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Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 21 (6): 998-1001, 2014

ISSN 1990-9233
IDOSI Publications, 2014
DOI: 10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2014.21.06.21555

Climatic Effect in the Formation of Sustainable Architecture in


Mazandaran Vernacular Architecture
1

Seyyed Gholam Reza Eslami, 2Mohsen Rostami and 3Sorayya Rostami


Faculty of Fine Arts, University, Tehran, Iran
Department of Interior Design, Faculty of Art and Architecture,
Researcher and Lecturer at Elmi Karbordi University Iran, Tehran
2
Faculty of Environment, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
1

Abstract: This article analyzes the Climatic Effect in the Formation of Sustainable Architecture in Mazandaran
Vernacular Architecture-Iran. The aim purpose of this research is explaining the Vernacular architecture in
Mild-Humid climate of Mazandaran as a sample of sustainable architecture. One of the main contributions of
Sustainability in architecture is conserving constructions for the future, according to conserving on energy
resources. Based on this study, sustainability is effective in the introduction productive models. Traditional
architecture of Mazandaran is perceived sustainable for having sustainable features. It is capable to answer to
environmental difficulties from a long period. The main characteristic of this paper are including local
construction materials and climatic factors of Temperate and humid regions and also wants to identify
sustainable architecture and its principles. The data collected of this study were utilizing Internet sites, library
documents and analyzing building plans. Ultimately, this article indicated that a Temperate and humid climate
is considered as a sustainable version and also as a good model for designing in Contemporary vernacular
architecture in Mazandaran.
Key words: Vernacular Architecture Architecture
Architecture Mazandaran.

Temperate and Humid

INTRODUCTION

Mazandaran

Sustainable

People in every community have environmental, economic


and social requirements and in every community are
unique the importance, quantity, quality and balance of
those requirements. In a different preapective, [2], pointed
out that physical environment factors have direct effect
on the psychological satisfaction of humans. Accordingly
climate is one of the most important factors which have a
lot of effect on human thermal comfort. He defined the
climate as the regular pattern of weather conditions
(wind, rain, temperature etc) of a particular space, an area
or a region. Moreover very generally, in architecture
according to the climate characteristics, there are different
classifications, such as the cold, temperate, humid and
hot dry climates. The article analyzes the Climatic Effect
in the Formation of Sustainable Architecture in
Mazandaran.
Finally, this paper showed that a Temperate and
humid climate is considered as a sustainable version and
also as a good model for designing in Contemporary
vernacular architecture in Mazandaran.

According to Nik, Sarrafi, Ali (2012) [1], in these days,


there are several styles and approaches in worlds
architecture. One of the most important approaches of this
study is the subject of sustainability or Sustainable
Architecture. Based on this study, sustainability is an
embracing concept that can give localities a framework
within which to approach many of the forward-looking
activities they are already doing, whether they are
recovering from a disaster or making improvements in
environmental quality, economic opportunity, safety and
lifestyle. Furthermore, Sustainability is a way of looking at
a community within its broadest possible context, in both
time and space. It prepares an ideal toward which to strive
and against which to weigh proposed decisions,
expenditures, plans and local actions [1] (Nik, Sarrafi,
Ali 2012). General definition of sustainability is meeting
the requirements of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Corresponding Author: Seyyed Gholam Reza Eslami, Faculty of Fine Arts, University, Tehran, Iran .

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Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 21 (6): 998-1001, 2014

Fig.1: Building from Mazandaran in Iran which has temperate-humid climate (Memarian.GH, 2006)
Literature Review
Sustainable Architecture: Sustainable development has
perceived practical solutions given against traditional
patterns of economic and social development that
prevents extermination of natural resources destroy of
ecosystems, decrease quality of human life, irregular
increase of population, increase of pollution.
According to Shohouhian, M. Soflaee, F. (2005) and
Soflaee, F., (2004) [3, 4] Sustainable development has a
comprehensive sense and is related to all aspects of
human life. In the same manner, sustainable development
is a kind of improvement that is capable to protect human
health and develop ecological orders for a long period.
Actually, using sustainable development models requires
basic exchanges in international politics [3-5].
Temperate and Humid Climate in Mazandaran: [6]
Kasmaee. M, 2003 pointed out that Southern shores of
Caspian Sea have a lot of rainfall and also situated
between Alborz Mountain and Caspian Sea. Though, the
amount of rainfall in this region from west to east becomes
lesser. Moreover, Ramsar and Babolsar (two cities in
Mazandaran) are located in southern shore of Caspian sea
which the humidity of these cities are approximately
eighty percent also the humidity of Ramsar and Babolsar
are more than the human comfort condition. Kasmaee also
identified that Alborz Mountain, which is situated
between two antithetical climates, separates Caspian low
plain from central plateau. One of the particular

specifications of this region is temperate temperature and


high humidity. Furthermore, the temperature during in the
winter is above zero but that the temperature during
the summer time is different and for the reason that
the temperature is around 24 to 29 in the morning also
the temperature is around 19 to 22 in the night time.
This caused happened because of high humidity and
Caspian sea and also there is no any swing of temperature
during a day. Furthermore, in this temperate-humid climate
cloud can works as an isolation material. As a result,
the fluctuation of temperature is lesser in a cloudy day
(As demonstrated by Kasmaee.M, 2003) [6].
For instance, Nowshahr, which is situated in the west
of Mazandaran had average of 1807mm rainfall during the
1958 to 1978. However, Royan is a city in the central
district of Nour-Mazandaran province. This city is located
on the Caspian Sea also had 633 mm rainfall during the
same years. These areas are compound of low plain and
by going forward to the east, humidity of air becomes
lesser.
Comparison of Iranian Vernacular Architecture with the
Vernacular Architecture of Other Countries:
Temperate-Humid Climate: There is a lot of rainfall in
temperate-humid climate. One of the particular
specifications of this climate is temperate temperature and
high humidity. The temperature in summer is around 19 to
29 but in the winter the temperature during the winter is
more than zero. Generally, according to previous research

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Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 21 (6): 998-1001, 2014

such as [7] Mazandaran has temperate-humid climate.


Furthermore, this research paper choices one vernacular
building from Royan as a case study which is situated on
the Mazandaran province. Then, this research appraises
the similarities and distinction and similarities among the
cases study of vernacular buildings from Royan which
has the same temperate-humid climatic condition.
The main contribution among the buildings in Iran is
the designs of the buildings. All these three cases have
same location since the plans of them are evictions in
order to diffuse summer heat to the outside easily.
Another similarity between these cases is about roof.
Sloppy roof is the main similarity of these three vernacular
buildings. Moreover, most of the buildings were built
with stone for protecting the walls of the ground floor
form moisture and humidity in Royan-Mazandaran [7].
Pourvahidi, 2010 believed that Iran utilized wood for
constructing the building, since wood do not store heat
during the summer period. Furthermore, traditional
builders utilized another method to protect their building
from moisture and humidity in Iran. For example, they
construct the building almost one meter above the ground
level for protecting the building from moisture and
humidity. Furthermore, for protecting the building from
rain they construct the balcony in four side of the
building, which this balcony is covered by roof.
Moreover, traditional builders construct the overhang
roof in Royan for protecting the building from rain.
This overhang roof can protect the first floor of the
building from direct sun radiation and also can protect
the building from rain. This research comes across that

all of these three buildings, which are situated in


temperate-humid climatic conditions have several same
architectural characteristics. The climatic conditions force
them to have similar plan configuration to employ more
from natural ventilation because of high humidity in this
area.
Furthermore, there is a lot of rain in these areas.
Moreover, all of these three buildings have sloppy roof,
which works as an umbrella to protect the buildings from
rain. As a result, this study attains to the point that,
although all of these three vernacular buildings in Iran has
various cultures, they have some likenesses to the basic
plan essentials. In different perspective, vernacular
buildings causes these similarities when design with
climate. (As demonstrated by Pourvahidi, 2010). Figure 2
shows vernacular building with single room in temperate
regions as below;
Climate is accretion in time of the physical state of
the atmospheric environmental characteristic of a certain
geographical location (Shokouhian.M, 2007). Climatic
section of each area is depended on various elements.
However, areas, which are situated in macro climate,
have some similarities to each others but they have some
variations from intense of glacial point of view, relative
humidity, cold and hot and annual rainfall. Consequently,
these climates are separated into smaller groups which are
named as Meso climate. Usually each macro climate will
be distingue into two or more Meso climates. For example,
cold climate are separated into rather cold climate and
very cold climate. The areas, which are situated in Meso
climate, are divided into smaller groups of local climates.

Fig. 2: vernacular building with single room in temperate regions (Ghobadian.V, 2006)
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Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 21 (6): 998-1001, 2014

CONCLUSION

Furthermore, there are some diverse characteristics in


these climates, which reveal a lot of various such as
plants,
underground
water
level,
topography,
geographical position and etc [8].
[9] Ghobadian (2009) believed that Royan city
where is located on west part of Mazandaran has
temperate-humid climate in the summer, particularly in its
lowlands. Therefore, the original urban form of this city
was open. This means that buildings were detached and
the towns public and private spaces and streets were not
lined by solid walls or buildings. In this city, buildings are
detached for allowing the winds to carry away the heavy
and stagnant humid airs from the various sections of the
town because of humidity. In this area, there are heavy
rainfall, hot and humid weather, high underground water
tables, in the summer and cold weather in the winter.
Subsequently the houses and particularly buildings of
this area were built in such a way to prepare the human
comfort against many undesirable climatic factors. [9-12]
(Ghobadian.V, 2009).

The aim purpose of this research is explaining the


Vernacular architecture in Mild-Humid climate of RoyanMazandaran as a sample of sustainable architecture. One
of the main contributions of Sustainability in architecture
is conserving constructions for the future, according to
conserving on energy resources. Based on this study,
sustainability is effective in the introduction productive
models. Traditional architecture of Mazandaran is
perceived sustainable for having sustainable features.
Ultimately, this article indicated that a Temperate and
humid climate is considered as a sustainable version and
also as a new contribution for designing in Contemporary
vernacular architecture in Mazandaran. It is hoped that
the important facts addressed in this paper will be a means
whereby researchers will be able to investigate the
Climatic Effect in the Formation of Sustainable
Architecture in Mazandaran Vernacular Architecture with
better awareness.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

REFERENCES

This study is going to used quantitative survey


methods that will utilize the interpretative research
method and climatic data which is a kind of qualitative
research. It will also utilize literature review, which
would support this research area.. Data in this research
is based on climate condition. So it is gathered from
all Iranian metrological stations. This research will
be analyzed according to bioclimatic concept by
considering the design principles for each different
climate in Iran.
There have been different kinds of studies of
vernacular Iranian architecture. In Iranian traditional
architecture some spaces have more relation with climate
than the others. This research tries to focus on these
spaces which control the climate. So the particular
significance in this research is to study the bioclimatic
design principles in some parts of Iran. This study has
been categorized in many types. The first part of this
paper will be the review of previous studies regarding to
Iranian climatic classification. In this section the collection
of data is based on documentary and theoretical
information, also a desk work research and based on
literature review on some analyses. The second part of
paper will attempt to compare the Iranian vernacular
architecture with the vernacular architecture of the other
countries with same climatic region. All of these
investigations, which were supported by figures and
tables, can assist the researcher to find out the answer of
the questions which initiated this thesis.

1.

Nik, Sarrafi Ali, 2012. Sustainability in Vernacular


Architecture-Outlooks on Iranian Tribes, pp: 1-10.
2. Crowther, J., 2000. Oxford dictionary. Oxford
University Press.
3. Shohouhian, M. and F. Soflaee, 2005. Environmental
sustainable Iranian traditional architecture in hotHumid Regions, pp: 173-177.
4. Soflaee, F., 2004. Sustainability of Climatic 0 Sensitive
Elements in the Iranian Traditional Architecture of
Hot-Arid Regions, ICHH, India.
5. Tavassoli, M., 1974. Architecture in the Hot Arid
zones, The University of Tehran, Tehran.
6. Kasmaee, M., 2003. Climate and architecture. Isfahan:
Nashre khak.
7. Pourvahidi Parastoo, 2010. Bioclimatic Analysis of
Vernacular Iranian Architecture, pp: 1-180.
8. Tahbaz, M. J., 2008. Design principels of architecture
according to the Iranian climatic with case study of
mosque. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University.
9. Ghobadian, V., 2006. Climate analysis of the iranian
traidtional buildings. Tehran: Tehran University
press.
10. Koppen, W.G., 1936. Das geographisca system der
klimate. Handbuch Der Klimatologie, pp: 1-44.
11. Memarian, G.H., 2006. Residential architecture of Iran.
Tehran: Soroushe danesh publication.
12. Shokouhian, M.S., 2007. Enviromental effect of the
courtyrad in sustainable architecture of iran. Tehran:
Islamic Azad University.

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