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ON THREE COPLANAR CRACKS IN AN INFINITE

TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC MEDIUM


G. K. DHAWAN
Maulana Azad College of Technology, Bhopal, India 462007
and

RANJIT S. DHALIWAL
Universityof Calgary,Calgary,Alberta, Canada T2N IN4
Aimtract-This paperconcernsthe problemof determiningthe stress distributionin an infinitetransverselyisotropic medium containingthree coplanarcracks. The analysis is carriedout by using a solution of the
equilibriumequations expressed in terms of displacementsunder plane strain assumption.By the use of
Fouriertransforms,we reduce the problemto solving a set of four integralequations.An exact solutionof
these equationsis obtainedby using finite Hilberttransformand expressionsfor the quantitiesof physical
interestare obtainedin closed form.
1. INTRODUCTION
IN

RECENTyears,

interest in fracture mechanics has aroused attention to the problem of


determining stress in the vicinity of cracks. Discussions of brittle fracture phenomena due to
cracks[l, 21 have been based on the calculations of stress in the neighbourhood of cracks. The
theory of cracks in 2-dimensional medium was first developed by Griflith[3]. Sneddon and
Elliot [4] solved the problem of finding the distribution of stress in the neighbourhood of a crack
by considering a corresponding mixed boundary value problem of 2dimensional infinite
medium and gave this theory a new dimension. A comprehensive survey of crack problems in
the mathematical theory of elasticity has been given by Sneddon and Lowengrub[5].
Using Sneddon and Elliots analysis, Tranter[6] reduced the problem of determining stress
distribution in the neighbourhood of two coplanar Griffith cracks to the solution of a set of
triple integral equations which he solved by reducing these to a dual cosine series. Recently,
Srivastava and Lowengrub[7] have developed a very successful technique for solving such
triple integral equations. They applied this finite Hilbert transform technique to solve the
problems of two coplanar cracks in an infinite elastic medium [8] and in an infinitely long elastic
strip[9]. Dhawan[l&12], Dhaliwal[l3-IS] and Srivastava[l6] have also used this technique to
solve some three part mixed boundary value problems of elasticity.
In this paper, we obtain an exact solution for an anisotropic medium containing three
coplanar Grifhth cracks by using the finite Hilbert transform technique. In Section 2, we obtain
a Fourier transform solution of the equilibrium equations expressed in terms of displacements
under the assumption of the plane strain. In Section 3, the problem is ,reduced to a set of
quadruple integral equations and their exact solution is obtained by using finite Hilbert
transform technique in Section 4. Simple expressions for the stress intensity factors at the tip of
the cracks and energy required to open the cracks are derived in Section 5 and the results are
shown to agree with those of Konishi[17] for a corresponding problem of two coplanar cracks
in the limiting case. Some conclusions are given in Section 6.
2. BASIC EQUATIONS

Under the assumption of plane strain, the stress-strain relations for transversely isotropic
medium are [ 181

where cll, c12, czI, c22and csa denote the elastic constants.
253

G.

254

K. DHAWAN and R.S.DHALIWAL

In the absence of body forces, on using (2.1) the equilibrium equations may be expressed in
terms of the displacements as follows
CIIU.,

Gf$.yy

+ (c12+

c66uJx

c22u,yy +tc12+

Gfh.XY

= 03

G6)KXY

(2.2)
0,

where u and v denote the displacement components in the x and y directions, respectively. By
applying the Fourier transform with respect to x to eqns (2.2) we obtain
-

Cl,.f21+ c66u,yy- i&c,2 + cd21.y = 0,


(2.3)

- cMtJ25+ c22G,yv-

i&c12 t c66)fi,y= 0,

where
l&f, y) =

Ia
U(x, y) e4
-m

UC4Y) =

&

dx,

$5, y) e-@ d[.

By eliminating ~7from the relations (2.3) we obtain the following ordinary differential
equation of the fourth order in I?([, y)
- 2B,Z2iY,,+ B2f46
~.YVUY

= 0,

(2.4)

where B, and B2 are given by


2B,=-

c22c66

[ c11c22-

c:2-

2c12c661,

B2=2.

(2.5)

Assuming that B: # B2, the solution of eqn (2.4) for y 2 0 may be taken as

65 YI= A(S)exp(- 4~) + B(t) exp(- MY ),

(2.6)

where A and B are arbitrary functions of 6 and a and /3 are the roots of
A4-2B:h2tB2=0,

(2.7)

with positive real parts. If a and /3 are the roots with negative real parts, then (2.6) gives the
solution of eqn (2.4) for y SO. The detailed discussion about the roots of eqns (2.7) may be
found in Konishi[l7].
From (2.3) and (2.6), we find that
a(& Y) = - ia-(ca - a2c2dAM

exp (- sty) - i/3-(c66 - /?2c22)B(&exp (- p[y).

(2.8)

The transformed components of stress are now given by

&A5 Y)= - i&h% Y)+ c12F,,(&yh


G(Zt Y)= - i&12% Y) + ~~~t7,,(5,
y),

(2.9)

%G Y)= c66[~&, Y) - i@(5,y)].


When there is symmetry with respect to the y-axis, the components of stress and displace-

Three coplanar cracks in an infinite transversely isotropic medium

255

ment may be taken as

cos

@I

dt,

(54
dS,
1cos

qcr2 + c~~cY~)A
e-Oty+ if (c12+ c2$12)B ewBty
B
a

Txy
=--

~~~5[(c22a21c,2)Ae-ab+(c~2~2+cI2)Be-~y]sin(~x)d~,

(A

eTetY
+ B eeMy)cos (6x) de.
3. FORMULATION

OF THE PROBLEM

We consider the cracks inside the material situated at y = 0, 1x1I a, b 5 x I c, - c 5 x s


- b(a < b < c), opened due to the internal pressure p(x) and q(x), respectivety, such that the
boundary conditions take the form:

-- Edx),
Epw,

qy(x, 0) =

-asxca,
-czsxs-b,

bsxsc,

a<x<b,

-b<x<-a,

(3.2)

/xl> c,

--co<x<w,

F&, 0) = 0,

(3.1)

(3.3)

where E is Youngs modulus in the x-direction, all stress and displacement components vanish
at infinity and
4(x) = 46 x).

p(x) = !J(- x1,

From (2.10), (3.&o-(.3), we obtain the relations

Ep(x)=ZC66
wci2+c66

E'q(x)=--

I[OT4

(et2 + c&)A

+$ (cl2 + c~~J*)B CDS(fx) d&

ct202)A +; (clz+ c2$3B]

&,2+
a

cos (&) d&


(bsxsc,-csxs-b),

0=

(A + B) cos (4x) d&

[xl> c,

(- a S x < a), (3.4)

-b<x<-c,

a<x<b,

(3.5)
(3.6)

(3.7)
Let us now take

M(Z)=
K= ag(a : BJc22 (C12+
c**+
w=~p(X),

C22B2MC12+

C&E

c22a2),

c12+c,E
c?(x)

= T

-f$f

q(x),

(3.8)

G.

256

K. DHAWAN and R.S.DHALIWAL

then (3.4H3.6) reduce to the following quadruple integral equations

I0

cm

f&x)

dt

cos

(6x1

d6 = 0,

(3.10)

a<x<b,

mM(S) cos (TX)dt = 0,

co @f(5)

w-3

O<x<a,

- &W(S)cos (6x) dS = ; P(x),


I0

(3.11)

b<x<c,

Q(x),

f 0
-

M(f)

(3.12)

x > c.

I 0

4.SOLUTIONOFTHEQUADRUPLEINTEGRALEQUATIONS
Let a trial solution of the eqns (3.9)-(3.12) be

M(r) = I m(t)&(&) dt -I-!. jc h(u) sin (&) du,


0

(4.1)

where m(t) and MU*)are unknown functions. It is clear that this choice of M(t) satisfies eqns
(3.10) and (3.12) if h(u) satisfies

Ib

C
h(u*) du = 0.

(4.2)

The eqns (3.9) and (3.11) may be written in the form


1/27rP(x)
,,2nQ(x)

O<x<a,
b<x<c.

(4.3)

Substituting from (4.1) for M(f) into the first of eqns (4.3) we get
d
G

$[~~bch(U2)10gI~IdU],

O<xca.

(4.4)

Interchanging the order of integration and differentiation in (4.4) and using the following
results [ 191

JO@)

x < t,
sin(TX)d5 = { _>)-112
x > t,
(x2

om+f-sin (5x) sin (&) d.$ = i log g


I

we obtain
(4.5)

(O<t<a).

Again, substituting the value of M(r) into the second of eqns (4.3), we obtain
m(t)
vfx2_ tzl dt +$

du = ; &J(x),
h(u2) - log x+u
I x-u If

(b <x < c).

(4.6)

Now substituting the value of m(t) from (4.5). into (4.6), after some manuplations and
usingI

# (t2-

dt

((3 - $2)

s2yyu2- t2)312
= (u2- s2)(u2-a2)fi

Three coplanarcfackainan infbitc


transvcrsciy

isotropic
medium

251

we obtain

(4.7)
Assuming that the left-hand side of (4.7) is differentiable with respect to x, we obtain

dp2- &(u?

dtc

(bcxcc),

U2-X2

(4.8)

where

(4.9)
The solution of (4.8). using the finite HiIbert Transform technique (see Srivastava and
Lowengrub[7]), is given by

(6 < II < c),

+{(u'-ao3(u2-bb3(c2-II')]**

(4.10)

where C1 is determined from (3.2) and has the value

with F = F(lr12, k), (k = [(c- b2)/(b2- a?]li) is an elliptic integral of the first hind. Now m(r)
determined from (4.5) has the value

In the above analysis, we have used the following rest&[191


udr
g/[(u- 02)(u2- b3(U2 - t3(c - /?)I
= vr(c~_

a&b2_ t31 F[i

or, d($-$$$$].

(c > b > a > 0.

Since we have the identity

we see that (4.10) may be written in the following alternative form

+V[(u-

UC2
a3(rb2)(c-

ruq]

(b <Y < c),

(4.13)

258

G. K. DHAWAN and R. S. DHALIWAL

where from (4.11) we have


c2

?TF

5. A PARTICULAR
In

I[c

d/[(c2- a2)1

u*(c* - U2)
b (112_(12)(U*_bll2dU~~(~)li2~dy.

CASE AND QUANTITIES

OF PHYSICAL

(4.14)
INTEREST

particular, if we choose p(x) = q(x) = p. where p. is a constant, then

C2=(c2-a2)Po

[ 1,

PO= F

1-E

(5.1)
Elpo,

66

(5.2)

with E = E(?r/2, k), an elliptic integral of the second kind. We then find that
(5.3)

(5.4)

where we have used the result[l9]

u2(u2-a*)
(u*-

t*)(u-

b*)(c*- u*) I

l/2

d = d/[(c* 4 a);b* - t)]


(c>b>a>t)

and

The stress intensity factors

Expressions for the stress intensity factors are of great importance for workers in fracture
mechanics. These expressions are given by
N, = lim (x - a)*[a,,(x, O)],
x-m+

Nb = iiF_ (b -

d2by,k (81,

(5.6)

NC= lim (x - c)~[~,,(x, O)].


x-K+
From the results of Sections 3 and 4, we find that
[+,(x,

O)lo<xcb

*P(s)(a2-s2)2ds_~
(x2

s2)

r.\/(x

-a)

d(v2 - a2)h(u2) du
2

@2-x2)

(5.7)
a P(s)(a-

s*) ds + 2

(x2- s3

g v/(x

.,,:-,,:,u2,
2

due
(5.8)

Now substituting the value of h(u) from (4.10) and (4.13) in (5.7) and (5.8) and using the

Three coplanarcracks in an infinitetranskrsely isotropicmedium

result [ 193

we obtain

x YBY)

du _

y2 - x2

-6

[(x2 -

apQb2- x2)(c2- x2)]@

fq,(x, OL,c =

c2,][
xYfo2dy+
y - x

[fx2 - &x2

ClX
- liq(x-

C2)JifA

($3,
(5.10)

Now from (5.6), we find that the stress intensity factors are

(5.11)

where Ct and CZare given by (5.1) and (X2), respectively.


In case the cracks are opened under constant pressure pO,we obtain
(5.12)

%=PO
K=Po

b
2(c2- a2)(c2C

(c2- a+- :

E
1

fb2- a)],

J( 2(c2 - a2)(c2 - b2))[ 1 - F *

(5.13)
(5.14)

The case a +O, that is when three coplanar cracks merge into two coplanar cracks, we get
the results which are in complete agreement with Konishi[lir]. ft is noted that when a = 0 = b
and c = 1, the cracks merge into a single crack of width two units. In this case F+a, Cl = 0
and third result of (5.11) reduces to the simple expression

The shape of the crack


From (2.10), we now find that the displacement v(x, 0) is given by
(5.15)

(5.16)

G. K. DHAWAN and R. S. DHALIWAL

260

Crack energy
The total work W, and Wz done in opening the cracks - a c x -Ca and b < x < c are,
respectively, given by
W, = - 2 0 [oy&, 0) . u(x, O)I~xtr, dx
I
(5.17)

(5.18)

Substituting the value of m(t) from (4.5) into (5.17) and interchanging the order of
integration, we obtain
w,=+o

PO a (a2 - #I2 ds - I h(u2Xd(u2- a)- u}du


b
I0

1
,

which on using (4.13) gives

Wl

E + 2L(x)

=$$[(l+s)a-~(62-c2)+(c2-a2)7rF

-- 2c2
b (~2-a2)l/25.~(~~,~,~~~~))]

(5.19)

where
C
L(x) =

Ib

q[(U-

u2v(u2 - a)
b2)(c2- U2)]

du

Similarly from (5.18), we find that


(5.20)

w2

Here it is noted that when a = 0, the cracks merge into two coplanar cracks. In this case
(5.20) reduces to the simple expression
W2= rp; c2+ b-2c2;).

O.OOj

5
cFii.

1.

(5.21)

Three coplanar cracks in an infinite transversely

isotropic medium

261

0.m -

c-

Fig. 2.

0.040
0.033

0.030

0.025

0.020
0.015

0.010

0.006

1
3

,
4

cFig. 3.

6. CONCLUSIONS

AND NUMERICAL

RESULTS

It is seen that the difference between an isotropic medium and an anisotropic one is some
constant times the elastic constants Cl1 to C,, and that for the stress singularity, the effect of
the anisotropy is not involved. As a limiting case we have

CIZ+ G6
m-U-9)
66

as

E-+1.0,
E

where E is Youngs modulus in the y-direction.


The paper gives an exact solution of quadruple integral equations which are solved by a
very useful technique of HiIbert transform. The numerical values of &/PO, N&O and NJpO are
graphed against c for a = 1 and 6 = 2,3,4, in Fiis. l-3, respectively.
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262

G. K. DHAWAN and R. S. DHALIWAL

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1977:for

publication

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