2
[R1 = R2 = 1]
Now scale.
In summary, leapfrog simulation can be done in the following steps.
(1) Choose a suitable low pass prototype which meets the following specifications.(see table 13.1 of van
valkenbutg)
(2) Perform freq transformation if necessary.
(3) Identify the various y & z in the form of block diagram.
(4) Select the leapfrog block diagram to simulate the ckt.
(5) Find the active ckt that realize each of the blocks.
(6) Arrange the ckt with necessary components.
(7) Scale the ckt to meet the actual requirements.
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Chapter:12
The Mos switch
G
SD
B
ON
ON
OFF
TC
1
= Switching frequency
TC
S
Fig: SPST Switch
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TC
Note that, the frequency do not overlap and when 1 , is OFF, 2 is ON, and vice versa.
The representation for these cases will be
P2
P1
2
Fig: SPDT( SIngle pole double through switch)
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V1
Vc
1
V2
R
C
When S/W is brought to position b,
V2 = VC
V2 =V1
This show that DPDT S/w acts as an inverter
Q. How can you use DPDT as an Inverter?
Simulation of resistor by switched capacitor
1+
+2
V2
V1
 2
Let us assume SPDT switch as shown in fig (i) let V1 (t) be the i/p voltage, if s/w is at
position a then the eqn ckt will be:
R1
CR
The capacitor will get charge for
1 = R1CR
V1
0.63V1
V2
I1
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q
= CR (v1 v2 )
t
C R (v1 v2 ) (v1 v2 )
=
Tc
Rc
1
fcCR
RC =
V1
V2
V1
V2
From fig
R=
1
fxC R
v2
=
v1
1
C
= fc. R .s
1
c
.c.s
fcCR
T (s ) = fc.
CR
.s
c
(2) loosy Integrator
R1
C3
R
V1
C2
+
V2
V1
C2
+
V2
Here,
R1 =
1
1
& R3 =
fcc1
fcc3
c1
v
c2
2 =
v1 s + fc c3
c2
fc
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C2
R0
V0
V0
+
R1
V1
C0
V2
V1
V2
C1
v2 =
1
1
v0
.v1
R0c2 s
R1c2 s
= fc
c0 1
c 1
. .v0 fc 1 . .v1
c2 s
c2 s
(4) Inverting
Rf
R1
V1
Cf
C1
V2
V1
V2
1
v2 cfs c1
=
=
1
v1
cf
c1s
1
v2
Rf
c
fccf
=
=
= 1
1
v1
R1
cf
fcc1
v2
c
= 1
v1
cF
(5)
C2
R1
V0
V1
R1
R1
R2
V2
V 1
R1
v2
1
1
=
v2 = ( v1 ).
v1 R1c2 s
R
c
s
1 2
Thus, the ckt using switched capacitor will be,
C2
C1
V2
V1
v2
c
= fc. 1 .s
v1
c2
(6)
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V2
c1
V1
R1
V1
V2
R1
V0
C1
c2
V2
v2
1
=
(v1 v2 )
v1 R1c2 s
Example:01
Realize the given circuit by switched capacitor.
C 2= 0.10 F
R1=10k
V1
V2
C2= 0.10 F
C 2= 0.10 F
R1=10k
V1
R 1=10k
V2
V1
V2
v2
1
=
v1
R1c2 s
But, R1 =
1
fcc1
v2
c 1
= fc. 1 .
v1
c2 s
1 c1
. = 10 4
fc c2
1 c1 4
. 10
fc c2
Let, fc = 10 kHz
1
c1
,
= 10 4
3
10 10 0.01 10 6
c1 = 0.01F
First order filter:
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V0
V1
V1
C2
1
R1c2
T (s ) =
1
s+
R1c2
V2
C1
T (s ) =
fc
c1
c2
s + fc
c1
c2
R4
C4
R3
V1
C2
+
V2
C1
C2
C3
V2
C1
s+
c
R3c1
T (s ) = 1
c2 s + 1
R4c2
s + fc. 3
c
c1
T (s ) = 1
c2 s + fc. c4
c2
1
1
& R4 =
sin ce : R3 =
fcc3
fcc4
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C 2 V2
3
102 10
10 10
20dB
(s + a )(s + b )
( s + c)(s + d )
(s + 10 )(s + 10 )
(s + 10 )(s + 10 )
3
(s + 10 )3 s + 104
=
2
5
s + 10 s + 10
= T1 (s ) T2 (s )
for,
T 1(s ) =
(s + 10 ) .(i)
(s + 10 )
3
2
s + fc 4
c
c1
T (s ) = 1
c2 s + fc c4
c1
Take, fc = 10 kHz
C1 = C2 =10 pf
C3 = 1 pf
C4 = 0.1pf
For,
(s + 104 )
T2(s) =
(s + 105 )
Comparing,
c
s + fc 3
c
c1
T (s ) = 1
c2 s + fc c4
c1
C1 = C2 =10 pf
C3 = 10 pf
C4 = 100 pf
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C4
C2
V1
C2
C3
V2
C1
C1
Example:02
dB Gain
6dB
0dB
120
T (s ) =
220
400
(s + 100)(s + 400)
(s + 200)2
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V2