SRM Mathematics

© All Rights Reserved

50 views

SRM Mathematics

© All Rights Reserved

- Complex numbers
- Mathematics
- 216c08
- Quantitative Aptitude Questions Set
- Iit 4 Unlocked
- Iit 1 Unlocked Maths
- Mathematics
- Complex Review
- Yearly Lesson Plan MT 954 Term 1
- 461hw3sol
- Communication Systems 4Th Edition Simon Haykin With Solutions Manual
- Functions of a Complex Variable[1]
- trigo sl
- Iit 3 Unlocked
- Objective Test
- Aero Complex
- 10-Maths-CBSE-Sample-Papers-2017.pdf
- IITJEEPCM
- question bank complex numberp1_answ.rtf
- M_IMO_60-99.pdf

You are on page 1of 74

Dear Student,

Welcome to SRM Gateway. We thank you very much for joining SRM Gateway. We are

all committed to your satisfaction and fulfill your expectations in training, quality in our

services, which is our primary goal.

We are sure that you will become very skilled and will be positioning yourself well in the IT

industry.

We shall always ensure that you are guided well during the course.

We wish you all the best for the complete learning of the technology Stay ahead in the

technology. Way ahead of others.

Warm Regards,

Management

SRM Gateway

Course Code : AIEEE

SRM Gateway

This document is the property of SRM Gateway. This

document has been prepared exclusively for the use of the

students. No part of this document shall be copied or

transferred in any form or by any means which would

initiate legal proceedings, if found.

SRM Gateway

No. 9, 3rd Avenue, Ashok Nagar, Chennai 600 083

Preface

About the book

This book will be an effective training supplement for students to master the subject. This

material has in-depth coverage and review questions to give you a better understanding.

A panel of experts have complied the material, which has been rigorously reviewed by industry experts and we hope that this material will be a value addition.

We also would value your feedback, which will be useful for us to fine-tune it better.

SRM Gateway

IIT

MATHEMATICS

SET-II

INDEX

1.

2.

FUNCTIONS .......................................................................................................

44

3.

4.

80

120

IIT-MATHEMATICS-SET-II

COMPLEX NUMBERS

COMPLEX NUMBERS

INTRODUCTION

If x2 + 1 = 0 , then x 1 .

If x 2 x 1 0 , then x

1i 3

1 1 4

or x

.

2

2

Here roots of this equation are of the form x + iy, where x and y are real numbers. Roots of

this form are called complex roots.

Any number of the form x + iy (where x and y are real numbers) is called a complex number.

A complex number x + iy is also defined as an ordered pair of real numbers x and y and may

bewrittenas(x, y).

If z = x + iy, then x is called the real part of complex number and y is called the imaginary part

of the complex number z. x is denoted as Re(z) and y is denoted as Im(z).

(i)

(iii) Multiplication: (x1 + iy1) (x2 + iy2) = (x1x2 y1y2) + i (x1y2 + x2y1)

x iy

x x y y

i(x y x y )

1

1

1 2

1 2

2 1

1 2

(iv) Division: x iy x 2 y 2 x 2 y 2

2

2

2

2

2

2

(vi) The complex number do not posses the property of order

i.e., (x1 + iy1) < or > (x2 + iy2) is not defined.

NUMBERS

(a) Let O be the origin and OX and OY be the x-axis and y-axis respectively. Corresponding to each complex number x + iy there will be one and only one point P(x, y) in the xy

plane.

Thus each complex number x + iy can be represented by a point P(x, y) of the xy-plane and

conversely corresponding to each point P(x, y) of the xyplanetherewillbeauniquecomplexnumber

x + iy. The xy-plane is called the Argand Plane, Complex Plane or Gaussian Plane, xaxis is called the real axis and y-axis is called the imaginary axis.

IIT-MATHEMATICS-SET-II

Z = x + iy

P(x, y)

y

x L

(b) Each complex number z can be represented by a vector OP , where P is the point

representing the complex number z.

Thus z OP

y

P

x

Note:

(i)

Any other vector AB which has the same magnitude, direction and sense as

that of OP but has a different initial point, also represents the complex number z.

(ii) Complex numbers can be considered as vectors in case of sum, difference and modulus

of complex numbers.

The complex numbers z = x + iy and z x iy, where x and y are real numbers, i 1

and y 0 are said to be complex conjugate of each other. (Here the complex conjugate is

obtained by just changing the sign of i).

Note that, sum = (x + iy) + (x iy)

= 2x, which is real and product = (x + iy) (x iy)

= x2 + y2 which is real.

Properties of Conjugate: (i) z is the mirror image of z along real axis.

(ii) z = z z is purely real

(iii) z = z z is purely imaginary

(iv) Re (z) = Re ( z ) =

(v) Im (z) =

z z

2

z z

2i

COMPLEX NUMBERS

(vi) z1 z2 z1 z2

(vii) z1 z 2 z1 z 2

(viii) z1z 2 z1 z 2

z1 z1

(z 2 0)

(ix) z

z

2

2

(x)

z1 z 2 z1 z 2 2 Re (z1 z 2 ) 2 Re (z1 z 2 )

(xi) z n (z) n

Imaginary axis

A (z)

Real axis

B (z)

Distance of a complex number z from origin is called the modulus of the complex number z

and it is denoted by |z| . Therefore if z = x + iy, then |z| = x 2 y 2 .

Im. axis

|z|

y

Re-axis

Properties of Modulus

(i)

|z| = 0 z = 0

(ii)

Re z | z |, Imz | z |

(iii) zz | z |2

5

IIT-MATHEMATICS-SET-II

(iv) | z1z 2 | | z1 | | z 2 |

(v)

z1 | z1 |

z 2 | z 2 | (z 2 0)

(vi)

| z1 z 2 | | z1 | | z 2 | | z1 z 2 ... z n | | z1 | | z 2 | ... | z n | , n N ,

(vii)

(viii)

| z1 z 2 |2 (z1 z 2 ) (z1 z2 ) | z1 |2 | z 2 |2 z1 z2 z 2 z1

(ix)

z 1

(x)

|z|n = |zn|, n N

z

| z |2

y

z (x, y)

y

We have cos

and sin

x

x2 y2

y

2

x y2

... (1)

... (2)

Value of , , satisfying equations (1) and (2) simultaneously, is called the principal

argument of z.

Method of calculating principal argument: first calculate

tan 1

y

.

x

P(z = x + iy) lies in Ist, IInd, IIIrd or IVth quadrant respectively.

Note:

Whenever we have to calculate the argument of a complex number, it is obvious

that we have to calculate the principal argument.

COMPLEX NUMBERS

Properties of Arguments

(i)

z1

(ii) arg z a r g z 1 a r g z 2

2

(iii) arg (z) = arg (z)

(iv) arg (iy) =

if y > 0

2

(v)

if y < 0

2

arg (z z)

1

(vi) arg ( z) arg (z) arg

z

(viii) arg(z) = / 2 z is purely imaginary..

Note: Here arg(z) means general argument of z.

Polar form : z = r cos ir sin re i , where r = |z|, and = principal argument of z.

DE-MOVIERS THEOREM

If n is any interger, then (cos i sin )n cos n i sin n.

Writing the Binomial expansion of (cos i sin )n , n N and equating the real and the

imaginary parts , we get

cos n cos n n C2 cos n 2 sin 2 n C 4 cos n 4 sin 4 ...

sin n n C1 cos n 1 sin n C3 cos n 3 sin 3 n C 5 cos n 5 sin 5 ...

If n = p/q, where p and q are integers (q > 0) and p, q have no common factor, then

(cos i sin ) n has q distinct values, one of which is cos n isin n .

If zn = r (cos sin ), n N, then

2k

2k

, k = 0, 1, 2, ..., n 1.

z1/ n r1/ n cos

i sin

n

n

IIT-MATHEMATICS-SET-II

Roots of x3 1 = 0 are called the cube roots of unity

Now x3 1 = 0

(x 1) (x2 + x + 1) = 0

Therefore, x = 1,

1 i 3 1 i 3

.

2

2

2

Cube roots of unity are 1, , . 1 is real cube root of unity and and 2 are nonreal cube roots of unity.

Cube roots of unity can be taken as vertices of an equilateral triangle ABC inscribed in a circle

of radius 1 and centre at origin.

y

B

A(1)

(1) 1 2 0

(2) 3 1

(3) 1 n 2n 3 (if n is multiple of 3)

(4) 1 n 2n 0 (if n is not a multiple of 3).

Let x be an nth root of unity. Then xn = 1 = cos 2k i sin 2k (where k is an integer)

x cos

Let cos

2k

2k

i sin

, k = 0, 1, 2, ... n 1

n

n

2

2

i sin

. Then the n, nth roots of unity are t

n

n

8

COMPLEX NUMBERS

Sum of the Roots

2

n 1

1 + ....

1 n

0

1

1.. ...

n 1

n (n 1)

2

2

2

cos i sin

n

n

n 1

n

1, n is even

1, n is odd

2

A 2( )

A 2(

2/n

2/n

A1(1)

2/n

O

n

An

Note : The points represented by n, nth roots of unity are located at the vertices of a regular

polygon of n sides inscribed in a unit cirlce having centre at the origin, one vertex being

on the positive real axis.

NUMBERS

Let z1 = x1 + iy1 and z2 = x2 + iy2 be two complex numbers.

Let z1 and z2 be represented by the points P(x1 , y1) and Q(x2, y2) in the Argand plane.

Let O be the origin. Join OP and OQ. Produce QO backwards to Q such that OQ = OQ.

Then, the co-ordinates of Q will be (x2 , y2) and therefore, Q will represent the complex

number z2 = x2 + i (y2).

Complete the parallelogram POQ R and let its diagonals intersect at the point H.

x x 2 y1 y 2

Since H is the middle point of PQ , its co-ordinates are 1

,

2

2

Now, if (x, y) be the co-ordinates of R, then since H is the middle point of OR, the coordinates of H are .

IIT-MATHEMATICS-SET-II

x y

,

2 2

x x1 x 2

y y y2

and 1

2

2

2

2

x = x1 x2 and y = y1 y2.

Thus, the co-ordinates of R are (x1 x2, y1 y2).

Y

Q(z2)

S

P(z1)

X

H

R(z1 z2)

Q(z2)

Y

(x1 x2) + i (y1 y2) = [(x1 + iy1) (x2 + iy2)] = z1 z2

Clearly, |z1| = OP, |z2| = | z2 | = OQ and |z1 z2| = OR = PQ

So if P(z1) and Q(z2) be two points then |z1 z2| is the distance between P and Q.

Similarly, the point S represents the complex number z1 + z2.

Since in a triangle sum of two sides is greater than the 3rd side and difference of two sides is

less than the 3rd side, we have

|z1| + |z2| |z1 + z2|, equality holds when arg z1 = arg z2

||z1| |z2|| |z1 z2|, equality holds when arg z1 = arg z2 .

COMPLEX NUMBERS

Let z1 and z2 be two complex numbers.

Let z1 = r1 (cos 1 i sin 1 ) and z2 = r2 (cos 2 i sin 2 ) .

Let z1 and z2 be represented by the points P and Q respectively. Let O be the origin. We join

OP and OQ.

Then OP = r1 ; POX 1; OQ r2 and QOX 2

Now z1z2 = r1 (cos 1 i sin 1 ).r2 (cos 2 i sin 2 )

= r1r2 [cos( 1 2 ) i sin (1 2 )].

10

COMPLEX NUMBERS

= r(cos i sin ), where r = r1 r2 and 1 2

Thus z1z2 is a complex number whose modulus is r1r2 and argument is 1 2 .

Take a point A on the real axis such that OA = 1. Join PA.

Now, construct a triangle OQR similar to the triangle OAP

From similar OAP and OQR , we have

OR OP

OR r1

or

OQ OA

r2 1 or, OR = r1 r2.

Y

R(z1.z2)

r2

Q(z2)

P(z1)

r1

z1

Thus, the point R represents z1z2. Similalry we can represent z as a complex number having

2

If z0, z1 and z2 be the affixes of the vertices of a triangle described in counter-clockwise sense,

then

z 2 z0

z z

1 0 ei

| z 2 z 0 | | z1 z 0 |

or,

z1 z 0

z z

z z

2 0 ei(2 ) 2 0 e i

| z1 z 0 | | z 2 z 0 |

| z 2 z0 |

Imaginary

axis

(2)

z2

z1

z0

Real axis

O

11

IIT-MATHEMATICS-SET-II

Condition for Four Points to be concyclic

If points A, B, C and D are concyclic, then ABD = ACD

Using rotation theorem

(z1 z 2 ) (z 4 z 2 ) i

In ABD | z z | | z z | e ... (1)

1

2

4

2

In ACD

(z1 z 3 ) z 4 z 3 i

e

| z1 z 3 | | z 4 z 3 |

... (2)

(z1 z 2 ) (z 4 z 3 )

(z1 z 2 ) (z 4 z 3 )

(z1 z 3 ) (z 4 z 2 )

(z1 z 3 ) (z 4 z 2 ) = a positive real number

So if z1, z2 z3 and z4 are such that

A(z1)

D(z4)

C(z3)

B(z2)

(z1 z 2 ) (z 4 z3 )

(z1 z3 ) (z 4 z 2 ) is a positive real, then these four points are concyclic and vice-versa.

Equation of straight line through z1 and z2 is given by

z

z z1 z z1

or z1

z 2 z1 z2 z1

z2

z1

z2

I 0.

I

z(z2 z1 ) z(z1 z 2 ) z1z 2 z1 z2 0

Here z1z 2 z1 z2 is a purely imaginary number as z1z 2 z1 z2 2i lm (z1z 2 ) .

Let z1z 2 z1 z2 ib, b R

z(z2 z1 ) z(z1 z 2 ) ib 0

z i (z1 z2 ) zi(z 2 z1 ) b 0

Let a = i (z2 z1) a i (z1 z2 ) za za b 0

12

COMPLEX NUMBERS

This is the general equation of a line in the complex plane.

Slope of a given line:

Let the given line be za za b 0. Replacing z by x + iy, we get

(x iy)a (x iy)a b 0 (a a )x iy (a a) b 0.

Its slope is

aa

2 Re(a)

Re(a)

2

i(a a) 2i lm(a)

lm(a)

real number).

Equation of a line perpendicular to the line za za b 0is za za i 0 (where

is a real number)

Consider a line segment joining A(z1) and B(z2). Let the line L be its perpendicualr bisector.

If P(z) be any point on the L, we have PA = PB |z z1| = |z z2|

|z z1|2 = |z z2|2

(z z ) ( z z1 ) = (z z ) (z z2 )

1

2

zz zz1 z1 z z1 z1 zz zz2 z 2 z z 2 z2

z(z z ) z (z z ) | z |2 | z |2 0

1

2

1

2

2

1

P(z)

B(z2)

L

B(z1)

Say zc = xc + iyc .

Replacing z by x + iy, in the given equation,

Distance of (xc, yc) from this line is,

| x c (a a) iyc (a a) b |

(a a) 2 (a a) 2

13

| z c a zca b |

2|a|

| z c a zc a b |

4(Re(a)) 2 4(im(a)) 2

IIT-MATHEMATICS-SET-II

zc

za + za + b = 0

arg (z z0) = represents a line passing through z0 with slope tan (making angle

with the positive direction of x-axis).

If A and B represent complex numbers z1 and z2 in the Argand plane, then the complex slope

of AB is defined as

z1 z 2

.

z1 z2

Slope of AB =

a

coeff . of z

a

coeff . of z

a

a

(c) if 1 and 2 are the complex slopes of two lines on the Argand plane, then the lines are

(i)

CIRCLE

(a) If z0 be a fixed point on the complex plane such that z is a moving point always at a

distance r from z0, then z lie on a circle whose equation is |z z0| = r.

(b) The general equation of circles is zz b 0 is zz az az b 0, where b is a real

number. The centre of this circler is a and its radius is aa b .

(c) The equation of the circle described on the line segment joining z1 and z2 as diameter is

(z z1) (z z2 ) + (z z2 ) (z z1 ) 0

z z1

(d) arg z z , (, ],

2

(e)

z z1

, 1 represents a circle having the following properties.

z z2

(f) C, P and Q are collinear, where C is the center of the circle and z1 and z2 represents the

points P and Q.

14

COMPLEX NUMBERS

(g) CP. CQ = r2, r being the radius of the cirlce.

(h) the circle has a diameter AB, where A and B divide PQ in : 1 internally and externally

respectivley.

15.

CONIC SECTIONS

(i)

Parabola

| z z0 |

| az az b |

2|a |

(ii) Ellipse

Ellipse is locus of a point whose sum of distances from two fixed points z1 and z2 is always a

constant.

|z z1| + |z z2| = a. Here a > |z1 z2|

If a = |z1 z2|, it represents line segment between z1 and z2.

(iii) Hyperbola

Equation of hyperbola, having foci at z1 and z2 is given by

|z z1| |z z2| = a

where a is a positive real number & a < |z1 z2|.

15

IIT-MATHEMATICS-SETII

ASSIGNMENT

16

COMPLEX NUMBERS

WORKED OUT

ILLUSTRATIONS

ILLUSTRATION : 01

6

7

k 0

is

equal to

(a) 3 - 2i

(c)

(b) 0

7

2

(d) 3 2i

Solution :

Let z k x k iy k , we have z k 17 z 7 k 0

z k 17

| z k 1 | 7 | z k |7

| z k 1 || z k |

| x k iy k 1 | 2 | x k iy k | 2

xk 12 y k 2 x 2 k y 2 k

2 x k 1 0 or x k

z 7 k

k 0

k 0

Thus, Re z k x k

1

2

7

2

ILLUSTRATION : 02

If m and x are two real numbers, then e

(b)

m

2

2 mi cot 1 x xi 1

(c)1

Solution :

1

Let cot 1 x , then cot x or tan .

x

We have e 2i cot

17

e 2i cos2 i sin 2

xi 1

(d)

is equal to

m 1

2

IIT-MATHEMATICS-SETII

1 tan 2

2 tan 1 1 / .x 2 2 / x

i

i

=

1 tan 2 1 tan 2 1 1 / x 2

1 1/ x 2

x2 1

x2 1

2i cot

e

2ix

x2 1

1 x m

2 mi cot

e

x i 2 x i ix i 2

x i x i x i ix i

ix 1

ix 1

1 x ix

ix 1

ix 1

ix 1

ILLUSTRATION : 03

If 1 and is a nth root of unity, then value of 1 4 9 2 163 ...... n 2 n 1 is

(a) n

(b)

n2

1

(c) n 2 1 2n

(d)None of these

Solution :

We have, for x 1,

1 x x 2 x 3 ...... x n x n 1 1 / x 1.

Differentiating w.r.t. we get

2

1 2 x 3x ...... nx

n 1

n 1x n

x 1

x n1 1

x 12 .(1)

x 2 x 2 3x 3 ....... nx n

n 1x n 1 x n 2 x

x 1

x 12

(2)

1 2 2 x 3 2 x 2 ........ n 2 x n1

2

n 1 x n 2n 3x n1 1 2x n 2 x

x 1

x 12

x 13

1 4 9 2 ....... n 2 n1

18

COMPLEX NUMBERS

=

n 12 2n 3 1 2 2

1

12

13

n 12 2n 3 1 2

1

12

12

n 12 1 2n 3 1 2

12

n 1

=

2n 3 2 n 1 1

12

n 2 n 2 2n n 2 1 2n

=

12

12

ILLUSTRATION : 04

Im z1

If z1 and z1 represent adjacent vertices of a regular polygon of n sides and if 2 1 ,

Re z

1

then n is equal to

(a) 8

(b) 16

(c) 18

(d) 24

Solution :

Since z1 and z1 are the adjacent vertices of a regular polygon of n sides, we have

z1oz1

2

and | z1 || z1 | .

n

Thus, z1 z1e 2i / n

Let z1 r cos i sin re i

z1 re i

since z1 z1e 2i / n

re i re i e 2i / n re 2i / n i

or

n

n

Therefore z1 r cos i sin = r cos i sin

n

n

19

IIT-MATHEMATICS-SETII

r sin

n

Im z1

1

Now,

= 2 1

Re z1

r cos

n

tan 2 1 = tan

n

8

n=8

ILLUSTRATION : 05

If | z i Re( z ) || z Im( z ) |, then z lies on

(a) Re(z) = 2

(b) Im(z) = 2

Solution :

Let z x iy , then | z i Re( z) || z Im( z ) |

Implies | x iy ix | x iy y |

2

2

x 2 y x x y y 2 or x 2 y 2 or x y .

ILLUSTRATION : 06

If

is

complex

cube

root

of

unity,

then

value

of

expression

cos 1 1 ...... 10 10 2

900

(a) -1

(b) 0

(c) 1

(d)

Solution :

2

We have k k k 2 k 2 3

= k 2 k 1 1 k 2 k 1

10

k k

k 1

10

k 2 k 1

k 1

10 x 11 x 21 10 x 11

10 385 55 10 450

6

2

20

COMPLEX NUMBERS

10

2

450

Thus, . cos k k 900 cos 900 0

k 1

ILLUSTRATION : 07

The roots z1 ,z2 ,z3 of the equation x 3 3 px 2 3qx r 0 p,q,r are complex correspond to

points A, B and C. Then triangle ABC is equilateral if

(a) p q 2 (b) p 2 3q

(c) p 2 q

(d) q 2 3 p

Solution :

We have z1 z 2 z3 3 p, z2 z3 z3 z1 z1 z2 3q and z1 z2 z3 r

Triangle A(z1), B(z2), and C(z3) is an equilateral triangle if and only if

1

1

1

0

z2 z3 z3 z1 z1 z 2

z3 z1 z1 z2 z2 z3 z2 z3 z2 z3 z3 z1 0

z1 z2 z3

3 p

3 z 2 z 3 z 3 z1 z 1 z 2

3 3q

p2 p

ILLUSTRATION : 08

The system of equation | z 1 i | 2 and |z| = 3 has

(a) no solution

Solution :

The given system of equations represent the system of circles

(x+1)2 + (y-1)2 = 2 and and

The distance between their centers is and difference between their radii is 3 2 2 . Therefore, the first circle lies within the second circle.

Therefore the given system of given has no solution.

21

IIT-MATHEMATICS-SETII

ILLUSTRATION : 09

If x iy

3

, then 4x x 2 y 2 reduces to

cos i sin 2

(a) 2

(b) 3

(c) 4

(d) 5

Solution :

x iy

1

1

cos 2 i sin

2

2

x y

x iy 3

x

1

y

1

cos 2 , 2

sin

2

2

x y

3

x y

3

x

2 y

1

2

2

2

2

3 x y

9

x y

x2 y 2

4x

1

3 4x 1 0

x y2

2 2

3 x2 y

2 2

1

0

3

4x - x2 - y2 = 3

ILLUSTRATION : 10

If a,b,c, p,q,r are three complex numbers such that

value of

(a) 0

Solution :

a

b c

p q r

1 i and 0 then

p q r

a b c

p2 q 2 r 2

is

a2 b2 c 2

(b) -1

p q r

1 i,

a b c

(c) 2i

(d) -2i

2

2

p q r

1 i 2i

a b c

p 2 q 2 r 2 2abc a b c

p 2 q2 r 2

qr rp pq

2i

2

2 2 2

2i

a

b c

pqr p q r

a

b2 c 2

bc ca ab

p2 q 2 r 2

2 2 2 2i

a

b c

22

COMPLEX NUMBERS

SECTION-A

SINGLE ANSWER

TYPE QUESTIONS

1.

(A) 1

2.

(B) 2

(B) parabola

then :

(C)Re(z)=1

(D) Im(z) = 1

(C)|z| >5

(D)None of these

| z | 2 | z | 1

log

If

3

2 | z |

(B) |z|<5

(A) 1

6.

(D) ellipse

log 1 z 2 log 1 z

(B) Im (z)>1

(A) |z|=5

5.

(C) line

(A) Re(z) >1

4.

(D) >1

(A) circle

3.

(C) <1

(B) 1

a b c 2 a b c 2

is

c a b 2 b c a 2

(C) 2

(D) 0

imaginary cube roots of unity is :

nn 1

(A)

7.

1 1

1

(B) z z ..... z (C)0

1

2

n

(B) p 2 3q

to z

23

The Origin and the roots of the equation z 2 pz q 0 form an equilateral triangle if

(A) p 2 q

9.

nn 1

(C)

n

2

(A) n

8.

nn 1

(B)

n

2

5 12i 5 12i

5 12i 5 12i

5 12i and

(C) q 2 3 p

(D) q 2 p

IIT-MATHEMATICS-SETII

(A)

10.

3

i

2

3

(B) i

2

2

(C) 3 i

5

4m

4m

4m

4m

(C) sin

11.

4m

4m

i cos

, m 1,2,...

n

n

The complex numbers sin x i cos 2 x and cos x i sin 2 x are conjugate to each other for :

(A) x = np

12.

(D) 0

1

2

(B) x n

5z 1

(C) x = 0

(D) No value of x

2z 2 3z1

2

2

1

(A) 5/7

(B) 1

(C) 7/5

az

13.

bz

1

2

If z1 and z 2 are two distinct points in an Argand plane. If a | z1 | b | z 2 | then bz az is a point on

2

1

the

(A) line segment [-2, 2] of the real axis

(C) unit circle |z| =1

14.

(D) the line are z= tan-12

q1

q2

q3

If q1 , q 2 , q3 are the roots of the equation x 3 64 0 then the value of the determinant q 2

q3

q1

q1

q2

q3

is :

(A) 1

15.

(B) 4k+2

(C) 4k+3

(D) 4k

(A)

17.

(C) 16

Let Z1 and Z2 be the nth roots of unity which subtend a right angle at the origin. Then n must be of the

form.

(A) 4k+1

16.

(B) 4

a c

b d

(B)

a b

c d

(C)

c d

a b

3

3

1, , 2 are the cube roots of unity, then a b 3 a b 2 a 2 b

(A) a 3 b 3

(B) 3 a 3 b 3

(C) a 3 b 3

(D) a 3 b 3 3ab

24

COMPLEX NUMBERS

18.

1 i 2 i

3i

(A)

1

2

(B)

1

2

(C)1

(D)-1

(C) 3

(D) 4

81

19.

1 1

3 is

The value of

2 2

(A) 1

20.

(B) 2

If 1 2i is a root of the equation x 2 bx c 0 where b and c are real then (b,c) is given by:

(A) (2,-5)

21.

(B) (-3,1)

n n 1

n n 1

n

2

__

(C)

(B) 3

(C) 4

(D) 6

(B) concyclic

(D) the vertices of a triangle

2

1 2 1

1

27

If x x 1 0, then the value of x x 2 .... x 27 is

x

x

x

(B) 72

(C) 45

| 11 2 2 ...... n n | is

(D) 54

(A) equal to 1

(B) less than 1

(C) greater than 1

(D) none of the above

If p, q are 2 real numbers lying between 0 and 1 such that z1 p i , z 2 1 qi,& z 3 0 form an

equilateral triangle, then (p, q) =

(A) 2 3 , 2 3

27.

(A) 27.1

26.

(B) 2 3, 2 3

(C) 3 5 ,3 5

If a,b,c and u , v, w are complex numbers representing the vertices of two triangles such that

c = (1-r)a+rb & w = (1-r)u + rv where r then the two triangles are

(A) similar

25

__

25.

(A) on a parabola

(C) collinear

24.

n n 1

n

2

(B)

(A) 2

23.

(D) (3,1)

where w is an imaginary cube root of unity is

(A)

22.

(C) (-2, 5)

(B) congruent

IIT-MATHEMATICS-SETII

28.

A) y - axis

B) a circle

C) x - axis

29.

zi

, n integral, then w lies on the unit circle for

If w

1 iz

A) only even n

30.

B) only odd n

A) cos i sin

3

3

31.

B) cos

5

5

i sin

3

3

2 i 2 2 i 2

A)

C) -1

D) 1

x 1

w2

x w2

xw

B) x = w

D) all n

5

and cis . The third value is

3

3

A) x = 1

32.

C) only positive n

C) x = w2

is

D) x = 0

8

5

B)

25

8

C)

5

8

D)

8

25

33.

1 cos i sin

8

8

1 cos i sin

8

8

A) 1 + i

34.

B) 0

D) -1

C) i

D) none of these

i

A) Re(z) = 1, Im (z) = 2

C) Re(z) + Im (z) = 0

36.

C) 1

A) 1

35.

B) 1 - i

B) Re(z) = 1, -1 Im (z) 1

D) none of these

A)

B)

C)

D)

26

COMPLEX NUMBERS

37.

If a and b are two distinct complex numbers such that and Re () > 0, Im(b) < 0, then

may be

38.

A ) Re z2 = 0

39.

1

1 i

2

3

2

B)

45.

46.

If x

D) none of these

3

2

C) 0

D) 1

C) 2

D) 1

C)

D) 0

C) 10

D) 2

1

2 cos , then x 5 5

x

10

x

B) 32

If z1 , z 2 , z3 are the vertices of an equilateral triangle inscribed in the circle |z| = 2 and if then z1 1 i 3 ,

A) z2 2, z3 1 i 3

B) z2 2, z3 1 i 3

C) z2 2, z3 1 i 3

D) z2 1 i 3, z3 1 i 3

A) x 2 y 2 2x cot 2 1

B) x 2 y 2 cot 2 1 x

C) x 2 y 2 2 y tan 2 1

D) x 2 y 2 2x sin 2 1

B) 8

C) 10

D) 12

C) Im (z) > 0

D) Im (z) < 0

A) Re (z) > 0

27

1

1 i

2

a b c

1, and then cos cos cos

b c a

B) i

A) 6

47.

C)

A) 0

44.

1

1 i

2

B) 3

A) 1

43.

D) none of these

A) 4

42.

B)

A)

41.

C) Im z2 = 0

A)

40.

B) Re z2 = Im z2

B) Re (z) < 0

IIT-MATHEMATICS-SETII

48.

n1

n2

n2

A) n1 n2 1

49.

B) 3

C) 2 2 ,

(B) 170

D)

(C) 197

(B) 4

2,

(D) -188

(C) 0

n

1

(B)

n

(C) 1 2

n

1

(A) 0

55.

(A)

54.

D) 6

(A) 1

53.

C) 4

2,

B)

(A) 145

52.

D) n1 0, n2 0

Complex numbers 8 + 5i, -3+i and -2 - 3i represent the point A, B and C respectively, then the modulus

and argument of the complex number representing the centroid of the triangle ABC are

A) 2,

51.

C) n1 n2

A) 2

50.

B) n1 n2 1

(B) 160

(C) 160

(D) -164

The equation of the right bisector of the line joining the points z1 & z 2 is :

__

(A) z

__

1

z1 z2

2

(B) z z

1

z1 z2

2

56.

(A) w, w2

57.

(C)-1, w, w2

If , and are the cube roots of p, p<0, then for any x, y and z, the values of

(A) w, w2

58.

(B) 1, w, w2

The

value

(C) 1, -1

of

x y z

are

x y z

t he

expression

28

COMPLEX NUMBERS

1

1

1 1 2

1

1

2 2 2

1

1

1

1

3 3 2 ....... n n 2 where w is

(A)

59.

n n2 2

3

(C)

4m

(C) n n 1

m

(D) n 1

(B) 1

(C) n

(D) -n

1

1

1

is

1 2w 2 w 1 w

(A) 2

62.

2m

(B) n n 1

(A) 0

61.

n n 2 1

If cos i sin cos 2 i sin 2 ..... cos n i sin n 1 then the value of q is:

(A) 4m

60.

(B)

n n2 2

(B) 1

(C) 1

(D) 0

(A) a circle

63.

1 bi

If a1 ib1 a2 ib2 ..... an ibn A iB, then tan a is

i 1

i

(A) B/A

64.

29

(B) 25i

(C) 25 1 i

(B) 4,15

(C) 0,

(A)

67.

(D)100 1 i

If z be a complex number such that | z 5 | 7, then the minimum and maximum values of | z 2 | are

(A) 2,10

66.

(A) 50 1 i

65.

3 1

(B) 3

If | z | 2 1 then | z 2 2 z cos | is

(D) 0, 10

2

2 is

z

(C) 3 1

(D) 2 3

IIT-MATHEMATICS-SETII

(A) less than 1

68.

(B)

(A) of area zero

(C) right angled isosceles

69.

If =

(D)None of these

2 1

z1 z3 1 i 3

z2 z3

2

(B) Equilateral

(D)obtuse-angled isosceles

2

, then the 10th term of the series1 cos i sin cos i sin ..... is

6

(A)-i

70.

(C)

2 1

(B) i

(C)

1 i 3

2

(D)

1 i 3

2

1

(A)

1 2

(B) 212

1

(C)

1

(D) 212

13

71.

n

n 1

The value of i i , where i 1 equals

i 1

(A) i

72.

1 2

(B) | z |

3

(A) x =0, y =1

74.

(C)-i

(D) 0

1 2

(A) | z |

4

73.

(B) i 1

1 2

(D) | z |

2

(C) | z |2

1 i x 2i 2 3i y i i

3i

3i

n

are

(D) x =-1, y=3

n1

n2

n2

75.

(A) n1 n2

(B) n1 n2 1

(C) n1 n2

a ib

tan i log

is equal to

a ib

(A) ab

(B)

2ab

2

a b2

(C)

a2 b2

2ab

(D)

2ab

a b2

2

30

COMPLEX NUMBERS

76. If 1,, 2 , .. n 1 are nth roots of unity..

The value of 3 3 2 3 3 . 3 n 1 is

(A) n

77.

78.

(B)0

(C)

3n 1

2

(D)

3n 1

2

(A) z12 z22 z32 2 z1 z2 z2 z3 z3 z1

1

1

1

(B) z z z z z z 0

1

2

2

3

3

1

(C) z1 z1 2 z1 0

3

The roots of the cubic equation z 3 , 0 represent the vertices of a triangle of sides of

length:

(A)

1

| |

3

(B) 3 | |

(C) 3 | |

(D)

1

| |

3

79.

The centre of a square ABCD is at z =0. The affix of the vertices A is Z, then the affix of the centrioid of

the triangle ABC is

z

(A) z1 cos i sin

(B) 1 cos i sin

3

z1

(D) cos i sin

2

2

3

2

2

80.

If S = i n i n where i 1 and n is an integer, then the total number of possible distinct values of S

is

A) 1

81.

If

C) a parabola

D) none of these

B) |z| > 1

C) |z| < 1

D) none of these

B) 2 2

C) 2 2 1

D) 2 2 2

The area of the triangle whose vertices represents the complex numbers z, -iz and z+iz is

A) |z|2

31

B) a circle

A) 2 2 1

84.

D) more than 3

z 1

is purely imaginary then

z 1

A) |z| = 1

83.

C) 3

The points representing the complex number z for which |z+3|2 - |z - 3|2 = 6 lie on

A) a straight line

82.

B) 2

B)

1 2

|z|

2

C) 2 |z|2

D) none of these

IIT-MATHEMATICS-SETII

85.

A) Im (z2) = 0

86.

89.

D) none of these

B)

C)

D)

1 1 1

If z1 , z 2 , z3 are complex numbers such that | z1 || z2 || z3 | z z z 1, then | z1 z2 z3 | is

1

2

3

A) equal to 1

88.

C) Re (z) = Im (z2)

A) -

87.

B) Re (z2) = 0

, then

4

B) less than 1

D) greater than 3

D) equal to 3

z1 z3 1 i 3

z2 z3

2

A) of area zero

C) equilateral

D) obtuse angled isosceles

For what values of x and y, the complex numbers 9y2 - 4 - 10xi and 8 y 2 20i 7 are conjugate to each

other

A) x = -2, y = 2

90.

B) x = - 2, y = -1

C) x = 2, y = 2

D) x = 2, y = -2

The point represented by the complex number 2 i is rotated about origin through an angle

of in

2

A) 1 + 2i

91.

D) -1 + 2i

B) Re z < 0

C) Re z > 3

D) Re z > 2

z and w are two non-zero complex numbers such that |z| = |w| and Arg z + Arg w = p, then z =

A) w

93.

C) 2 + i

A) Re z > 0

92.

B) -1-2i

B) w

C) w

D) -w

The locus of the centre of a circle which touches the circles | z z1 | a and | z z2 | b externally

( z , z1 , z 2 are complex numbers) will be

A) an ellipse

94.

B) a hyperbola

C) a circle

D) none of these

If z and w are two non zero complex numbers such that |zw|=1 and Arg(z)-Arg(w) = z , z1 , z 2 , then

zw is equal to

A) - 1

B) 1

C) -i

D) i

32

COMPLEX NUMBERS

95.

Let be the roots of the equation z 2 az b 0, z being complex. Further, assume that the origin, z1 and z2 form an equilateral triangle, then

A) a2 = 4b

96.

B) a2 = b

| z 1|2

A)

| z 1|2

97.

C) a2 = 2b

B) -1

C)

D) a2 = 3b

z 1

, then real part of w is

z 1

3

| z |2

D) 0

If z1 , z2 and z3 are any three complex numbers then the fourth vertex of the parallelogram, whose

three vertices taken in order are z1 , z2 , z3 is

A) z1 z2 z3

98.

C)

1

z1 z2 z3

3

D)

1

z1 z2 z3

3

D)

A)

99.

B) z1 z2 z3

n 2

cos

n

4

B)

n 2

sin

n

4

C)

n 2

cos

n

4

n 2

sin

n

4

If w ( 1) be a cube root of unity and 1 w2 1 w4 , then the least positive integral value of n

is

A) 2

B) 3

C) 5

D) 1

100. If A z1 , B z2 be two points such that | z1 z2 | | z1 z2 | and iz1 kz2 ; k R, then an angle

between AB and AB; B being reflection of B in the origin, is

1 2 k

A) tan 2

k 1

1 2 k

B) tan

2

1 k

C) 2 tan 1 k

D) 2 tan 1 k

C) Im (z) < 0

D) Im (z) > 0

A) Re (z) < 0

B) Re (z) > 0

A) -6

103. If z

A)

B) 3

C) 0

D) 2

4

2, then the greatest value of |z| is

z

B) 5 1

C)

5 1

33

D) none of these

IIT-MATHEMATICS-SETII

1 3

1 3

A) sin cos

5

5

B)

1 3

C) 2 cos

5

3

cos 1

2

5

1 3

D) cos

5

1

1

1

105. 1 z1 , z 2 ...........zn 1 , are nth roots of unity the value of 3 z 3 z ....... 3 z is

1

2

n 1

n.3n 1 1

a) n

3 1 2

n.3n 1

1

B) n

3 1

n.3n 1

1

C) n

3 1

D) none of these

34

COMPLEX NUMBERS

KEY

1

10

11

12 13

14

15

AB

16

17

18 19

20

21

22 23

24

25

26

27 28

29

30

31

32

33 34

35

36

37 38

39

40

41

42 43

44

45

46

47

48 49

50

51

52 53

54

55

56

57 58

59

60

61

62

63 64

65

66

67 68

69

70

71

72 73

74

75

35

IIT-MATHEMATICS-SETII

KEY

76

77

78 79

80

81

82 83

84

85

86

87 88

89

90

91

92

93 94

95

96

97 98

36

COMPLEX NUMBERS

SECTION-B

MORE THAN ONE

ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1.

A) 2

2.

C)- 2

B) 1

1

D) none of these

A) a = 1, b = 1

3.

(1 ix ) (1 2ix )

is purely real is

1 ix

B) a = -1, b = 1

C) a = 1, b = -1

D) none of these

a0z4 + a1z3 + a2z2 + a3z + a4 = 0,

where a0, a1, a2, a3 and a4 are real, then

A) z1 , z 2 , z 3 , z 4 are also roots of the equation

B) z1 is equal to at least of z1 , z 2 , z 3 , z 4

C) z1 , z 2 , z 3 , z 4 are also root of the equation

D) none of these

4.

A) + = 1

C) + = -1

5.

B) + = 0

D) the absolute value of the real root is 1

A) z1 + z2 = 0 B) z1 z2 = 1

C) z1 = D) none of these

z

6.

A)

7.

z

z

B) 1

C) z

1 . (2 - ) (2 - 2) + 2 . (3 - ) (3 - 2) + ... + (n - 1) (n - ) (n - 2) is

37

D) none of these

IIT-MATHEMATICS-SETII

A) real

8.

n 2 (n 1) 2

B)

- n +1

4

D) amp z = tan-1 2

B) Re(z) + 2Im(z) = 0 C) = 5

D) none of these

B) z1 z2 z1 z2

C) z1 z2 z1 . z2

D) z1 z2 z1 z2

Let z1, z2 be two complex numbers represented by points on the circle |z| = 1 and z| = 2 respectively

then

A) max 2 z1 z2 = 4 B) min z1 z2 = 1

16.

D) none of these

zi

If z is different from i and z = 1 then z i is

A) z1 z2 z1 z2

15.

D) none of these

C) 1 - 2w2

B) 1 - 2w

A) purely real

C) purely imagniary

14.

C) 3

1 3i

If z = 1 i then

A) Re(z) = 2Im(z)

13.

B) -1

A) 1 + 2 w

12.

B) -1 if n is not a multiple of 3

D) none of these

The value of a4n-1 + a4n-2 + a4n-3 n N and is nonreal fourth root of unity, is

A) 0

11.

D) 0 when n is not a multiple of 3

A) 3 if n is a multiple of 3

C) 2 if n is a multiple of 3

10.

D) none of these

A) 2(-1)n when n is a multiple of 3

C) (-1)n+1 when n is multiple of 3

9.

n ( n 1)2

- n

C)

2

1

C) z2 z 3

D) none of these

ABCD is a square, vertices being taken in the anticlockwise sense. If A represents the complex number

z and the intersection of the diagonals is the origin then

A) B represents the complex number iz

C) B represents the complex number i

D) D represents the complex number - iz

38

COMPLEX NUMBERS

17. If z ( z ) z ( z ) = 0, where a is a complex constant, then z is represented by a point on

A) a string line

18.

B) a circle

C) a parabola

D) none of these

If z1, z2, z3, z4 are the four complex numbers represented by the vertices of a quadrilateral taken in order

z4 z1

such that z1- z4 = z2 - z3 and amp z z 2 then the quadrilateral is a

2

A) rhombus

19.

B) square

C) rectangle

D) a cyclic quadrilateral

If z0, z1 represent points P, Q on the locus z 1 = 1 and the line segment PQ subtends an angle /2 at

the point z = 1 then z1 is equal to

i

B) z 1

0

A) 1 + i (z0 - 1)

20.

B) z1 + z2 = z3 + z4

z2 z4

C) amp z z 2

1

3

z1 z2

D) amp z z 2

3

4

B) z0 z + z0 z = 12

C) z0

D) none of these

+ z0 z = 0

1 1

If z1 - z2 and z1 z2 z z then

1

2

Let z =

1

A) z1 z2

39

D) none of these

z2

If amp 2 z 3i = 0 and z0 = 3 + 4i then

C) z1 . z2 is unimodular

25.

C) z1 z2 = 1

If z1, z2, z3, z4 are represented by the vertices of a rhombus taken in the anticlockwise order then

A) z0 z + z0 z = 12

24.

C) z1 z2 + z2 z3 + z3 z1 = 0 D) none of these

B) z1 z2 = 1

A) z1 - z2 + z3 - z4= 0

23.

B) z1 z2 z3 = 1

Let A, B, C be three collinear points which are such that AB. AC = 1 and the points are represented in

the Argand plane the complex numbers 0, z1, z2 respectively. Then

A) z1z2 = 1

22.

D) i (z0 - 1)

If |z1| = |z2| = |z3| = 1 and z1, z2, z3 are represented by the vertices of an equilateral triangle then

A) z1 + z2 + z3 = 0

21.

C) 1 - i (z0 - 1)

3 i . 1 3i

1 i

D) none of these

, z 1 3i .

2

1 i

3 i

. Then

IIT-MATHEMATICS-SETII

26.

If z1 z2 z1 z2 then

A) amp z1 amp z2

B) amp z1 amp z2

27.

If z1 z2 z1 z2

2

then

z1

A) z is purely real

z1

B) z is purely imaginary

2

C) z1 z2 z 2 z1 0

z1

D) amp z 2

2

28.

z1 = a + ib, z2 = c + id are complex numbers given that z1 = z2 = 1 and R (z1 ) = 0, then a pair of

complex numbers w1 = a + ic and w2 = b + id satisfies (a,b,c,d R

A) w1 = 1

29.

B) w2 = 1

B) modulus = 6

Which of the following are correct for any two complex numbers z1 and z2?

A)

33.

B) z1 + z2 = z1 + z2

D) arg z1 - arg z2 = p/3

A) z1 z2 = z1 z2

C) z1 + z2 = z1 + z2

32.

3

C) arg z = tan-1

4

If the vertices of an equilateral triangle are situated at z = 0, z = z1 and z = z2, then which of the following

are true?

A) z1 = z2

C) z1 - z2 = z1

31.

D) All above

The modulus and the principal argument of the complex number z = +4i are

A) modulus = 13

30.

C) Re (w1 ) = 0

D) z1 - z2 z1 - z2

2z i

z 1 = m represents a circle when m =

B) 1

C) 2

D) 3

If the points z1, z2, z3 are the affixes of vertices of an equilateral triangle, then

1

1

1

A) z z z z z z = 0

1

2

2

3

3

1

2

2

34.

If the imaginary part of the complex number (z - 1) (cos - i sin ) + (z - 1)-1 (cos + i sin ) is zero,

40

COMPLEX NUMBERS

then

A) z - 1= 1

35.

B) arg (z - 1) =

C) arg (z) =

D) z = 1

If P (x) and Q(x) be complex polynomials and let f(x) = P(x3) + xQ(x3). Suppose f(x) is divisible by x2

+ x + 1, then

A) P(x) is divisible by (x - 1) but Q(x) is not divisible by x - 1

B) Q(x) is divisible by (x - 1) but P(x) is not divisible by x - 1

C) both P(X) and Q(x) divisible by x - 1

D) f(x) is divisible by x - 1

36.

If z is the affix of a moving point in argand plane then the equation z 2 z 2 2 z z z = 0 represents

a

A) straight line

37.

B) conic

D) parabola

Equation of the line in argand plane joining two points with affixes z1 and z2 must be

A) z = tz1 + (1 - t)z2, t R

C)

38.

C) byperbola

z1

z2

z1 1

=0

z2 1

z z1

B) arg z z is purely real

2 1

1

D) z z1 z z2 z z2 z z1

A) a circle whose centre is origin and whose radius is p

B) a parabola whose vertex is (0, 0)

C) an annular region between two concentric circles centred at (0, 0) and having radii 2p and 3p

D) an ellipse of semi-axes p and 2p

39.

40.

If z0 =

1 i

2

22

2n

then the value of the product 1 z0 1 z0 1 z0 ... 1 z0 must be

2

B) (1 + i) if n > 1

C) (1 + i) if n = 1

D) 0

If x, y a, b are real numbers such that (x + iy)1/5 = a + ib, and P = x/a - y/b. then

B) (a + b) is a factor of P

D) a - ib is a factor of P

If z1, z2,z3 be the affixes of vertices of an equilateral triangle and z0 be the affix of the circum centre then

A) z0 = z1 + z2 + z3

41

A) 2n 1

A) (a - b) is a factor of P

C) a + ib is a factor of p

41.

B) z0 - z1 = z0 - z2 = z0 - z3

IIT-MATHEMATICS-SETII

C) z02 z1 z2 z2 z3 z3 z1

42.

D) z0 =

z1 z2 z3

3

A) x1 + x2 + ...+ xn-1 = -1

C) (1 - x1) (1 - x2) ... (1 - xn-1) = n

B) x0 x1 x2 + ...............xn-1 = 1

D) x1 + x2 +x3.... xn-1 = 1.

42

COMPLEX NUMBERS

KEY

1

A,C

16

10

11

B,C A,C C

A,B A,B,C

17

18 19

20

22 23

24

25

26

29

A,D

C,D A,C

31

32

33 34

35

36

37 38

39

40

41

43

21

12 13

27 28

14

15

30

IIT MATHEMATICS

FUNCTIONS

44

FUNCTION

NUMBER SYSTEM

(i)

Natural Numbers

The set of numbers {1, 2, 3, 4, ..... } are called natural numbers, and is denoted by N.

i.e., N = {1, 2, 3, 4, ..... }

(ii) Integers

The set of numbers {....., 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, .....} are called integers and the set is denoted

by I or Z.

where we represent;

(a) Positive integers by I+ = {1, 2, 3, 4, .....} = Natural numbers.

(b) Negative integers by I = {....., 4, 3, 2, 1}

(c) Non-negative integers = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ....} = Whole numbers

(d) Non-positive integers = {....., 3, 2, 1, 0}

(iii) Rational Numbers

a

, where a and b are integers, b 0 are called rational numbers

b

and their set is denoted by Q.

i.e., Q

Note:

a

such that a, b I and b 0 and HCF of a, b is 1.

b

a

(where b = 1)

b

1

e.g., Q 0.3333....

3

Those values which neither terminate nor could be expressed as recurring decimals are irrational numbers. i.e., it can not be expressed as

a

form, and are denoted by Qc (i.e., compleb

ment of Q).

e.g.,

2 , q 2,

1 3 2

1

,

,

, 3, 1 3,

, ... etc.

2

2 2

3

45

IIT MATHEMATICS

The set which contain both rational and irrational are called real number and is denoted by R.

i.e., R = Q Q c

Note:

5 3 7 1 1 1

, , , , , , ....., 2 , 3 , , .....}

6 4 9 3 7 5

R = {..... 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, .....,

As from above definitions;

N I Q R , it could be shown that real numbers can be expressed on number line with

respect to origin as;

2 2

INTERVALS

The set of numbers between any two real numbers is called interval. The following are the

types of interval.

(a) Closed Interval:

[a, b] = {x : a x b}

(b) Open Interval:

(a, b) or ]a, b[ = {x : a < x < b}

(c) Semi open or semi closed interval:

[a, b[ or [a, b) = {x: a x < b}

]a, b] or (a, b] = {x: a < x b}

The absolute value (or modulus) of a real number x (written |x|) is a non negative real number

that satisfies the conditions.

| x | = x if x 0

| x | = x if x < 0

Example: | 2 | = 2, | 5 | = 5, | 0 | = 0

From the definition it follows that the relationship x |x| holds for any x.

The properties of absolute values are

(1) the inequality | x | means that x ; if > 0

(2) the inequality | x | means that x or x .

(3) | x y| |x| + |y|;

(4) | x y| | | x | | y ||;

46

FUNCTION

(5) |xy| = | x | | y |;

x

|x|

=

(y 0).

y

|y|

(6)

INEQUALITIES

The following are some very useful points to remember:

a b either a < b or a = b

a < b a > b i.e., inequality sign reverses if both sides are multiplied

by a negative number

a

a

DEFINITION OF FUNCTION

Let A and B be two non-empty sets. Then a function f from set A to set B is a rule which

associates elements of set A to elements of set B such that

(i)

Terms such as map (or mapping), correspondence are used as synonyms for function. If

f

f is a function from a set A to set B, then we write f : A B or A

B. which is read as

Example 1:

Let A = {2, 4, 6, 8} and B = {s, t, u, v, w} be two sets and let f1, f2, f3 and f4 be rules

associating elements of A to elements of B as shown in the following figures.

2

4

6

8

47

f1

s

t

u

v

w

f2

2

4

6

8

s

t

u

v

w

IIT MATHEMATICS

f3

2

4

6

8

s

t

u

v

w

2

4

6

8

f4

s

t

u

v

w

Now see that f1 is not function from set A to set B, since there is an element 6 A which is not

associated to any element of B, but f2 and f3 are the function from A to B, because under f2 and

f3 each elements in A is associated to a unique element in B. But f4 is not function from A to B

because an elements 8 A is associated to two elements u and w in B.

Domain : Set A is called domain of f i.e. Set of those elements from which functions is to be

defined.

Co-Domain : Here set B is called co-domain of function.

Range : Set of images of each element in A, is called range of f.

Note: Range Co-domain

General Exponential Function

If a > 0, a 1 then the function defined by f(x) = ax, x R is called an Exponential Function

with base a.

Y

x

y=2

y = 4 y = 10

y = 10x y = 4 y = 2x

Domain : R

Range : R+

a>1

Nature : one-one

0<a<1

Logarithmic Function

If a > 0, a 1, then the function y = loga x, x R+(set of positive real numbers) is called the

logarithmic Function with base a.

48

FUNCTION

Y

y = log2x

y = log4x

y = log10x

Domain : R +

Range : R

Nature: one-one

y = log1/10x

y = log1/4x

y = log1/2x

Rational Function

The function which can be written as the quotient of two polynomial function is said to be a

rational function.

If

Q (x) = b0 + b1x + b2x2 + . . . + bmxm

P( x )

Examples:

f(x) =

7x 4 x 2 2

x 2 4x 3

is a rational function which is defined for all real values of x except 1 and

3.

Constant Function

Let c be a fixed real number. The function f : R R (function f from R to R) is said to be a

constant function if

f(x) = c for every x R

Clearly, domain of f = R and range of f = {c}

Identity Function

A map f : R R is said to be an identity function, iff

f(x) = x, x R.

The identity function is sometimes also called the function x

Domain of the identity function = R

Range of the identity function = R.

49

IIT MATHEMATICS

y y = x, x > 0

y = x, x < 0

Modulus Function

f(x) = |x| =

x , x 0

x, x 0

Graph is symmetrical with respect to y-axis.

y

y = 1, x > 0

y = 1, x > 0

y

Signum Function

1, x 0

|x|

f (x) =

, x 0 , or f(x) = 1, x 0

0, x 0

x

Greatest Integer Function

A function is said to be greatest integer function if it is of the form of f(x) = [x] = integer equal

to or less than x.

Examples:

[3.7] = 3, [3 2] = 4, [5] = 5 etc.

50

FUNCTION

y

3

2

1

-1

-2

01

2 3

-1

-2

-3

(i)

x 1 < [x] x

(iii) If f(x) = [x + n], where n I then f (x) = n + [x]

(iv) x = [x] + {x} where [.] and {.} denotes the integral and fractional part of x respectively

0; x I

(v) [x] + [ x] = 1; x I

0; x I

(vi) {x} + { x} = 1; x I

Fractional Part of x

f(x) = x [x], x R

i.e., f(x) = {x}

x 1, x [ 1,0)

x,

x [0,1)

= x 1, x [1,2)

0,

xZ

y

(0, 1)

-2

-1

0 1

This is a many one function with period 1.

51

IIT MATHEMATICS

ALGEBRA OF FUNCTIONS

Given function f : D1 R and g : D2 R, we describe function f + g, f g, fg and f/g as

follows

f + g : D R is a function defined by (f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x),

f g : D R is a function defined by (f g) (x) = f(x) g(x)

fg : D R is a function defined by (fg) (x) = f(x) g(x)

f

f

f ( x)

: C R is a function defined by ( ) (x) = g( x ) , g(x) 0,

g

g

where C = {x D : g (x) 0} and D D1 D2

COMPOSITE FUNCTION

Consider two functions

f : X Y,,

g :Y Z

Domain of gof (x) i.e. g{f(x)}

= {x : x Dom f, f(x) Dom g}

Domain of fog (x) i.e f g(x)

= {x : x Dom g, g(x) Dom f)

f(x)

Z

g (f(x))

h h = gof

Let f : D R be a real function such that x D as x D. Then f is called an even

function

if

f(x) = f(x) for every x D and an odd function if f(- x) = f(x) x D. Graph of an

even function is symmetrical about y-axis i.e., in I and II (or III and IV) quadrants

always, whereas graph of an odd function is always symmetrical in diagonally opposite quadrants.

PERIODIC FUNCTION

52

FUNCTION

Definition:

A function f(x) is said to be periodic function if, there exists a positive real number T, such that,

f(x + T) = f(x), x Domain.

Then, f(x) is periodic with period T, where T is least positive value.

A function is said to be periodic function if its each value is repeated after a definite interval.

Here the least positive value of T is called the fundamental period of the function.

Clearly f(x) = f(x + T) = f(x + 2T) = f(x + 3T) = . . .

For example, sinx, cosx and tanx are periodic functions with fundamental period 2 , 2 and

respectively..

(i)

(a) c. f(x) is periodic with period T.

(b) f(x + c) is periodic with period T.

(c) f(x) c is periodic with period T..

where c is any constant not equal to zero.

T

where; k, c, d constant, c, k 0

(iii) If f(x), g(x) are periodic functions with periods T1, T2 respectively then; we have

h(x) = af(x) bg (x) has period as,

(1)

LCM of {T1, T2}; if (x) and g(x) can not be interchanged by adding a least

positive number less than the LCM of {T1, T2}.

(2)

k; if f(x) and g(x) can be interchanged by adding a least positive number

k (k < LCM of {T1, T2}).

CLASSIFICATION OF FUNCTION

The following are the different kinds of function

1.

If each element in the domain of a function has a distinct image in the co-domain the function

is said to be one-one function and is also known as Injective mapping.

e.g. f : R R+ given by y = ex

g : R R, g(x) = 3x 7

are one - one functions.

53

IIT MATHEMATICS

or, f : A B is one - one

a b f(a) f(b) for all a, b A

f(a) = f(b) a = b for all a, b A

2.

Let , f : X Y be a function. If each element in the co-domain Y has at least one pre-image

in the domain X i.e. Range f = Co domain, then f is called onto.

Onto function are also called surjective and if function be both one-one and onto then function

is called bijective.

or, f : A B is a surjection iff for each b B a A such that f(a) = b .

e.g. If f : R+ R is defined by y = log2x, then f(x) is Onto function.

3.

Into Function:

If there exist one or more than one element in the Co-domain Y which is not an image of any

element in the domain X. Then f is into.

In other words f : A B is an into function if it is not an onto function.

e.g. Let f : R R is defined by y = x2 + 1, then f(x) is an into function. But when f : R R+

is defined by y = x2 + 1, then f(x) is not onto function.

4.

Many-One Function:

If there are two or more than two elements of domain having the same image then f(x) is called

Many - One mapping.

e.g. f : R R+

g : R R+

f(x) = x2 + 4

g(x) = x8 + x4 +x2 + 4

Note:

(i)

= f(y).

e.g y = sin x, y = cos x, y = tan x, y = x2, y = x4, . . . . . are many one functions.

(ii) Every even function is Many - One

(iii) Every periodic function is Many - One

INVERSE OF A FUNCTION

Let f : X Y be a function defined by y = f(x) such that f is both oneone and onto, then

there exists a unique function g : Y X such that for each y Y, g(y) = x y = f(x). The

function g so defined is called the inverse of f and in general denoted by f 1.

54

FUNCTION

Further, if g is the inverse of f, then f is the inverse of g and the two functions f and g are said

to be the inverse of each other. For the inverse of a function to exist, the function must be one

one and onto.

Some standard functions are given below along with their inverse:

1.

defined by f(x) = x2 defined by f 1 (x) = x

2.

3.

f : , [1, 1]

2 2

f 1: [1, 1] ,

2 2

defined by f(x) = cosx

GRAPHICAL TRANSFORMATIONS

Few graphical transformations, which are pivotal in understading the pictorial representation

of a function are given below. Students are advised to go through them and understand.

F

|f(x)| = f(x) if f(x) 0 and |f(x)| = f(x) if f(x) < 0. It means that the graph of f(x) and |f(x)|

would coincide if f(x) 0 and the portions where f(x) < 0 would get inverted in the upward

direction.

F

It is clear that, f(|x|) = f(x), x 0 and f(|x|) = f(x), x < 0. Thus f(|x|) would be an even

function. Graphs of f(|x|) and f(x) would be identical in the first and the fourth quadrants (as x

0) and as such the graph of f(|x|) would be symmetrical about the yaxis (as (|x|) is even).

F

55

Drawing the graph of |y| = f(x) from the known graph of y = f(x)

IIT MATHEMATICS

Clearly |y| 0. If f(x) < 0, graph of |y| = f(x) would not exist. And if f(x) 0, |y| = f(x) would

y

y = |f(x)|

x

O

y = f(x)

56

FUNCTION

g

i

v

e

y = f(x). Hence graph of |y| = f(x) would exist only in the regions where f(x) 0 and will be

reflected about xaxis only in those regions. Regions where f(x) < 0 will be neglected.

y

|y| = f(x)

x

O

y = f(x)

Full lines show the graph of |y| = f(x) and dotted lines depict the corresponding graph of y =

f(x).

F

Drawing the graph of y = f(x + a), a R from the known graph of y = f(x)

y = f(x)

x0 - |a|

x0

x0 + |a|

x < x0, and a < 0 x > x0. That mean x0 and x0 a would give us same abscissa for f(x) and

f(x + a) respectively.

As such for a > 0, graph of f(x + a) can be obtained simply by translating the graph of f(x) in the

negative xdirection through a distance a units. If a < 0, graph of f(x + a) can be obtained by

translating the graph of f(x) in the positive xdirection through a distance a units.

F

y = a f(x), a > 1

y = f(x)

y = af(x), 0 < a < 1

x

It is clear that the corresponding points (points with same x coordinates) would have their

ordinates in the ratio of 1 : a.

F

57

IIT MATHEMATICS

y

y = f(x)

y = f(ax), 1 < a

x

x0

a

Clearly if 0 < a < 1 then x > x0 and f(x) will stretch by 1/a units against yaxis, and if a > 1, x

< x0, then f(x) will compress by a units against yaxis.

F

For drawing the graph of y = f1(x) we have to first of all find the interval in which the function

is bijective (invertible). Then take the reflection of y = f(x) (within the invertible region) about

the

line

1

y = x. The reflected part would give us the graph of y = f (x).

e.g. let us draw the graph of y = sin1 x. We know that y = f(x) = sin x is invertible

2 2

2 2

Y

(0, /2)

(1, / 2)

y = sin1 x

y=x

(/2, 1)

(/2, 0)

(0, 1)

y = sinx

O(1, 0)

/ 2, 1)

(/2, 0)

(0, 1)

58

FUNCTION

59

IIT MATHEMATICS

ASSIGNMENT

60

FUNCTION

WORKED OUT

ILLUSTRATIONS

ILLUSTRATION : 01

A and B are two sets having 3 and 4 elements respectively and having 2 elements in common. The

number of relations which can be defined from A to B is

(a) 25

(b)210-1

(c) 212 1

Solution :

The number of elements in A x B is 12. Hence the number of subsets of A x B is 212.

ILLUSTRATION : 02

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Solution :

f x

1

1 cos 6 x tan 4 x. The period of cos6x is 2 and the period of tan 4 x is

2

6

3

4

3

4

ILLUSTRATION : 03

x

1

The domain of the function f x sin log 3 is

3

(a) 1,9

(b) 1,9

(c) 9,1

(d) 3,9

Solution :

x

The function f is defined only if 1 log 3 1 . This inequality is possible only if i . e .

3

1 x

3 1 x 9.

3 3

ILLUSTRATION : 04

61

IIT MATHEMATICS

The domain of the function f x

(a) (1, 4)

(b) (-2, 4)

log 0.3 x 1

x 2 2x 8

is

(c) (2,4)

Solution :

Since for , 0 a 1 , log a x 0 for x 1 so log 0.3 x 1 0 for x 2. Also x 2 2 x 8 0

if and only if x 2,4 Hence the domain of the given function is (2,4)

ILLUSTRATION : 05

1

x 1

x 2

The domain of definition of f x log 0.4

is

x 5 x 36

(a) x : x 0, x 6

(b) x : x 0, x 1, x 6

(c) x : x 1, x 6

(d) x : x 1, x 6

Solution :

x 1

x 1

tobe defined. We must have 0

1, which is true if x 1.

x 5

x 5

Morever,

1

is defined for x 6,6 . Hence the domain of f is

x 36

2

ILLUSTRATION : 06

The function defined by is

(a) both one-one and onto

(c) onto but not one- one

Solution :

(d) one- one but not onto

Since i.e. or so is onto. More ever the function is one-one on so if then which implies that

which implies that The real solution of the last equation is given by . Hence is one-one.

ILLUSTRATION : 07

Part of the domain of the function lying in the interval is

1 5

(a) , ,6

6 3 3

1 5

(b) , ,6

6 3 3

1

(c) , 6

6

(d)None of these

Solution :

The function

1

0, 6 35 x 6 x20

2

or

62

FUNCTION

cos x

1

0, 6 35 x 6 x 2 0 i.e.

2

1

1

cos x , 6 x 1 6 x 0 or cos x , 6 x 1 6 x )

2

2

1 5

These inequalities are satisfied if x , , 6 .

6 3 3

ILLUSTRATION : 08

1

Given f x | x | x and g x

1

x | x | then

(c)f and g have the same domain

(d) domf = and dom g =

Solution :

domf x :| x | x and domg x : x | x | Thus domf = R- (the set of negative real numbers) and domg = .

ILLUSTRATION : 09

Which of the following functions is not onto

(a) f : R R, f x 3x 4

(b) f : R R , f x x 2 2

(c) f : R R , f x x

Solution :

y4

The function is onto as for R, f

y . The function R+R+, f x x is onto as for R+,

3

ILLUSTRATION : 10

Which of the following functions is non periodic

(a) f x x x

(c) f x

8

8

1 cos x 1 cos x

1 if x is a rational number

(b) f x

0 if x is an irrational number

(d) cos x

Solution : (d)

The function in (a) is periodic with period 1 and the function in (b) is also periodic since

4

f x r f x for every rational r. The function in (c) is equal to

and thus has

| sin x |

period .

63

IIT MATHEMATICS

All are periodic. In b there is no period .

SECTION-A

SINGLE ANSWER

TYPE QUESTIONS

1.

A) [1, )

2.

x 1 6 x is

B) (-, 6)

C) [1, 6]

1

The domain of definition of the function y = log (1 x) x 2 is

10

A) (-3, -2) excluding 2.5

C) [-2, 1) excluding 0

3.

D) none of these

a x ax

A) f(x) = x

a a x

4.

a x 1

B) f(x) = x

a 1

6.

D)f(x)= log2 x x 2 1

x2

. Then

x3

B) f is one-one

D)one-to-one but not onto

e | x| e x

Let f:RR be a function defined by f(x) = x

. Then

e ex

A) f is both one-one and onto

A) f(x) = x2, x R

7.

a x 1

C) f(x) = x x

a 1

A) f is bijective

C) f is onto

5.

D) none of these

B) f(x) = x3, xR

A) f(x) = {x}, the fractional part of the number x

B) f(x) = cot(x+7)

sin 2 x

cos 2 x

D) f(x) = x+sinx

8.

10 x 10 x

is

10 x 10 x

64

FUNCTION

A) log10(2-x)

9.

If f(x) =

B)

1

log 10 (2 x 1)

2

C) (1, )

B) (-, -1)

B) [0, 1)

D) (0, )

C) (0, 1]

D) [-1, 1]

B) {728, 1474}

C) {0, 728}

D) none of these

12.

If f(x) = sin2x + x [x], where [x] is the integral part of x, then f(x) is

A) a periodic function with period

B) a periodic function with period 2

C) a periodic function with period 1

D) not a periodic function

13.

A) many-one onto

B) many-one into

B) f(1+x)=f(1-x)

1

1 1 4 log 2 x

2

(x y) y

4

B)

x2 y2

4

C) [-1, 1]

C)

x2 y2

4

D) R [- 20 , 20 ]

D)

x2 y2

2

B) (1/e, e)

C) (1/e, 1)

D) (1/e, 2)

C) (0, 1]

D) (0, -1)

sin x

f

cos ecx then find the range of f(x)

1 sin x

A) (- -1) U [1 )

65

1

1 1 4 log 2 x

2

D) none of these

A) [0, 1]

B) [-1, 0]

If f(x+2y, x-2y) = 4xy, then f(x, y) =

A) (1, e)

19.

D) none of these

x2 x 1

Let F:RR defined by f(x) = 2

, then the set of values of a for which f is onto is

x ax 5

A)

18.

C) f(x+1) = f(x-1)

B)

C) 2 x ( x 1)

17.

D) one-one into

A)

16.

C) one-one onto

A) f(-x) = f(x)

15.

1

2x

log

4

2x

A) [728, 1474]

14.

D)

If [x] denotes the integral part of x, then the domain of f(x) = cos1(x+|x|) is

A) (0, 1)

11.

C)

1 x

, the domain of f-1(x) contains

1 x

A) (-,)

10.

1

1 x

log 10

2

1 x

B) (0, 1)

IIT MATHEMATICS

20.

f (sin x ) 1

A) [2, 5/3)

21.

B) (2, 5/3)

C) (2, 5/3]

D) [2, 5/3]

f(x) = 3+2sinx

Find the interval in which h(x) attain maximum value such that h(x) = 1+[f(x)] if

A)

6 2

22.

B)

6 2

C)

6 2

x

2

2

D) [0, p/6]

2x 1

3 tan x

e

is [a, b]. Find the value of a+b.

3

1/ 2

1

f(x) = (1 3x ) 3 sin

A) 1

23.

y=

sin 2 x sin x 1

sin 2 x sin x 1

A) (1/3, 3)

24.

C) 9

B) 17/15

D) 10

n 2 1

n 2 1

C) 1/15

B) 4

D) 2/15

x R then period of f(x) is

C) 8

D) 12

B) odd

C) constant

B) even

C) constant

B) even

C) constant

x(x-4)

A) 3/2

31.

B) 8

A) odd

30.

D) (1/3, 1/2)

A) odd

29.

B) (1, 3)

A) even

28.

C) (1/3, 1)

A) 2

27.

D) 2

If the period of f(x) = |sinnx| + |cosnx| is p/8 then find the value of

A) 15/17

26.

C) 1

Period of f(x) = |sinx| + sinx is n find the value of g(n) if g(x) = |cosx| + [x]

A) 7

25.

B) 2/3

B) 2/3

C) 1/3

f 1 (5 5 ) 1

f 1 (5 5 ) 1

D) 3

f(x+y, x-y) = xy then the Arithmetic mean of f(x, y) and f(y, x) will exist when

66

FUNCTION

A) x, yR

32.

B) xI, yI

3f(x) + 5f(1/x) =

A) 8

33.

36.

3|sinx| = x +

B) 1

1

x

C) 1/3

D) 1/4

C) 1

D) zero

A) many one and onto

B) many one and into

C) one-one and onto

D) one-one and into

1 x

3x x3

If f(x) = log

then f(g(x)) is equal to

and g(x) =

1 x

1 3x 2

B) [f(x)]3

If f(x) = 64x3 +

A) f(a) = 12

38.

D) 4

No. of solutions

B) 3

A) f(3x)

37.

C) 1/8

f(x) = (1+b2) x2 + 2bx + 1 and m(b) the minimum value of f(x) for a given value of b as b raises then the

maximum value of m(b) is

A) 2

35.

D) xN, yN

R then f(3) =

B) 7

A) 1/2

34.

1

3x x(0)

x

C) xI, yR

|x|+|y|=4; y=

C) 3f(x)

D) f(x)

1

1

= 3 then

3 and a, b are the roots of 4x +

x

x

B) f(b) = 11

C) f(a) = f(b)

D) none of these

1

1

x then no.of values of x are four which satisfies both equation then x lie in the

2

x

interval

A) [-4, 4]

39.

A) {1, 2, 3}

40.

B) (-4, 4)

7 x

Px 3

7 x

B) {1, 2, 3, 4}

C) (1, 4)

D) [-1, 4]

C) {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

D) {2, 3, 4}

C x 3

A) 4

B) 2

C) 3

D) none

41.

Let f(x) = 1+x2+x3 and x = y+1. Let g be a function such that g(y) = f(x) and f be a function f(q) =

g(cos2q). Then g(y) and f(q) are respectively

A) y3 + 4y2 + 5y + 3

8cos6q + 4cos4q + 1

B) y3 4y2 + 5y + 1

8cos2q + 2cosq + 1

3

2

C) y 4y + 5y + 1

8cos2q - 2cosq + 1

D) y3 4y2 5y 1

8cos2q - 2cosq - 1

42.

67

IIT MATHEMATICS

2

A) f(x) = sin x

B) f(x) = sinx

C) f(x) = x2

D) f and g cannot be determined

43.

The domain of y = 1/ | x | x

A) [0, )

44.

B) (-, 0)

C) (-, 0]

D) [1, )

A) [-1/3, ]

45.

g(x) =

g(x) = |x|

g(x) = |x|

B) [-1/3, 0]

C) [-1/3, 1]

D) [1/2, 1]

1

If f(x) is a polynomial satisfying f(x).f(1/x) = f(x) + f(1/x), and f(3) = 1 2 x 3sin

3x 1

28, then

2

f(4) is given by

A) 63

B) 65

C) 67

D) 68

46.

Which of the following sets of ordered pairs define a one to one function?

A) R = {(x, y); x2 + y2 = 2} on R

B) A = {1, 2, 3}, B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} and R = {(x, y); 5x+2y is a prime number on A

C) A = {1,2,3,4}, B = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7} and R = {(x,y): y = x2 3x + 3} on A

D) none of these

47.

A)

48.

(1 sin x )

cos x (1 cos ecx)

A) (0, )

49.

B) [0, ]

C) [0, )

D) [0, 2]

B) [1, 4)

C) (-, 3)

D) none of these

C) 62

D) none of these

2t 3

is

6

B) 6

The set G onto which the set F is mapped if y = log3x and F = (3, 27) is

A) G = (0, 3)

52.

D) cos(sinx) + cos(cosx)

x2

is

x4 1

A) 2

51.

C) sin2x + cos3x

A) (-,4)

50.

B) |sinx|+|cosx|

B) G = (1, 3)

C) G = (1, 4)

D) G = (0, 2)

C) 0, 3 3

D) none of these

2

x 2 is

Range of f(x) = 3tan

9

A) 3 3, 3 3

B) 0, 3

68

FUNCTION

53.

Let f: R 0, defined by f(x) = tan1 (x2 + x + a), then the set of values of a for which f is onto is

2

A) [0, )

54.

1

C) ,

4

B) [2, 1]

D) none of these

x

x

x

x

x

+ sin 2 + tan 3 + + sin n 1 tan n is a periodic function with period k,

2

2

2

2

2

then k =

A) 1

55.

56.

1

If af (x) + bf = x 1, x0 and ab, then f(2) =

x

a

a b2

B)

59.

C) f(y)<f(x)<f(z)

C) (0, )

B) R {0}

D) f(y)<f(z)<f(x)

B) 2 x 2

3 x 1 +

D)

Domain of

3 x

4x x 2 is

B) R\(0, 4)

3

A) 0,

2

D) (-, 0)

2 2x x 2 is

3 x2+

A) R\[0, 4]

69

D) none of these

D) neither one-one nor onto

C) 1

62.

a 2b

a2 b2

If f:RR and f(x) = ax + sinx is one-one and onto, then the set of values of a is

A) 2

61.

C)

B) f(x) <f(y)<f(z)

A) one-one and onto

C) not one-one but onto

A) (-,)

60.

a 2b

a2 b2

Let f: {x,y,z} {1,2,3} be a one-one mapping such that only one of the following three statements is

true and remaining two are false f(x) 2, f(y) = 2, f(z) 1, then

A) f(x) > f(y) > f(z)

58.

D) 1/2n

A) f(x) is an odd function

B) f(x) is an even function

C) f(x) is neither odd nor even function

D) f(0) = 0

A)

57.

C) 2n

B) 2

B) (0, 3)

C) (0, 4)

D) [0, 14]

C) ,

2

3

D) 0,

2

3 x

is

x

IIT MATHEMATICS

63.

64.

3

The domain of the function f (x) = 0, .

2

1

,1

A) 1,

B) [1, 1]

1 1

,

C) ,

2 2

1

,1

D)

2

A) [1, 2) [3, )

65.

A) R {1, 2}

67.

69.

D) none of these

x 1 5 x is

B) (, 5)

C) (1, 5)

D) [1, 5]

C) R {1, 2, 3}

D) (3, +) {1, 2}

log 2 ( x 3)

is

x 2 3x 2

B) (2, +)

2 | x |

The domain of the function f (x) = cos 4 +[log(3 x)]1 is

B) [6, 2) (2, 3]

C) [6, 3]

D) [6, 3)

A) 2n , 2n

6

6

B) 2n , 2n

6

6

C) 2n , 2n

6

6

D) 2n , 2n

6

6

A) (2, 3)

70.

C) [1, 2] [3, )

A) [6, 3\{2}

68.

B) (1, 2) [3, )

A) [1, )

66.

( x 1)( x 3)

is given by

( x 2)

B( [2, 3]

3

A) , 2 (2, 3) (3, )

2

1

C) ,

2

C) (2, 3]

log

1

x 2

x2 5x 6

D) [2, 3)

is

3

B) ,

2

D) None of these

70

- Complex numbersUploaded byAnant Kumar
- MathematicsUploaded byPrince SlankamAdeyemi Kamar'deen Adefajo
- 216c08Uploaded byLouis Guy
- Quantitative Aptitude Questions SetUploaded byapi-3736964
- Iit 4 UnlockedUploaded byPrajwal Kumar
- Iit 1 Unlocked MathsUploaded byPrajwal Kumar
- MathematicsUploaded byAMIN BUHARI ABDUL KHADER
- Complex ReviewUploaded bydevendra416
- Yearly Lesson Plan MT 954 Term 1Uploaded byAileen Beh Chik Heang
- 461hw3solUploaded byDhelia
- Communication Systems 4Th Edition Simon Haykin With Solutions ManualUploaded byTayyab Naseer
- Functions of a Complex Variable[1]Uploaded bymzejum4519
- trigo slUploaded byMadhu Sharma
- Iit 3 UnlockedUploaded byPrajwal Kumar
- Objective TestUploaded byOP Gupta
- Aero ComplexUploaded byChegrani Ahmed
- 10-Maths-CBSE-Sample-Papers-2017.pdfUploaded byAnubhav Deshwal
- IITJEEPCMUploaded byvineetthesuperman
- question bank complex numberp1_answ.rtfUploaded bySivagami Saminathan
- M_IMO_60-99.pdfUploaded byChai Usajai Usajai
- 1 coordinate geometry circles 1Uploaded byapi-320022467
- A BREAK THROUGH : NO MORE PI FOR CIRCLEUploaded bySushil
- FP1 Chapter 1 _ Complex NumbersUploaded byHatem Abdelnabi
- SteelSquaresAndTheirUses SUploaded bypastorjmcgouirk
- Mathematics-General-II.pdfUploaded bySaba Khalid
- sigma-complex9-2009-1.pdfUploaded bymvjayaram007
- AIME HandoutUploaded byhuge enormous
- Calculus, Complex NumbersUploaded byChery-an Plet
- ComplexNumbers (1)Uploaded byChin Munez
- Complex NumbersUploaded byPatrick Moran

- regents (1)Uploaded byZol Ibrahim
- Mathematics-Form 3-Chapter 2 Polygons II By KelvinUploaded byKelvin
- 588208Uploaded byMurali
- 3. Plane and Solid GeometryUploaded byOnline Educator
- Theorems and Postulates for GeometryUploaded bymajji satish
- Chain SurveyingUploaded byBiswabandan Satpathy
- Math Syllabus Igcse 0580-2014Uploaded byRameeja Mohideen
- 1.Medial TriangleUploaded byuthso roy
- UntitledUploaded bywildmentor_boy
- ccg help videosUploaded byapi-228776201
- Viktor v. Prasolov - Problems in Plane and Solid Geometry (Vol. 2, Solid Geometry) - 239pUploaded byvitorres
- Theorem 7Uploaded byterezki
- sharygin 2019Uploaded bymathlinks1990
- 8th Maths Sample Paper Term-IIUploaded byWillSmith
- van de walle black line mastersUploaded byapi-281272453
- MYGEOMETERYUploaded byAneesh Raghavan
- cyclic_quad.pdfUploaded bymaraujo68
- GeometryUploaded byarchumeenabalu
- Tessellations Glide ReflectionsUploaded byShashank Sharma
- ConstructionsUploaded bybinu_praveen
- 2015_smo_booklet.pdfUploaded byMartin Martin Martin
- Modern GeometryUploaded byMitch Lim
- IMO Questions Part 5 (2000-2009)Uploaded bydigitalpapers
- Maths FundamentalsUploaded bysrkadali
- QUADRILATERALS.docxUploaded byJohn Elvin Calisay
- PRESENTATION ON QUADRILATERALUploaded bymani
- Euclid's Elements. Introduction to Proofs - Roy SmithUploaded byRon Medina
- PAPER_9Uploaded bySayan Kumar Khan
- Review for QuizUploaded byAnonymous ne7Ihnr
- Chapter 13 Geometry 13_NCM10A_94662Uploaded byyddap

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.