RANJIT S. DHALIWAL
Universityof Calgary,Calgary,Alberta, Canada T2N IN4
AimtractThis paperconcernsthe problemof determiningthe stress distributionin an infinitetransverselyisotropic medium containingthree coplanarcracks. The analysis is carriedout by using a solution of the
equilibriumequations expressed in terms of displacementsunder plane strain assumption.By the use of
Fouriertransforms,we reduce the problemto solving a set of four integralequations.An exact solutionof
these equationsis obtainedby using finite Hilberttransformand expressionsfor the quantitiesof physical
interestare obtainedin closed form.
1. INTRODUCTION
IN
RECENTyears,
Under the assumption of plane strain, the stressstrain relations for transversely isotropic
medium are [ 181
where cll, c12, czI, c22and csa denote the elastic constants.
253
G.
254
In the absence of body forces, on using (2.1) the equilibrium equations may be expressed in
terms of the displacements as follows
CIIU.,
Gf$.yy
+ (c12+
c66uJx
c22u,yy +tc12+
Gfh.XY
= 03
G6)KXY
(2.2)
0,
where u and v denote the displacement components in the x and y directions, respectively. By
applying the Fourier transform with respect to x to eqns (2.2) we obtain

 cMtJ25+ c22G,yv
i&c12 t c66)fi,y= 0,
where
l&f, y) =
Ia
U(x, y) e4
m
UC4Y) =
&
dx,
By eliminating ~7from the relations (2.3) we obtain the following ordinary differential
equation of the fourth order in I?([, y)
 2B,Z2iY,,+ B2f46
~.YVUY
= 0,
(2.4)
c22c66
[ c11c22
c:2
2c12c661,
B2=2.
(2.5)
Assuming that B: # B2, the solution of eqn (2.4) for y 2 0 may be taken as
(2.6)
where A and B are arbitrary functions of 6 and a and /3 are the roots of
A42B:h2tB2=0,
(2.7)
with positive real parts. If a and /3 are the roots with negative real parts, then (2.6) gives the
solution of eqn (2.4) for y SO. The detailed discussion about the roots of eqns (2.7) may be
found in Konishi[l7].
From (2.3) and (2.6), we find that
a(& Y) =  ia(ca  a2c2dAM
(2.8)
(2.9)
255
cos
@I
dt,
(54
dS,
1cos
qcr2 + c~~cY~)A
eOty+ if (c12+ c2$12)B ewBty
B
a
Txy
=
~~~5[(c22a21c,2)Aeab+(c~2~2+cI2)Be~y]sin(~x)d~,
(A
eTetY
+ B eeMy)cos (6x) de.
3. FORMULATION
OF THE PROBLEM
 Edx),
Epw,
qy(x, 0) =
asxca,
czsxsb,
bsxsc,
a<x<b,
b<x<a,
(3.2)
/xl> c,
co<x<w,
F&, 0) = 0,
(3.1)
(3.3)
where E is Youngs modulus in the xdirection, all stress and displacement components vanish
at infinity and
4(x) = 46 x).
Ep(x)=ZC66
wci2+c66
E'q(x)=
I[OT4
(et2 + c&)A
&,2+
a
0=
[xl> c,
b<x<c,
a<x<b,
(3.5)
(3.6)
(3.7)
Let us now take
M(Z)=
K= ag(a : BJc22 (C12+
c**+
w=~p(X),
C22B2MC12+
C&E
c22a2),
c12+c,E
c?(x)
= T
f$f
q(x),
(3.8)
G.
256
I0
cm
f&x)
dt
cos
(6x1
d6 = 0,
(3.10)
a<x<b,
co @f(5)
w3
O<x<a,
(3.11)
b<x<c,
Q(x),
f 0

M(f)
(3.12)
x > c.
I 0
4.SOLUTIONOFTHEQUADRUPLEINTEGRALEQUATIONS
Let a trial solution of the eqns (3.9)(3.12) be
(4.1)
where m(t) and MU*)are unknown functions. It is clear that this choice of M(t) satisfies eqns
(3.10) and (3.12) if h(u) satisfies
Ib
C
h(u*) du = 0.
(4.2)
O<x<a,
b<x<c.
(4.3)
Substituting from (4.1) for M(f) into the first of eqns (4.3) we get
d
G
$[~~bch(U2)10gI~IdU],
O<xca.
(4.4)
Interchanging the order of integration and differentiation in (4.4) and using the following
results [ 191
JO@)
x < t,
sin(TX)d5 = { _>)112
x > t,
(x2
we obtain
(4.5)
(O<t<a).
Again, substituting the value of M(r) into the second of eqns (4.3), we obtain
m(t)
vfx2_ tzl dt +$
du = ; &J(x),
h(u2)  log x+u
I xu If
(4.6)
Now substituting the value of m(t) from (4.5). into (4.6), after some manuplations and
usingI
# (t2
dt
((3  $2)
s2yyu2 t2)312
= (u2 s2)(u2a2)fi
isotropic
medium
251
we obtain
(4.7)
Assuming that the lefthand side of (4.7) is differentiable with respect to x, we obtain
dp2 &(u?
dtc
(bcxcc),
U2X2
(4.8)
where
(4.9)
The solution of (4.8). using the finite HiIbert Transform technique (see Srivastava and
Lowengrub[7]), is given by
+{(u'ao3(u2bb3(c2II')]**
(4.10)
with F = F(lr12, k), (k = [(c b2)/(b2 a?]li) is an elliptic integral of the first hind. Now m(r)
determined from (4.5) has the value
or, d($$$$$].
+V[(u
UC2
a3(rb2)(c
ruq]
(4.13)
258
?TF
5. A PARTICULAR
In
I[c
d/[(c2 a2)1
u*(c*  U2)
b (112_(12)(U*_bll2dU~~(~)li2~dy.
OF PHYSICAL
(4.14)
INTEREST
C2=(c2a2)Po
[ 1,
PO= F
1E
(5.1)
Elpo,
66
(5.2)
with E = E(?r/2, k), an elliptic integral of the second kind. We then find that
(5.3)
(5.4)
u2(u2a*)
(u*
t*)(u
b*)(c* u*) I
l/2
and
Expressions for the stress intensity factors are of great importance for workers in fracture
mechanics. These expressions are given by
N, = lim (x  a)*[a,,(x, O)],
xm+
Nb = iiF_ (b 
d2by,k (81,
(5.6)
O)lo<xcb
*P(s)(a2s2)2ds_~
(x2
s2)
r.\/(x
a)
d(v2  a2)h(u2) du
2
@2x2)
(5.7)
a P(s)(a
s*) ds + 2
(x2 s3
g v/(x
.,,:,,:,u2,
2
due
(5.8)
Now substituting the value of h(u) from (4.10) and (4.13) in (5.7) and (5.8) and using the
result [ 193
we obtain
x YBY)
du _
y2  x2
6
[(x2 
fq,(x, OL,c =
c2,][
xYfo2dy+
y  x
[fx2  &x2
ClX
 liq(x
C2)JifA
($3,
(5.10)
Now from (5.6), we find that the stress intensity factors are
(5.11)
%=PO
K=Po
b
2(c2 a2)(c2C
(c2 a+ :
E
1
fb2 a)],
(5.13)
(5.14)
The case a +O, that is when three coplanar cracks merge into two coplanar cracks, we get
the results which are in complete agreement with Konishi[lir]. ft is noted that when a = 0 = b
and c = 1, the cracks merge into a single crack of width two units. In this case F+a, Cl = 0
and third result of (5.11) reduces to the simple expression
(5.16)
260
Crack energy
The total work W, and Wz done in opening the cracks  a c x Ca and b < x < c are,
respectively, given by
W, =  2 0 [oy&, 0) . u(x, O)I~xtr, dx
I
(5.17)
(5.18)
Substituting the value of m(t) from (4.5) into (5.17) and interchanging the order of
integration, we obtain
w,=+o
1
,
Wl
E + 2L(x)
=$$[(l+s)a~(62c2)+(c2a2)7rF
 2c2
b (~2a2)l/25.~(~~,~,~~~~))]
(5.19)
where
C
L(x) =
Ib
q[(U
u2v(u2  a)
b2)(c2 U2)]
du
w2
Here it is noted that when a = 0, the cracks merge into two coplanar cracks. In this case
(5.20) reduces to the simple expression
W2= rp; c2+ b2c2;).
O.OOj
5
cFii.
1.
(5.21)
isotropic medium
261
0.m 
c
Fig. 2.
0.040
0.033
0.030
0.025
0.020
0.015
0.010
0.006
1
3
,
4
cFig. 3.
6. CONCLUSIONS
AND NUMERICAL
RESULTS
It is seen that the difference between an isotropic medium and an anisotropic one is some
constant times the elastic constants Cl1 to C,, and that for the stress singularity, the effect of
the anisotropy is not involved. As a limiting case we have
CIZ+ G6
mU9)
66
as
E+1.0,
E
hwluns
in ffdbuch
121G. I. BABkBLAIT. Adcuncc,v&IAppfiedMtxhic~. Vol. 7. pp.55129. Academic Press. New York (1962).
I31 A. A. GR1ppTIII. Phil. ?hllx. Roy. sot. Am, 163(1920).
Ml LN.~radII.~~GRUB,Qcurt.AppLlkflCC262(1946).
[SlLN.~~Y.UI~UB.hcLProbbrrrkrLa~of~~.Wiky.NewYat(l~~
161c. 1. TBANTla Qwrl I &iJ. iua wch. 283 (l%l).
m K.N.&lVASW~
and hf. LOWBNGRUB. hc. Boy. Sot. of Edin. Vol. LXVIIL Part IV. No. 20, pp. 309321
262
30 June
1977:for
publication
November 1977)
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