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You are on page 1of 6

October 9, 2013

Slide 1 Objective

The Objectives of this lecture is as follows. First

1. Have a deeper understanding of laminar and turbulent flow in pipes and the analysis of

fully developed flow

2. Calculate the major and minor losses associated with pipe flow in piping networks and

determine the pumping power requirements

3. Understand the different velocity and flow rate measurement techniques and learn their

advantages and disadvantages

Slide 2 Introduction

Average velocity in a pipe Recall - because of the no-slip condition, the velocity at the walls

of a pipe or duct flow is zero We are often interested only in Vavg , which we usually call just V

(drop the subscript for convenience) Keep in mind that the no-slip condition causes shear stress

and friction along the pipe walls

Slide 3 Introduction

For pipes of constant diameter and incompressible flow Vavg stays the same down the pipe,

even if the velocity profile changes

Why? Conservation of Mass

Slide 4 Introduction

For pipes with variable diameter, m

is still the same due to conservation of mass, but

V 1 6= V 2

Slide 5 Laminar and Turbulent Flows

Laminar, characterized by smooth streamlines and highly ordered motion, and turbulent in

the second case, where it is characterized by velocity fluctuations and highly disordered motion.

The transition from laminar to turbulent flow does not occur suddenly; rather, it occurs over

some region in which the flow fluctuates between laminar and turbulent flows before it becomes

fully turbulent. Most flows encountered in practice are turbulent. Laminar flow is encountered

when highly viscous fluids such as oils flow in small pipes or narrow passages.

Laminar flow: Steady. can be 1,2,3 D. Regular and pedictable. Analytical solutions are possible.

Occurs at low Re.

Turbulent flow: unsteady. Always 3d. Chaotic. Analytical solution not possible. Occurs at high

Re

Slide 6 Laminar and Turbulent Flows

Critical Reynolds number (Recr ) for flow in a round pipe Re < 2300 laminar 2300 Re

4000 transitional Re > 4000 turbulent

1

Note that these values are approximate. For a given application, Recr depends upon Pipe

roughness Vibrations Upstream fluctuations, disturbances (valves, elbows, etc. that may disturb

the flow)

Slide 7 Laminar and Turbulent Flows

For non-round pipes, define the hydraulic diameter Dh = 4Ac/P; Ac = cross-section area;

P = wetted perimeter

Example: open channel

Ac = 0.15 * 0.4 = 0.06m2

P = 0.15 + 0.15 + 0.5 = 0.8m

Dont count free surface, since it does not contribute to friction along pipe walls!

Dh = 4Ac/P = 4*0.06/0.8 = 0.3m

What does it mean? This channel flow is equivalent to a round pipe of diameter 0.3m (approximately).

Slide 8 The Entrance Region

Consider a round pipe of diameter D. The flow can be laminar or turbulent. In either case,

the profile develops downstream over several diameters called the entry length Lh. Lh/D is a

function of Re.

Slide 9 Fully Developed Pipe Flow

Comparison of laminar and turbulent flow There are some major differences between laminar

and turbulent fully developed pipe flows Laminar Can solve exactly (Chapter 9) Flow is steady

Velocity profile is parabolic Pipe roughness not important

It turns out that Vavg = 1/2Umax and u(r)= 2Vavg(1 - r2/R2)

Slide 10 Fully Developed Pipe Flow

Turbulent Cannot solve exactly (too complex) Flow is unsteady (3D swirling eddies), but it

is steady in the mean Mean velocity profile is fuller (shape more like a top-hat profile, with very

sharp slope at the wall) Pipe roughness is very important Vavg 85% of Umax (depends on Re a

bit) No analytical solution, but there are some good semi-empirical expressions that approximate

the velocity profile shape. See text Logarithmic law (Eq. 8-46) Power law (Eq. 8-49)

Slide 11 Fully Developed Pipe Flow

Recall, for simple shear flows u=u(y), we had = du/dy In fully developed pipe flow, it

turns out that = du/dr so w,turb > w,lam

There is a direct connection between the pressure drop in a pipe and the shear stress at the

wall Consider a horizontal pipe, fully developed, and incompressible flow Lets apply conservation

of mass, momentum, and energy to this CV (good review problem!)

Slide 13 Fully Developed Pipe Flow Pressure drop

Conservation of Mass

m

1=m

2 = mV

1 = V2

(1)

Conservation of Momentum

L

D

(2)

(P1 P2 ) = ghL

(3)

(P1 P2 ) = 4w

Conservation of Energy

Equating

hL =

4w L

g D

(4)

To predict head loss, we need to be able to calculate w . How? Laminar flow: solve exactly

Turbulent flow: rely on empirical data (experiments) In either case, we can benefit from dimensional analysis!

Slide 16 Fully Developed Pipe Flow Friction factor

Equating

1 = f ;

w = f unct(, V, , D, )

(5)

2 = Re;

(6)

3 = /D;

2 = f unct(P i1 , P i3 )

(7)

Now go back to equation for hL and substitute f for w

hL =

f=

4w L

g D

8w

w = f V 2 /8

V 2

L V2

hL = f

D 2g

3

(8)

(9)

(10)

Our problem is now reduced to solving for Darcy friction factor f Recall f = f unct(Re, /D)

Therefore

Laminar flow: f = 64/Re (exact),

Turbulent flow: Use charts or empirical equations (Moody Chart, a famous plot of f vs. Re

and /D, See Fig. A-12, p. 898 in text)

Slide 18 The Moody Chart

Slide 19 Fully Developed Pipe Flow Friction Factor

Moody chart was developed for circular pipes, but can be used for non-circular pipes using hydraulic diameter Colebrook equation is a curve-fit of the data which is convenient for

computations (e.g., using EES)

1

= 2.0log

f

/D

2.51

+

3.7

Re f

(11)

Implicit equation for f which can be solved using the root-finding algorithm in EES Both

Moody chart and Colebrook equation are accurate to

pm15% due to roughness size, experimental error, curve fitting of data, etc.

Slide 20 Types of Fluid Flow Problems

In design and analysis of piping systems, 3 problem types are encountered

1. Determine p (or hL) given L, D, V (or flow rate)

2. Can be solved directly using Moody chart and Colebrook equation

3. Determine V, given L, D, p

4. Determine D, given L, p , V (or flow rate)

Types 2 and 3 are common engineering design problems, i.e., selection of pipe diameters to

minimize construction and pumping costs

However, iterative approach required since both V and D are in the Reynolds number.

Slide 21 Types of Fluid Flow Problems

Explicit relations have been developed which eliminate iteration. They are useful for quick,

direct calculation, but introduce an additional 2% error

Slide 22 Minor Losses

Piping systems include fittings, valves, bends, elbows, tees, inlets, exits, enlargements, and

contractions. These components interrupt the smooth flow of fluid and cause additional losses

because of flow separation and mixing We introduce a relation for the minor losses associated

with these components.

hL = KL

V2

2g

(12)

Re. Typically provided by manufacturer or generic table.

Slide 23 Minor Losses

Total head loss in a system is comprised of major losses (in the pipe sections) and the minor

losses (in the components)

hL = hL,major + hL,minor

X Li V 2 X

Vj2

i

+

KL,j

hL =

f

Di 2g

2g

} | j {z

| i {z

}

ipipesections

(13)

(14)

jcomponents

Two general types of networks Pipes in series Volume flow rate is constant Head loss is the

summation of parts Pipes in parallel Volume flow rate is the sum of the components Pressure

loss across all branches is the same

Slide 25 Piping Networks and Pump Selection

For parallel pipes, perform CV analysis between points A and B

VA = VB

V 2

V 2

PA

P

+ hL

*

= B + 2 B +

+ 1 A +

zA

zB*

g

g

2g

2g

p

hL =

g

(15)

(16)

(17)

Since p is the same for all branches, head loss in all branches is the same

hL,1 = hL,2

f

L1 V12

D1 2g

=f

L2 V22

D2 2g

(18)

(19)

Head loss relationship between branches allows the following ratios to be developed

f2 L 2 D 1

V1

=

V2

f1 L 1 D 2

1

1

D12 f2 L2 D1 2

=

2

D22 f1 L1 D2

(20)

(21)

Real pipe systems result in a system of non-linear equations. Very easy to solve with EES!

Note: the analogy with electrical circuits should be obvious Flow flow rate (VA) : current (I)

5

Pressure gradient (p) : electrical potential (V) Head loss (hL): resistance (R), however hL is

very nonlinear.

Slide 27 Piping Networks and Pump Selection

When a piping system involves pumps and/or turbines, pump and turbine head must be

included in the energy equation

V 12

P2

V 22

P1

+ 1

+ Z1 + hpump,u =

+ 2

+ Z2 + hturbine,e hL

g

2g

g

2g

(22)

The useful head of the pump (hpump,u) or the head extracted by the turbine (hturbine,e),

are functions of volume flow rate, i.e., they are not constants. Operating point of system is

where the system is in balance, e.g., where pump head is equal to the head losses.

Slide 28 Piping Networks and Pump Selection

Supply curve for hpump,u: determine experimentally by manufacturer. When using EES, it

is easy to build in functional relationship for hpump,u. System curve determined from analysis

of fluid dynamics equations Operating point is the intersection of supply and demand curves If

peak efficiency is far from operating point, pump is wrong for that application.

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