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Question 1

Oviparity is defined as animals who reproduce by laying eggs. The advantages of this form of
reproduction include the following:
1. Parental involvement is kept to a minimum since all the nutrients and resources require
by the embryo are inside the egg.
2. The mother is not an easy target or prey for predators due to heavy weight from the eggs
as compared to mothers carrying live embryos.
3. Less energy is spent by the mother in releasing the eggs (Lod, 2012).
The disadvantages of Oviparity include the following:
1. The eggs are easy targets for predators to snatch and eat as they are not always under care
of parents.
2. In some species, the embryo does not develop until there is a heat source.
3. Strength of embryo must be strong enough to break through the shell.
4. Several eggs end up not being fertilized appropriately which result in under or no
development of the embryo (Lod, 2012).
Viviparity is stated as species of organisms who reproduce through live births inside the female
form. Humans, majority of mammals, and plants are recognized to reproduce in this manner.
Advantages include the following:
1. Embryos are fully developed in the womb before coming into the world due to nutrients
coming straight from the parent to their bodies.
2. High level of parental involvement as embryo stays in the womb for long gestation
periods (Lod, 2012).
The disadvantages of Viviparity include the following:
1. Mother of the embryo becomes an easy target for predators as she has excess weight and
cannot move quickly to defend or get away.
2. Excess energy depletion is found in the labor process of releasing an embryo.
3. Death of the mother mostly results in the death of the offspring

4. Extra nutrients need to be ingested by the mother to compensate for the embryo within
(Lod, 2012).
Both forms of reproduction have their advantages and disadvantages and neither can be stated as
being better or worse than the other. The primary difference that can be noticed is that for
Oviparity, there is a higher chance of several births at one instance while for viviparity there is a
higher chance of successful development of one birth (Lod, 2012).
Oviviviparity is an added form of complexity which does include the advantages and
disadvantages of both forms of reproduction. The drawback still arises in developing more than
one offspring for survival and there is a requirement of temperature regulation. An example of
this form of organism is the platypus (Lod, 2012).
Intromittent organ of the male provides the essential nutrient or ingredient necessary for
fertilization and development of the organism. This organ provides higher success in most cases
of fertilization as it is closely placed inside the egg of the female.
Question 2
The two snake species selected are the King Cobra and the Green Anaconda. The King
Cobra is recognized is the longest, venomous snake in the world. The snake thrives in the habitat
of forests and plains located in South Asia. It is recognized to its expanding hood with symbols.
The length of the snake allows it to easily climb high areas, provide intimidation to predators and
ensure it has ease of movement. The limitation of the snake happens to be its large size. Humans
are considered its vital opponent in which they handle and milk its venom for medicine. Due to
increased population, most villages of India usually happen to be coexisting in this snakes
habitat. This species of snake is protect from the Wildlife protection Act (Gray, 2013).
The second snake selected is the Green Anaconda. This snake is the largest and heaviest
snake in the world. It is found primarily in South America in habitats consisting of marshes,
streams, and swamps. Its massive size and weight make it a formidable predator to large animals

such as the caimans and capybaras. The drawback of this animal is that humans hunt it for sport.
Several rewards have been promoted to catch the biggest snake of this species and other
territories offer rewards for killing this so called man-eater. The World Wide Fund for Nature
(WWF) organization has initiated protection of the environment of the Green Anaconda so that it
is not harmed by humans (Lynette, 2013).

References
Gray, L. (2013). King Cobra: The World's Longest Venomous Snake. Bearport Publishing.
Lod, T. (2012). Oviparity or viviparity? That is the question. Reproductive biology, 12(3),
259-264.
Lynette, R. (2013). Anacondas. The Rosen Publishing Group.