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Finite cotangent sums and the Riemann zeta function

Mathematica Slovaca, Vol. 50 (2000), No. 2, 149--157

Terms of use:

Mathematical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, 2000

Institute of Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic provides access to

digitized documents strictly for personal use. Each copy of any part of this document must contain

these Terms of use.

This paper has been digitized, optimized for electronic delivery and stamped

with digital signature within the project DML-CZ: The Czech Digital Mathematics

Library http://project.dml.cz

Mathematica

Slovaca

2000

. . . _.

__, /^rt-.rtx M ^ ->!/-. ni-Math. SlOVaCa, 5 0 ( 2 0 0 0 ) , NO. 2, 1 4 9 - 1 5 7

Mathematical Institute

Slovk Academy of Sciences

F I N I T E C O T A N G E N T SUMS A N D

T H E R I E M A N N ZETA F U N C T I O N

D J U R D J E CVIJOVIC

JACEK KLINOWSKI

(Communicated by Stanislav

Jakubec )

by

- ('D

[ffitfc].

L

p=0

p=l

where n and q are positive integers {q > 2) and is a non-integer real number.

The latter sum enables us to simplify t h e Apostol formula concerning t h e R i e m a n n

zeta function at integer values of t h e argument. We d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t , for even

integers, this formula involves polynomials with rational arguments.

1. Introduction

Consider the Riemann zeta function ((z) defined by [1; p. 19]

oo

..

CW =

=

F

oo

Rez>1

T^S(^TF

k=l

k=l

oo

v

1

'

Rez>0

k=i

' z*1-

series. The Riemann zeta function is analytic over the whole complex plane,

except at z 1, where it has a simple pole.

A p o s t o l [2] gave the following formula

cot" (-^r)

C(n) - ( J )

v

V2j

lim

?->oo

qn

(1)

v

K e y w o r d s : Riemann zeta function, finite sum.

149

valid for any integer n > 2. For the case when n is even, he found the asymptotic

expansion of the finite sum involved, which readily leads to the Euler relation

n

1

,n-M.

C(2n) = (-l)"^eVB 2

(n>l)

2(2n)!'

Here, we deduce summation formulae for

(2)

and ((2n)

n + P K

~

Sn(q;0 = Y,

(0 < < 1)

(a)

P = i

and

-i

= Ecot"()

p=l

(b)

2. First results

Throughout the text [x] denotes the largest integer not exceeding x, while,

as usual, (^) is the binomial coefficient given by

n\

and

,l

0/

f n\

n\

j -=-'

\mj

m\(n m)\

(n.mGN,

l<m<n).

Further, the principal values of arccot# are defined for any real 6 by 0 <

arccot x < 7T.

In this section we establish the existence of the polynomials for which all

zeros, regardless of the degree, can be given by a simple formula involving the

cotangent function. It appears that these polynomials are unknown, and their

detailed study is given elsewhere [3].

THEOREM. Let n be a positive integer, and Cn(x;) a polynomial of degree

precisely n. in a variable x with real parameter , which we define as

Cn(x;0=J2(-iyncn,m(0xn-m

(4a)

m=0

Where

n,m(0

is

ciTO(f) = Q

150

[cos(m7r/2) + sin(m7r/2) c o t ) ]

(0 < f < 1)

(4b)

Then for any fixed n, the zeros of Cn(x\ ) are all real, simple and given by

r , m ( 0 = cot ( - i - t p - - - )

m = 0.1....,n-l.

(5)

Before proving the Theorem we give as an example the first few polynomials

Cx (x\ ) = x cot(7r),

C2 (~; f) = x2 - 2x c o t ) - 1,

C3(x] f) = x3 - 3x2 cot(7rf) - 3x -F COt(7Tf) ,

C4(x] f) = x4 - 4x 3 cot(7r0 - 6x2 + 4~cot(7rO + 1,

C5(x; f) = x5 - 5x 4 cot(?rO - 10x 3 + 10x 2 cot(Trf) + 5x - cot(Trf),

C6(x] ) = x 6 - 6x 5 cot(7r0 - 15x4 + 20x 3 c o t ^ ) + I5x2 - 6x cot(?rO - 1.

P r o o f . First of all, we shall prove that

[n/2]

V^(-l)m(

m=o

^

)xn~2m

m

= csc n (arccotx)cos(narccotx)

(6a)

and

[(n-l)/2]

U

Yl

(_1)m(

m=0

Vm +

) ^ n - 2 m _ 1 =cscn(arccotx)sin(narccotx)

/

(6b)

where arccot x takes its principal value, x is real and n is a positive integer.

Starting from the well-known Euler-Bernoulli formulae [4; 4.4.4.15, 4.4.4.16]

n/2]

["/-]

/

m

COS.

i6>=

](-l) (

m=0

'

[ ( n - l ) / 2 ]

sin?

m

)cosn-2msin2m>

,

Y

- =0

m

)cosn_2m-1sin2m+10

(-l) (

V2m+lj

we obtain

[n/2]

-L

Y2 ( - l ) m (

) tan2m

m=0

m

=0

'

= sec n

cosn

[(n-l)/2]

"

---1

mII

( - l ); (

]tan

V2m+11

N

2 m + 1

0 = sec n sinn

'

(0 < 9 7^ 7r/2 < 7r) in (6a), (6b), it follows at once that the proposed formulae

151

hold when x / 0. Moreover, it can be shown by direct verification that they

remain valid for x = 0.

Next, since the polynomials C n (x;) may be expressed in the form

[n/2]

[(n-l)/2]

2m

cn(^o=E^r(2my- -cot(,o

x

ra=0

'

ra=0

(-ir(2m+iy 2 m - l

v

(7)

C n (x;) = csc n (arccotx)[cos(narccotx) - cot(7r)sin(narccotx)] .

(8)

To complete the proof we only need to verify that Cn(Tn m ();) = 0 for

any n and ra = 0 , 1 , . . . , n 1, regardless of .

Observe that, in general, if k is an integer and 9 is real, then

arccot(cot 9) = 9 - kir

Thus

since

0<

(!+mK<

(-r-rn)7r

m = 0 , 1 , . . . , n 1,

Finally, it follows readily from (8), that

c B ( r B i m ( 0 ; 0 = (-i) m c8c^ +

)''

0 , 1 , . . . , n 1. In view of the properties of the cotangent functions, these zeros

are all real and simple. This completes our proof.

A similar result is obtained as follows. Let Cn(x) denote the polynomial given

by the expressions in (6b). Several examples are

C{(x = 1,

c;(x

c;(x

= 2x,

= x 2 - 1,

C*A(x = 4x 3 - 4x,

c;(x = 5x 4 - 10x 2 + 1,

c;(x

c;(x

c;(x

= 6x 5 - 20x 3 + 6x ,

= 7x6 - 35x 4 + 21x 2 - 1,

The determination of the zeros of Cn(x) is clearly equivalent to solving

sin(n arccot x) = 0, which gives rise to the following Proposition.

152

PROPOSITION 1. Assume that n is a positive integer. Let Cn(x) be the polynomial in a real variable x of degree n 1. defined by (6b). Then for any fixed

n>2,

the zeros of Cn(x) are all real, simple and given by

r

;, = c o t ( ^ ) ,

m = l,2,...,n-l.

As a straightforward consequence of the Theorem, we derive a closed-form

determinant formula for finite cotangent sum Sn(q;). We note that the sums

Sx, S2 and S4 are well known in a slightly different form [4; Section 4.4.7] and

[5; Sections 29.1 and 30.1].

We begin by stating some elementary results from the theory of polynomials

needed [6; p. 179]. Let xk (1 < k < n) be the roots of an algebraic equation of

the form

xn + axxn~x

n

h an_xx +

\-an

n x

= x - axx - + + ( - l r - X - i * + ( - ! ) X =

(10)

, a n (n > 1). The elementary symmetric functions

a1,a2,...ian

of xk are then given by the Viete formulae

x

X^2X^

<~2 5

x

X

X

n-2 n-l n

= a3 '

x1x2 + "- + xn = an

while sk (k = 1,2,... ), the kth power sum of zeros, defined as

sk = xl + x2 + - - + xn

is related to ak by the Newton identities as follows

"i =

sxax -2a2

i >

= 52,

ki - sk-i(T2

+ + (-l)k+1kak

= sk .

153

DJURDJE CVIJOVIC

JACEK KLINOWSKI

for s-_, s 2 , . . . , sn, which enables us to rewrite them into a more convenient form.

Thus by making use of the Cramer rule [6; p. 198] it is easy to see from the first

k of the equations, that power sum sk is given by the following determinant

0

1

1

2a2

0"i

3<7o

Si.

(k

0

0

1

.. .

.. .

.. .

1

<,

c k-2

kau

0

0

0

k-1

of the order k.

Now, in view of the Theorem, it is obvious that the finite sum in (3a) is in

fact the power sum of the zeros of the polynomial in (4). Thus, we can state the

following result.

PROPOSITION 2. Assume that n is a positive integer, and let Sn(q;,)

finite sum in (3a). Then for any fixed n we have

c

2c9

C

sn(q;0

n-

q,2

<7,3

-K.n-1

nc

~q,n

is of the order n.

In particular

Sx(q;0

S2(q;0

S3(q;0

<7,1

?,2

0

1

c

?

,l

0

0

1

.. .

..

.. .

,q,nq,n l

0

0

0

l

<7,1

determinant

qcot(nO,

2

= q (cot2(7r0

3

l)-q,

5

S6(q;0

- q4 (2 cot 4 (7r0 + (8/3) cot2(7r) + 2/3)

+ q2 ((23/15) cot 2 (?r0 + 23/15) - q.

154

be a

+ q

Sn(q]l/4),

S2n(q;l/3)

and

S2n(q;l/6)

are the polynomials in q with rational coefficients.

Moreover,

___,(.; 1/2) = 0.

However, it is easier to find the sums for higher n by using the differential

recurrence relation

which is readily proved by differentiating

{n

-1}

In this section we shall derive the closed-form formula for 5* (q) which allows

us to investigate the Apostol formula.

The properties of the cotangent function readily lead to

o-l

X>tW^W+l(?) = o

\ * /

P=I

and

o-l

X>|^

x

p=\

Section 3 and the relation

'

o-l

resulting in

1 ,

'-^=3'

"

e*^

! 4 4 2__

26

54(9) = 45? - 9 ? + 9 - 4 5 .

2

o., .

2 4

23 2

502

6

(

) =

*

945^-45^ + 4 5 ^ - * + 9 4 5 '

where our S^ and 5 4 are the same as those listed in literature [4; Section 4.4.7].

5

155

the sum in (3b) is the power sum of the zeros of Cn(x). In this way we shall

evaluate Sn for any n. Note, however, that the polynomial Cn(x) is not monic,

that it is of degree n 1 and that some of its coefficients are zero (compare with

Equation 10).

PROPOSITION 3. Let n be a positive integer and let Sn(q)

defined by (3b). Then for any fixed n we have

1

0

0

2c9,2

0

S*n(q)

(n l)c v

where c

/ q,n l

q,n

0

1

0

,2

be a finite sum

0

0

1

cq,n

2

<

q,n-1

is of the order n.

that, in general, S%n is the polynomial of degree 2n in q with rational coefficients. Two more special cases are

S*s(q) =

1

4725

16

28354

176

44

7102

?

+ Q

675

315

86

718

q +

q

2835

8505 ~ 8505

14175'

563

+

945

44834

93555

5. Concluding remarks

The Apostol formula implies the existence of a certain function A(q; n), such

that

A(q;n)

() = (

Cv

'

4 2/

li -ti-!l

n

q-+oo

?^oo

qqn

(n>2)

'

A(2;2n) = - 5 * n ( 2 g + l )

(n>l),

of degree 2n and its evaluation is straightforward.

156

REFERENCES

[1] M A G N U S , W . O B E R G E T T I N G E R , F.SONI, R. P . : Formulas and Theorems for the

Special Functions of Mathematical Physics, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1966.

[2] A P O S T O L , T. M . : Another elementary proof of Euler's formula for (2), Amer. M a t h .

Monthly 80 (1973), 425-431.

[3] C V I J O V I C , D . K L I N O W S K I , J . : A new polynomial system with easily deducible zeros,

(Submitted).

[4] P R U D N I K O V , A. P . B R Y C H K O V , YU. A . M A R I C H E V , O. I. : Integrals and Series,

Vol. 1, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York, 1986.

[5] HANSEN, E. R . : A Table of Series and Products, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1975.

[6] C O H N , P . M . : Algebra, Vol. 1, John Wiley, Chichester, 1982.

Department of Chemistry

University of Cambridge

Lensfield Road

Cambridge CB2 1EW

UNITED

KINGDOM

157

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