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Hesperid Butterfly on Tridax flower

SIKKIM BIODIVERSITY
ACTION PLAN

Variegated Mountain Forest Agama Japalura variegata

Sikkim Biodiversity Conservation and Forest Management Project (SBFP)


Forest, Environment and Wildlife Management Department
Government of Sikkim

Silver Fir Forest at base of Snow Mountains

List of Contents
1. Background
2. Sikkim Biodiversity
3. Perceived Threats
4. The Way Forword
5. Responsibility and time frame
6. Abbreviations
7. References
8. Process involved in the formulation of Biodiversity Action Plan

Japanese Cherry Prunus cerasoides in flower

4 S I K K I M B I O D I V E R S I T Y AC T I ON P L AN

03592-202575 (O)
03592-202304 (R)
E-mail : cm-skm@hub.nic.in

'

Gangtok - 737103
Sikkim

Pawan Chamling
(Honoris Causa)

Chief Minister of Sikkim

Message

I am glad to learn that the Forest, Environment and Wildlife Management Department of the State
Government has formulated the Sikkim Biodiversity Action Plan with the objective of preserving the
States natural and cultural heritage. The unique biodiversity of the State is well known throughout
the world due to the long history of scientific inquiry pertaining to its biodiversity. Commencing
from the monumental works of eminent British explorer J.D. Hooker in the nineteenth century
many scientists have documented the rich biodiversity of this State.
Sikkim, which constitutes barely 0.2% of the area of the country, has a wide array of flora and
fauna that exists within its boundaries since time immemorial. Many of these are indigenous and
are intimately related to the livelihoods and lifestyles of the people of the State. All communities
in Sikkim have their distinct cultural characteristics that incorporate sustainable utilization of the
States biodiversity, both wild and domestic. Preservation of this rich biodiversity in the face of
enormous challenges, such as those posed by climate change and needs of the States developing
society, is an uphill task. The importance of modern scientific tools like ex-situ conservation in
natural resource management cannot be overemphasized. However, a synergy between scientific
and traditional knowledge streams is necessary to ensure successful conservation of exquisite plants
and animals. Intellectual Property Rights as envisaged under the Convention on Biological Diversity
must be honoured and ensured to local communities.
I congratulate the officials of the States Forest, Environment and Wildlife Management Department
for formulating this plan of action for biodiversity conservation in Sikkim. I am grateful to Japan
International Cooperation Agency (JICA) for assisting with the development of this plan, which I
am sure, will provide guidance in the area of conserving Sikkims Biodiversity. My best wishes to all
stakeholders for successful action in this respect.

Pawan Chamling
Chief Minister, Sikkim

S IKKIM B IO DIVE R S ITY AC TIO N P LAN 5

Bhim Dhungel
Minister

Message
I am delighted to know that the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) assisted Sikkim
Biodiversity Conservation and Forest Management Project (SBFP) under the Department of Forest,
Environment and Wildlife Management is bringing out a booklet SIKKIM BIODIVERSITY
ACTION PLAN.
Sikkim with its tremendous biological diversity is blessed as a natural treasure house for the people
of all fields from scholars to researchers and travellers alike. We are privileged to witness it at present
and are committed to conserve it for future generations. Accordingly, the State Government has
taken several measures to preserve this rich heritage.
This booklet reflects the action needed on the part of all stakeholders to conserve the biodiversity
of Sikkim. It is also aimed to generate awareness about each ones role to protect and conserve our
natural resources. It is a road map to secure environmental conservation so that we can pursue our
goal of a clean and green State, nation and the world at large.
I am sure that this booklet will serve the objective of inculcating responsibility in every individual
to participate in the Governments mission to conserve our natural heritage. I congratulate the
Project under the department of Forest, Environment, and Wildlife Management for bringing out
this booklet.

With best wishes.

(Bhim Dhungel)
MINISTER

Forest, Environment and Wildlife Management Department


Tourism & Civil Aviation
Government of Sikkim

6 S I K K I M B I O D I V E R S I T Y AC T I ON P L AN

1. Background
Spread over only 7,096 km2 geographic
area, supporting a little over half a million
population, the Sikkim state has an altitudinal
range varying from 300m to 8586m above
sea level, representing tropical, sub-tropical,
temperate and alpine regions and a small
portion of cold desert. The annual rainfall
ranges from less than 5 mm to nearly 4000 mm.
The state has about 80% of its geographical
area under forest cover, with an estimated over
4500 species of flowering plants. The rich floral
diversity of Sikkim has fascinated a wide range
of scholars from all over the world. Besides
39% area occupied by alpine pastures and snow,
the state supports an immensely rich reservoir
of biological diversity as tremendously useful
genetic resource pool. The vegetation ranges
from Sal (Shorea rubusta) and its associates in
the low elevations, and gradually transitions
to oaks, low altitude pines, firs, and finally the
high altitude alpine grasslands and meadows.

Typical Rhododendron-Silver Fir Forests of Sikkim

Out of approximately 1200 orchid species


found in India, Sikkim is repository of over
523 species and emerged out as one of the
richest hot-spots for orchid diversity in Indian
Himalaya. Further the state is estimated
to have about 50% of Indias Pteridophytes.
Sikkim jointly with Darjeeling hills has been
blessed with rich diversity of medicinal
plants of over 700 medicinal plant species.
The rhododendrons are a great indicator of
forest health and ecological stability and out
of nearly 72 rhododendron species in NorthEast India, Sikkim is known to have 36 species.
Considering the ecotourism potential of
rhododendrons, the Government of Sikkim,
in its Year of Tourism 2010, organized an
International Festival supplemented with an
International Conference on Rhododendrons.
Sikkims fauna is diverse, including 150
species of mammals, 550 species of birds,
and 48 species of fishes, in addition to many

S IKKIM B IO DIVE R S ITY AC TIO N P LAN 7

reptiles, amphibians and insects. Amongst


endangered or rare mammal species are , Red
Panda, Snow Leopard Musk Deer, Tibetan wolf,
Red fox, Indian wild dog, Hog Badger, Tibetan
Sheep, Serow, Goral, Tibetan wild Ass, etc. For
the richness of avian diversity, Sikkim has been
placed within the Eastern Himalaya Endemic
Bird Area. The faunal components are further
enriched by the presence of over 627 species of
butterflies and insects.
Agro-biodiversity in the form of
domesticated animals and cultivated plants is
also very diverse in Sikkim. Over 80% people
living in rural areas, constituting several ethnic
groups; like Nepalese, Bhutia, Lepcha, Limbu
and Sherpas represent diverse cultures. These

community people have been maintaining


great indigenous knowledge on bioresources
including ethno-medicinal plants. Food
preservation and handicrafts are the areas
where different ethnic communities of Sikkim
are enriched with traditional knowledge and
practices, which need to be conserved for the
posterity.
In 2001 Sikkim was included in a nationwide
initiative launched by the Government of
India and the NGO Kalpavriksha to formulate
strategies and develop action plans for
conserving biological diversity. As part of
this initiative, an elaborate consultation took
place in Sikkim in the form of meetings and
interactions with different stakeholders to
produce the 2003 Sikkim Biodiversity Strategy
and Action Plan. This process highlighted the
potential and availability of biological diversity,
both wild and cultivated/domesticated, found
in the different eco-regions of the state, and
outlined strategies and an action plan for their
conservation.
After nearly a decade, as the scientific
knowledge accumulated, stakeholders attained
greater awareness and needs of improved
conservation and management strategies on
biological diversity realized, and the issues
and concerns emerged more rapidly than ever
before, it was felt by the Government of Sikkim
for a thorough revision and updating of the
2003 Biodiversity Action plan. Fortunately,
at the same time, under the recently launched
Sikkim Biodiversity Conservation and Forest
Management Project (SFBP), assisted by the
Japan International Cooperation Agency
in 2010, there is a mandate of revising and
updating the previous document in view of
recent data and experience. Since a thorough
grass-root consultative process was followed
in developing the 2003 SBSAP, it was decided
to update the 2003 document using necessary
inputs from various biodiversity specialists
in the government, R&D and academic
institutions and other non-government
organizations. Also, it was decided to
have inputs from different grassroot level
stakeholders.

2. Biodiversity of Sikkim
Elevation plays a very important role in
determining the vegetation types of any
mountainous landscape like the state of
Sikkim. The state represents five major
altitudinal zones of vegetation, which do not
have distinct boundaries in general, but these
overlap depending upon the aspect and other
ecological factors.
The Tropical eco-region ranges in elevation
from approximately 300m to 1200m. It includes
valleys and gorges flanked by steep slopes.
Characteristic species include Sal (Shorea
robusta), Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii) orchids,
Pandanus nepalensis, giant bamboo, (Bambusa
gigantia), wild banana, Rhapidophora and
nettles. The Rangit Valley in this region shows
a unique association of Sal with Chir pine,
which also represent rich array of ethnomedicinal plants. Tropical forests of Sikkim

are inhabited by several endangered species of


birds, including the Rufous-necked Hornbill
(Aceros nipalensis), Great Indian Hornbill
(Buceros bicornis), Chestnut-breasted Partridge,
Black-breasted Parrot bill, Grey-crowned
Prinia and Wards Trogon. Other tropical fauna
includes the introduced Peafowl, Python,
Geckos, Porcupine, Assamese Macaque and
Barking deer, as well as many butterflies and
other invertebrates, fish, frogs and toads.
The river systems are used by several species
of migratory water birds during transit to
wintering wetlands. Lantana (Lantana camara)
is a major exotic invasive species in this area.
Forest fires are common in this zone, and there
is an occasional problem of illicit felling of
Sal and Teak trees. The Kitam Bird Sanctuary,
covering an area of around 6 sq Km, is the
only PA in this eco-region. A number of new

10 S I K K I M B I O D I V E R S I T Y AC T I ON P L AN

hydroelectric projects are being developed in


this eco-region.
The Sub Tropical eco-region ranges in
elevation from approximately 1200m to 3000m.
There is heavy rainfall in this zone with high
humidity during most of the year. In the lower
part of the ecoregion, the characteristic tree
species include Castanopsis hystrix, Machilus
spp, Rhododendron spp, Symplocos spicata,
Symplocos theifolia, Michelia excelsa, Quercus
lamellosa, Quercus lineata, Leucoseptrum
canum, Quercus pachyphylla, Betula alnoides,
Nyssa javanica and Bucklandia populnea.
The understory is dominated by Engelhardtia
spicata, Eurya japonica, Rhododendron
arboreum, and Viburnum spp. This region is
the potential habitat niches for the globally
critically endangered herb, Swertia chirayita
having viable populations.

In the higher parts of the region, the


dominant tree species include Quercus
lamellosa, Q. lineata, Machilus spp.
Cinnamomum spp., Michelia excelsa, Quercus
lancaefolia, Acer campbelli, Magnolia campbelli ,
Q. pachyphylla, Castanopsis hystrix, Elaeocarpus
lancaefolius, Symplocos theifolia and Litsea spp.,
Rhododendron arboretum, Bucklandia populnea
(Pipli). Dense evergreen forests with oak and
Rhododendron are common. The undergrowth
consists of Arundinaria maling, dwarf
Rhododendron, ferns, epiphytic mosses and
orchids. Birds include the Rusty-bellied and
Lesser Short wing, Kalij and Satyr Tragopan.
Other fauna include Japalura lizards, Cobra,
Krait and Himalayan Pit Viper, Himalayan
Bullfrog and many species of butterflies.
Fambong Lho Wildlife Sanctuary in the
East Sikkim and Maenam Wildlife Sanctuary
in South Sikkim are the two PAs in this ecoregion. Plantations of Cryptomeria japonica, an
exotic species are common in this eco-region.
Eupatorium odoratum is a major weed that
competes with Artemesia and other secondary
growth
Most of the human population of Sikkim is
concentrated in this eco-region. Commercial
agriculture focuses on rice, ginger, orange,
cardamom, while Guava, banana, squash,
vegetables and herbs are produced in
homestead gardens. Soybean, millet and
cruciferous vegetables are locally processed
into local products such as Kinema, a specialty
of the Subba community; Gundruk and
alcoholic drinks such as Chang. Exotic oyster
mushroom cultivation is being promoted by
the Agriculture Department, along with trial
commercial cultivation of flowers such as
hybrid orchids and gladioli. Forest produce
like bamboo shoots, ferns and nettles are also
seasonally collected. The marketed vegetable
fern, Diplazium esculentum offers a significant
part in socio-economic mileau of the poor
villagers. Hybrid stall-fed livestock is common
in villages, whereas the local breed of Siri
Cow is grazed in the forests. Sericulture and
apiculture are promoted by the government
through extension services, along with
pisciculture of Common and Grass Carp.

The Temperate eco-region ranges in


elevation from 3,000m to 4,500m. Mixed
coniferous forests of Hemlock, Spruce, Pine,
Fir and Junipers with shrubby undergrowth
of Rhododendron and Arundinaria are found
up to 4000m. This eco-region includes wildlife
species such as the Red Panda, Common
Langur, Himalayan Black Bear, Lesser cats,
Goral, Serow, Monal Pheasant, Fire-tailed
Sunbird, Blue Magpie and various species
of reptiles and amphibians. Brown Trout
(Salmo trutta) has been introduced in many
high altitude lake and river systems. Potato
and cabbage are grown as cash crops, along
with wheat, barley and maize. Beans, peas,
some apple, peach and pear are grown on
homesteads. A cattle rearing is sometimes
practiced with stall fed hybrid cows, while most
cattle graze in forest areas. Wool from sheep
grazing at higher altitudes is used for making
blankets, rugs and carpets. Wild Seabuckthorn
(Hippophae spp.) is collected for medicinal
properties and as a dye.

S IKKIM B IO DIVE R S ITY AC TIO N P LAN 11

A shallow River Tista meanders in the cold desert in North Sikkim

Between 4,000m and 4,5000m elevation,


small crooked trees and large shrubs
interspersed with fir and pine are common.
The fauna of this region includes Musk
Deer, Himalayan Tahr, Blue Sheep, Blood
Pheasant, and Ibis bill. This region has a
sparse population. Bhutias, the main residents,
are pastoral and manage herds of livestock
like yak, dzo (cow-yak hybrid) and domestic
cattle. The forest provides many edible plant
parts like in Arisaema sp. Tubers, Khendu
and mushrooms. Trout (Salmo trutta) has
been introduced in some high elevation rivers.
Dwarf rhododendron (R. anthopogon) leaves
are used for burning as incense.
The Temperate and Alpine eco-regions
include four wildlife sanctuaries, including
Shingba (North), Kyongnosla (East),
Pangolakha (East) and Barsey (West) and
one national park: the Khangchendzonga
National Park (North and West). The Shingba
Rhododendron Sanctuary is home to the rare
and endemic Rhododendron niveum, which has
been designated as the State Tree. However,

12 S I K K I M B I O D I V E R S I T Y AC T I ON P L AN

recently, two new populations of R. niveum are


discovered from Khangchendzonga national
park in north Sikkim, which need priority
conservation measures. Yet another exploration
of a massive and gregarious population of one
of the, hitherto, said to be endangered and
rare species, Rhododendron maddenii in the
boundary of Khangchendzonga Biosphere
Reserve in north suggest that the state need
further explorations. The Kyongnosla Alpine
Sanctuary provides habitat for the Takin
(Budorcas taxicolor), which is endemic to the
eastern Himalayas and also occurs in Bhutan.
The 104 Km2 Barsey Rhododendron Sanctuary
with its pure stands of Rhododendron is
contiguous with the Singalila National Park in
West Bengal.
The Trans-Himalayan eco-region ranges
in elevation from 4,500m to 5,500m with
characteristic cold desert vegetation, and is
confined to the northern Sikkim. This ecoregion represented by Kanchendzonga National
Park has not yet been included in the protected

area network of the state and is perhaps the


most sensitive as it contains many endangered
species, including the Tibetan Gazelle, Snow
Leopard, Tibetan Wolf, Tibetan Snow cock,
Lammergeier, Raven, Golden Eagle and
Ruddy Shelduck. The region has a short fourmonth growing season, during which grasses,
hedges and medicinal herbs grow abundantly
supporting a host of insect fauna as well as wild
and domestic herbivores, larks and finches.

There are no permanent human settlements


in this eco-region; the human population
consists of a small number of nomadic
Tibetan graziers or Dokpas who herd yak,
sheep and pasmina-type goats. Closure of the
international border over the last three decades
has led to intense grazing pressure by both the
domestic and wild herbivores. The prevalence
of feral dogs is a major hazard in this region.
This eco region has not yet been represented in
the P.A. network.

A profile of Sikkim biodiversity


Category
Flowering Plants
Orchids
Rhododendrons
Bamboos
Ferns and Fern allies
Tree Ferns
Primulas
Oaks
Mammals
Birds
Butterflies
Fishes

Approx. Number of Species


4500
527
36
20
480
6
30
11
144
550
600 +
48

A family of Blue Sheep Pseudois nayaur

S IKKIM B IO DIVE R S ITY AC TIO N P LAN 13

Protected Areas of Sikkim


Name
Khangchendzonga National Park
Shingba Rhododendron Sanctuary
Barsey Rhododendron Sanctuary
Kyongnosla Alpine Sanctuary
Fambong Lho Wildlife Sanctuary
Maenam Wildlife Sanctuary
Pangolakha Wildlife Sanctuary
Ketam Wildlife Sanctuary
Large percentage of the states land area is
under protected areas .In addition Reserved
Forests and other forestlands in the form
of Khasmahal and Gorucharan constitute
forest cover. There is one Biosphere Reserve
(Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve),
spread over the North and West districts of
Sikkim, covering a spatial area of 2931.12
Km2 (including four buffer and one transition
zone). The government, in collaboration with

14 S I K K I M B I O D I V E R S I T Y AC T I ON P L AN

District
North & West
North
West
East
East
South
East
South

Area in sq. km.


1784
43
104
31
51.76
35.34
124
6.0

GBPIHED (Sikkim unit), is currently in the


process of getting this biosphere reserve listed
among the World Network of Biosphere
Reserves of UNESCO. The process is also
underway for its inscription as a World
Heritage Site. Sikkim contains many wetlands,
which provide critical water bird habitat, and
the process of applying for Ramsar site status
for three wetland complexes has been initiated.

3. Perceived threats to Biodiversity


Deforestation: Despite the high percentage
of forest of the State, deforestation and loss
of habitats emerge as constant threats, which
are mainly due to need of forest resources
by the urban and semi urban population,
development projects and power projects.
Air pollution: There are very few polluting
agencies in the State. But due to rapid
expansion of domestic tourism, a large number
of vehicles move every day consuming tons and
tons of fossil fuel and causing air pollution as
well as noise pollution, which in long term can
affect fauna and their propagation, especially
along fringe of protected areas and reserve
forests.

The Biodiversity of Sikkim faces a number of


threats due to biotic as well as abiotic factors. It
is essential to identify these factors so that the
remedial measures can be taken to strengthen
the conservation and management of biological
diversity in the state. The Sikkim Biodiversity
Action Plan 2003 deliberated upon these issues
and identified a number of threats, which need
be addressed under the present situation, in
order to conserve the states biodiversity. The
current and anticipated threats are summarized
below:
Soil erosion: Sikkim being a hill State with
unstable soil conditions often suffers from soil
erosion due to biotic factors as well as natural
factors. The very high rainfall, span over a
large part of the year, compounds this. The
main causes of such erosion and landslides,
which also destroy biodiversity of the area, are
unplanned roads, hydroelectric projects and
other development. The recent earthquake has
also triggered lot of new landslides and soil
erosion.

Waste management: There is lack of


appropriate and systematic approaches and
means for handling solid wastes in many parts
of the state, including both residential areas
and development areas. As a result, the solid
waste is generally allowed to enter the natural
streams thereby causing pollution and creating
problem for the living organisms.
Poaching of animals and removal of plants
and their parts: Evidences suggest involvement
of some local people as well as visitors from
other parts of the country many a times
engaged in poaching of animals and removing
different plants such as of orchids and ferns,
thus threatening many sensitive species. This
is caused mostly due to lack of awareness and
inadequate law enforcement.
Law enforcement: Enforcement agencies
like Forest and Police etc do not have adequate
manpower, training, mobility and requisite
equipments to prevent or take cognizance of
offences involving biodiversity.
Introduction of exotic species: Many exotic
plants and animals have been introduced into
the State purposefully or inadvertently without
following any protocol, which threatens the
indigenous species.

S IKKIM B IO DIVE R S ITY AC TIO N P LAN 15

Unplanned tourism: The state has emerged


as a very popular tourist destination in recent
years. Inappropriate planning and limited
implementations have gone into regulating
their movement, mode of transport, life style
including generation of garbage, construction
for the accommodation, road development or
environment friendly responsible behavior, etc.
The tourism industry and the rural people need
to be sensitized to handling ecotourism in a
responsible manner.

Awareness: We cannot protect our


biodiversity without awareness among the
general public, students and teachers, and
other stakeholders. Particularly the younger
generation should have an understanding
regarding the need for biodiversity
conservation. Knowledge and understanding
of biological diversity and conservation is
also necessary for schools and colleges and
government departments and all sectors of
society including politicians and policy makers.

Climate change: Due to increase in green


house gases in the atmosphere and consequent
rise in temperature number of living organisms
will be affected in the future, though the
impacts have not yet been properly studied or
documented.

Medicinal plants: Majority of state host


plants with great medicinal value. The
conservation approaches, both in-situ and exsitu mechanisms need further strengthening
with strong scientific support and guidelines.
It would be essential that the medicinal plant
diversity is identified and documented and
species tending to become endangered should
be prioritized for immediate conservation.

Introduction and popularization of


hybrids: Many varieties of hybrids both plants
and animals are gradually becoming very
popular, thereby replacing the indigenous
varieties of livestock and horticultural species.
Loss of traditional knowledge: The
local communities sustain a rich reservoir
of traditional knowledge and indigenous
practices. But they are gradually depleted as
people have been adopting modern lifestyles
and modern medicines.

Biomedical wastes: The hospitals, nursing


homes and other medical establishments in
the State generate biomedical wastes, which
contaminate soil, water and endanger human
as well as animal health.
Alien invasive species: Many species like
Lantana, Eupatorium, Ipomaea and Polygonum,
etc. has already spread over different parts of
the state, within the boundaries of protected
areas. Others may make inroads if not checked.
Forest fire: Forest fires, particularly in the
tropical, sub-tropical, and temperate forests, if
not promptly attended to, causes lot of damage
to the biodiversity, particularly the ground
flora, fauna, and micro-organisms.
Diseases and pests: Diseases of both flora
and fauna and pest attacks, particularly when
they take epidemic forms may result in loss
of wild as well as agro-biodiversity and need
monitoring and control.
Development projects and change in land
use pattern: Different unplanned development
projects like hydro-electric projects, road
development and widening besides change of
land use pattern to put wild landscape in to
agriculture, commercial uses, habitation etc
may have pronounced impact on biological
diversity and may be irreversible.

16 S I K K I M B I O D I V E R S I T Y AC T I ON P L AN

4. The Way Forward


This Chapter describes strategies and actions to overcome the current threats to biodiversity
through various measures involving different government departments of the state and different
stakeholders.

4.1 Develop Biodiversity


database
Lack of data on different aspects of
biodiversity in the state severely impedes the
effort to conserve the same, though much
useful information is available with some
organizations and individuals. This is of
immediate concern for a biodiversity rich
state like Sikkim as we should know well what
we want to protect and conserve. The JICA
assisted Sikkim Biodiversity conservation and
Forest Management Project (SBFP) is initiating
several new biodiversity studies, which will
provide some comprehensive data. These
studies include (i) Study on flagship species,
(ii) Study on impact of grazing on Himalayan
eco-system, (iii) Rapid biodiversity survey, (iv)
Survey of hot spots, (v) Establishment of GIS
networking, etc. In addition, some state based
national R&D institutions have been engaged
in investigating various aspects of biodiversity

in Sikkim. Still, many additional studies


involving different government departments,
research institutions, universities and voluntary
organizations will be required for building up
comprehensive database to support biodiversity
conservation in Sikkim.

Recommended Actions
a) Establish a state biodiversity information
system with facilities for easy storage,
retrieval and distribution in an interactive
manner.
b) Conduct intensive biodiversity surveys
and inventories utilizing expertise of
local institutions and individual experts,
particularly in unexplored tracts, including
assessments on quantum availability of
economically important and threatened
plant in natural habitats, and providing
GPS coordinates for all sampling areas.

S IKKIM B IO DIVE R S ITY AC TIO N P LAN 17

c) Conduct regular surveys to monitor


changes in targeted species of wild and
cultivated, domesticated plants and animals
using the latest technologies and tools.
d) Update the list of endangered flora and
fauna based on national, international
criteria.
e) Assess populations and monitor species,
which are declining and formulate effective
species recovery plans.

f) Document and develop a database on


traditional knowledge.
g) Study and document microbial diversity,
including both beneficial and harmful
microbes in terrestrial and aquatic
ecosystems.
h) Build the capacity of law enforcing officials
for recognizing rare and threatened
species of plants and animals and provide
necessary reference materials. R&D
organizations in the state may offer great
services.

STATE ANIMAL Red Panda Ailurus fulgens

4. 2 In Situ Conservation
Sikkim has one National Park
(Khangchendzonga), which is also a Biosphere
Reserve, and seven wildlife sanctuaries. The
geographical area of the entire PA network
represents 32% of the States area of 7,096 sq
kms. This is perhaps the highest percentage
of protected areas of any state in India. The
Khangchendzonga National Park has also
been proposed for inscription as a UNESCO
World Heritage Site. Though there are 227

18 S I K K I M B I O D I V E R S I T Y AC T I ON P L AN

lakes in the state, many of which important


for migratory birds, none of them has been
notified as a Ramsar Site so far. Substantial
biodiversity also exists outside the PAs in the
reserved forests and private land. Although
the PA area percentage is quite high in the
state there is possibility of adding few small
areas to the Protected Area Network, which
are unique habitats for endangered spp. of flora
or fauna. The 2003 amendment of Wildlife

(Protection) Act, 1972 provides for formation


of Conservation and Community Reserves with
active community participation. Establishment
of such reserves is a possibility. While Red
Panda has been named as State animal, other
flagship species include snow leopard and musk
deer. The Department is also keen to preserve
its high altitude pheasants, rhododendrons and
orchids. There have been several initiatives that
are under way to conserve medicinal plants.

Recommended Actions
a) Explore the scope for further expansion
of the PA network with stakeholders,
identifying, prioritizing biodiversity rich
areas, e.g. Dombang Gymnosperm Reserve,
Nimphu Wildlife Sanctuary.
b) Strengthen biodiversity monitoring systems
in the PA network and reserve forests.
c) Strengthen the capability of the DFEWM,
Directorate of Research to coordinate
biodiversity monitoring systems in the PA
network and reserve forests.
d) Evaluate the experience of ongoing
programs to address human animal
conflict and identify effective approaches
to strengthen programs to prevent humananimal conflict.
e) Initiate well-planned eco-development
programmes in the fringes of PAs to
improve the livelihood of dependent
communities, in order to reduce their
dependence on protected areas and forest
for fuel wood and NTFP.

i) Promote reintroduction and recovery of


threatened plant and animal species in
their ecological niches and habitats in
targeted protected areas.
j) Strengthen the capability of DFEWM and
other agencies to prevent poaching and
illegal trade of wild animals, plants and
their parts.
k) Identify habitat for key wildlife species
outside of PAs and encourage conservation
outside the PA network on government
and private property.
l) Strengthen forest fire-fighting program.
m) Conduct surveys of economically
important native bio-resources.
n) Develop strategies for conservation of
unique wetlands and potential Ramsar sites
with the support of local communities and
other stakeholders. The process of their
notification should be expedited.
o) Identify and recognize large and old trees
and declare them as heritage trees.
p) Link major butterfly habitats through
strategic corridor development by planting
indigenous larval and nectar food plants
(native) through the involvement of
various stakeholders
q) Develop approaches to conserve identified
Important Bird Areas (IBA)
r) Complete proposal for inscription of KNP
as World Heritage site

f) Establish and notify permanent


preservation plots for monitoring
biodiversity along different altitudinal
zones and in different habitats.
g) Develop a mechanism to identify and
conserve sacred groves and other religious
landscapes, e.g. Devithan around springs.
h) Conduct research on different aspects of
species biology and ecosystem functioning
in PAs and reserve forests.

S IKKIM B IO DIVE R S ITY AC TIO N P LAN 19

Himalayan Wolf Canis lupus in Himalayan Zoological Park, Gangtok

4.3 Ex-situ Conservation

Recommended Actions

The state has only one zoo, the Himalayan


Zoological Park near Gangtok, which houses
many Schedule-I species occurring in this
region. It plans to take up conservation
breeding of some endangered species to
replenish the wild stock in their natural
habitat after following the appropriate protocol
provided by the Central Zoo Authority. A
rescue center is being set up to house the
rescued animals which can be released to
their natural habitat after treatment and
stabilization. Though no systematic effort has
been made to set up a formal botanical garden,
many places like the State Biodiversity Park,
campus of Raj Bhavan and highly established
functional Arboretum of GBPIHED (Sikkim)
at Pangthang have good collections of rare and
endangered species. DFEWM and GBPIHED
had jointly established a rare and threatened
plant conservation park within Himalayan Zoo.
Such initiative can be replicated elsewhere.
Biotechnological interventions also may be
quite helpful to support ex-situ conservation.
On useful and high value marketed wild
plant species, entrepreneurship using ex-situ
approaches are moderately initiated in the state.
At the same time, prioritization of threatened
and rare plant species for immediate ex-situ
conservation is an immediate need.

a) Develop and standardize the propagation


and mass multiplication protocols for the
rare, endangered and endemic
plant species.

20 S I K K I M B I O D I V E R S I T Y AC T I ON P L AN

b) Develop and standardize the conservation


breeding protocols for the rare, endangered
and endemic faunal species and dove-tail it
with a reintroduction programme.
c) Implement programs to conserve the
genetic diversity of native land races of
cultivated plants, domesticated animals
and their wild relatives.
d) Identify the seed viability and develop
storage technologies for targeted species.
e) Encourage propagation and cultivation of
wild economic plants.
f) Create new botanical gardens and parks
with sections for different communities,
focusing on native species.
g) Improve labeling in existing and new
gardens, ex-situ conservation-arboretums,
herbal gardens, etc.
h) Develop new ex-situ conservation facilities,
e.g. butterfly park, Bird Park, etc.

4.4 Agro-biodiversity
Conservation
Many local varieties of agricultural crops
and local breeds of livestock are still
maintained in rural areas. However,
these valuable sources of germplasm are
in danger of being lost as people adopt
modern lifestyles and modern agriculture.
Collection of agricultural crop genetic
resources can be a great tool to preserve this
germplasm; however, improved policies and
scientific interventions for agro-biodiversity
conservation may offer better opportunities
for local level entrepreneurships.

Recommended Actions
a) Register local varieties under the
Farmers Rights Act.
b) Ensure direct access to market for
organically farmed local crop varieties
though appropriate certification to fetch
more remunerative price to the farmer.
c) Preserve local germ-plasm of field and
horticultural crops by screening germplasm for desirable characters.
d) Identify hotspots of agro-biodiversity
and cropping systems and promote
on-farm conservation through training
programs and use of appropriate
incentives.

S IKKIM B IO DIVE R S ITY AC TIO N P LAN 21

Domesticated Sheep Ovis sp.

4.5 Impact of climate change

Recommended Actions

The majority of the population in Sikkim still


depends on various forms of agriculture, although
tourism is also gradually emerging as an important
livelihood source in the rural areas. Both these
sectors are likely to be adversely impacted by
climate change unless adaptive measures are
initiated. Agricultural productivity is likely to
decline and cropping patterns will change. Similarly
grasslands and timberline, which form a part of
natural ecosystem in the higher reaches of the state,
may be adversely affected along with pattern of
snowfall and rains. The expected rise in the ambient
temperature, influencing biodiversity pattern and
ecosystem functioning, would impact consequent
changes in the forest dependent communities.

a) Identify the vulnerability of


different sectors of the state, such
as forest, agriculture, livestock,
and microbial diversity and
Himalayan ecosystem towards
climatic change.

Many initiatives have started in the state and


other parts of the country to assess vulnerability
due to climate change on natural ecosystems,
plant productivity and socio-economic sectors.
Several institutes have been engaged in the study
of climate change, and the JICA assisted SBFP has
a component to study impacts of climate change
and suggest different mitigating measures. It is
worth noting that an Expert Committee on the
Impacts of Climate Change has been set up by the
Central Government in 2007 to study the impacts
of anthropogenic climate change and identify
measures to be taken for addressing the impacts
of vulnerability. The National Action Plan on
Climate Change has also been released in 2008.
The Department of Space under ISRO-Geosphere
Biosphere Program is implementing a project to
estimate the vegetation carbon pool assessment
in India, of which Sikkim is also part of the study.
There are many other ongoing projects in the
country and the state which directly or indirectly
contribute to mitigate adverse impacts of climate
change.

22 S I K K I M B I O D I V E R S I T Y AC T I ON P L AN

b) Identify priority habitats for


species and ecosystems, which
are at risk due to climate change
through appropriate ecological
criteria.
c) Use plant phenology as an
indicator of climate change and
establish permanent phenology
monitoring stations along different
altitude zones.
d) Undertake other multidisciplinary
research for developing
appropriate technology
for monitoring changes on
biodiversity and assess the
adaptive mechanisms for
biodiversity components.
e) Develop adaptive management
approaches for relevant
activities like change in forestry
management and watershed
management for soil and moisture
conservation and enhance green
cover.
f) Identify activities, which help
hasten climate change both
globally, and local and develop
ways to minimize or eliminate
such activities.

4.6 Biodiversity conservation


and development
Policies and laws have been framed to integrate
social and economic development with
biodiversity conservation. The Environment
(Protection) Act, 1986 prohibits all activity,
which adversely affects the biodiversity. Equity
studies in community forests have been proved
effective in combating adverse practices on
existing forest resources, and in upholding
socio-economic fabric. In the Environment
Impact Assessment of any project biodiversity
elements are identified and their protection
recommended. Eco-sensitive areas are also
notified under the act. There are guidelines
for handling of hazardous wastes, solid wastes
and chemicals and prevent other unplanned or
haphazard development. But suitable actions
are required to make effective implementation
of such policies and legislations in the interest
of biodiversity conservation.

Recommended Actions

a) Involve local agencies and R&D


institutions in impact assessments (EIA) of
development projects in order to limit the
impact on surrounding biodiversity and
habitats.
b) Enforce the guidelines so that all EIAs of
major developmental projects should be
properly authenticated with herbarium
specimens and other records from project
area. All RET species falling in those area
should be properly documented and action
taken for ex-situ multiplication thereof.
c) Monitor the preparation and
implementation of Environmental
Management Plans (EMPs). Prepare
rehabilitation plan in case of displacement
of local people due to any project
considering their social, cultural,
economic and other livelihood needs.
d) Build capacity of the related departments
to carry out mid-term assessment.
e) Avoid the development projects affecting
wetlands and other biodiversity rich and
sensitive area.

Herd of grazing Yaks above meandering River Tista in Sikkims cold desert

4.7 Adverse impacts of pollution


Realizing that air, water and soil pollution
affects the human population and particularly
the low income groups, the Environmental
(Protection) Act, 1986 and other legislations
like Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution)
Act 1981 and water (Prevention and Control
of Pollution) Act 1974 have been enacted to
check this menace. Soil pollution, pollution due
to industrial and municipal wastes is difficult
to handle. All these affect the biodiversity
adversely, directly or indirectly. It is always
better, easier and cost effective to prevent
pollution or minimize it rather than handle it
after it occurs.

Recommended Actions
a) Conduct research to study the impacts of
different types of pollution on biodiversity
and develop prevention measures.
b) Manage industrial effluents so that neither
terrestrial nor aquatic biological resources
are adversely affected.
c) Promote the use of organic manures, biofertilizers, bio-insecticides or biological
control and discourage excessive use of
chemical fertilizers and biocides.

Red-rumped Swallow Cecropis daurica at pakyong, East Sikkim

24 S I K K I M B I O D I V E R S I T Y AC T I ON P L AN

4.8 Biodiversity conservation


and use of research training
and extension
Over the years capacity has been built at
various levels for environmental management
of which biodiversity conservation is a part in
Sikkim and the rest of India. National institutes
like the Indian Council of Forest Research &
Education, G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan
Environment & Development, Wildlife
Institute of India, Indian Institute of Forest
Management and many other universities,
particularly agricultural universities have taken
up training in biodiversity conservation, forest,
and wildlife management and related fields.
Other universities have also imparted courses
in environmental management. UGC and
Ministry of Human Resources have also taken
up with universities and state governments
to introduce environment education in their
curriculum. The state takes advantage of these
institutions and sends officers and field staff for
training to these institutes or centers affiliated
to them. Center for Environment Education
and National Museum of Natural History have
taken up creation of awareness on environment
and biodiversity issues.
In Sikkim a Regional Museum of Natural
History is planned near Gangtok. Many
publications on different aspects of biodiversity
of Sikkim have been published by the state
government. The state is also planning a
number of interpretation centers for creating
awareness about biodiversity of Sikkim under
SBFP. The DFEWM and Departments of
Agriculture, Animal Resources, Fisheries and
Tribal Affairs are sensitive to conservation
of biodiversity in their respective fields.
GBPIHED (Sikkim), as an expert institution,
has taken many initiatives and accomplished
many tasks in conservation of endangered
and rare plant species in Sikkim, using both
conventional and other biotechnological
technologies. The Sikkim Pollution Control
Board is engaged in controlling pollution due
to different major activities like industries, river
valley projects etc. Still there are a number of
gaps which need be addressed, particularly

to take care of relatively new and emerging


issues. For this, along with use of technologies,
all forms of awareness programmes like print
and electronic media, street plays etc should
be attempted. Field and supervisory personnel
should also be exposed to refresher courses and
orientation exercises.

Recommended Actions

a) Use of conventional and biotechnological


tools on a pilot basis for conserving
endangered species.
b) Encourage value added production from
the local bio-resources using innovative
technologies as a tool for sustainable use of
biodiversity for livelihood.
c) Develop and propagate technology based
awareness programmes in Sikkim specialized
through extension wings.
d) Strengthen Training and Research
activities on various aspects of biodiversity
conservation

S IKKIM B IO DIVE R S ITY AC TIO N P LAN 25

4.9 Sustainable utilization


and enhancement of natural
resources
Sustainable utilization of natural resource
is the most important tool for protection
of biological diversity of the state. This
is particularly true in case of non timber
forest produces. The micro plans prepared
to manage areas under JFMCS and EDCS
etc also undertake their decision making
on this principle. But human pressures in
certain areas are likely to affect sustainability
of natural or biological resources if they are
the only livelihood options. Various means
of employment generation or development
projects like NREGA, afforestation,
water conservation, water harvesting,
communication can effectively reduce pressure
on natural resources exerted by the dependent
communities. Measures like increasing green
cover in case of Sikkim and improving the
quality of green cover shall to some extent
minimize pressure on limited resources. But
other initiatives like introduction of ecofriendly substitutes, fuel efficient devices
and ease of their availability etc can reduce
consumption. Propagation and cultivation
packages of high value and in demand

wild resources need to be developed and


standardized; for example economic viability
of cultivation of targeted species need assessed
and demonstrated in Sikkim context. Of
course awareness promotion shall be the key to
their acceptance by the communities.
Sikkim has already banned grazing in the
forest areas which has salubrious effect. JFMCs/
EDCs have started playing very positive
role in the effort of sustainable utilization.
Their capacity is being enhanced through
trainings and they are also supported through
Community Organizers appointed by SBFP.

Recommended Actions
a) Identify and document ethno-biological
knowledge, including the safety and
efficacy of traditional medicinal practices.
b) Identify alternate income generating
activities to divert the people from
livelihoods which negatively impact
biodiversity, e.g. grazing, harvesting
bio-resources, etc.
c) Promote the management of bamboos and
canes and other NTFPs, sustainably with
the participation of local communities and
other stakeholders and make a data base.
d) Promote agro-forestry on private lands.
e) Promote bee keeping for improving
pollination and providing livelihood to
local communities.
f) Document, disseminate and promote best
practices of traditional use of bio-resources
through proper study of traditional
methods of utilization.
g) Promote ex-situ cultivation of high value
trade taxa, including medicinal plants to
support livelihood of communities and
ensure that wild stock is not depleted.
h) Extend traditional sustainable land use
practices which have been validated
through research.

26 S I K K I M B I O D I V E R S I T Y AC T I ON P L AN

Morning Glory Ipomoea sp.

4.10 Management of alien


invasive species
Invasive species menace has not been
felt in alarming scale so far, though species
like Lantana camara, Rumex nepalensis,
Eupatoricum odoratum, Mikenia sp., Polygonm
spp and aquatic weeds have caused problem
at many places inhibiting the regeneration
and growth of indigenous species or choking
water bodies. They sometime create problem
for agriculture, forestry, fishery, health and
tourism. It is necessary to have scientifically
guided surveys and quantification of the
damages caused by invasive species and prevent
introduction of any new invasive species in the
state without proper study.

Recommended Actions

a) Conduct research on ecological assessment


of invasive species and related habitat
change, and maintain a database.

b) Strengthen measures to contain and


manage any spread of invasive species.
Develop inter-sectoral approach for the
same.
c) Develop system for early warning on new
sightings of invasive species in the state.
d) Support capacity building particularly at
field level to control spread of invasive
species.
e) Support restoration of area affected by
invasive species, including occupied
butterfly habitat, by planting or
regeneration of native species.
f) Establish procedures to ensure that invasive
species do not enter Sikkim through
international borders of three neighboring
countries. Establish a quarantine cell in the
state.

S IKKIM B IO DIVE R S ITY AC TIO N P LAN 27

Silver Fir Abies densa with cone

4.11 Valuation of biodiversity


We often do not take the depletion of biodiversity or bioresources due to any development process seriously as we
consider it free and can be exploited without any thought
about the goods and services it provides to the human
society in the form of goods directly or services which are
not easily quantified. It is absolutely necessary in the present
day scenario or in future to account for the losses or quantify
the gains of adding to biological resources though definite
intervention. This will help us in decision making involving
sectoral policies as without such calculation of cost and
benefits of any activity cannot be worked out correctly or
comprehensively.

Recommended Actions
a) Develop a system of natural resource accounting for
Sikkim reflecting both ecological and economic values
of biodiversity, using UN guidelines, wherever necessary.
b) Support studies to validate the valuation process.

28 S I K K I M B I O D I V E R S I T Y AC T I ON P L AN

4.12 Awareness
Promotion
No action plan can be effectively
implemented unless the local
communities, other stakeholders,
law enforcing personnel are
educated aere made aware of the
benefit of the natural resources
available in their area and on
understanding the need for their
conservation. This is more relevant
in case of bio-resources. Hence
different methodologies should
be adopted and publicity options
utilized for promoting awareness.
Elsewhere in the document different
approaches have been indicated.
But it is felt that this should be
specifically highlighted as this can
bring about a sea change in our
efforts.

Recommended Actions
a) Provide training to government and nongovernment agencies to strengthen their role in
biodiversity conservation.
b) Make available literature based on research
and documents on best practices to relevant
functionaries and stakeholders, also using
electronic media.
c) Increase the awareness of law enforcement staff
on biodiversity and identification or endangered
flora and fauna by providing training and relevant
materials.
d) Strengthen the capacity of state and local
institutions for effective enforcement of the
Biological Diversity Act, including ensuring
Traditional Knowledge and Access and Benefit
Sharing (ABS) mechanisms.

GULMOHUR Delonix regia

S IKKIM B IO DIVE R S ITY AC TIO N P LAN 29

Male Kalij Pheasant Lophura leucomelanos

4.13 Policy, legislation and administrative measures and their


improved implementation
The Biological Diversity Act, 2002 is
a comprehensive legislation enacted in
pursuance of the CBD and rules have been
framed under the said act in 2004 and National
Biodiversity Authority has been formed. Other
national laws which have profound influence
on conservation of biodiversity are Indian
Forest Act, 1927, Wildlife (Protection) Act,
1972, Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 and
Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. Besides
there are provisions in our constitution
to protect our environment that includes
biodiversity and many other legislations like
Indian Penal Code can also take cognigence
of different offences committed to harm our
environment. National Forest Policy 1988 and
National Environment Policy also provides
some policy framework for conserving our
biodiversity.
A frame work of administrative arrangement
exists in Sikkim to implement relevant
provisions of these acts relating to biodiversity
conservation. Though Patents Act, 1970
has provision for mandatory disclosure of
source and place of origin of concerned
biological material and traditional knowledge

30 S I K K I M B I O D I V E R S I T Y AC T I ON P L AN

associated with the invention, the issues


relating to benefit sharing and protection of
traditional knowledge, is rather hazy. Effective
implementation of Biological Diversity Act
is very important for the state and its people.
However, state specific conditions and
geographical setting need to be taken in to
consideration and any legal framework can be
recommended for further debate at state and
national level.

Recommended Actions

a) Review the policies and laws for


conservation and management of sacred
landscapes, grasslands and other areas of
importance for biodiversity conservation.
b) Prepare Peoples Biodiversity Registers and
strengthen mechanisms with the support
of technical institutions. JFMCs, EDCs and
PSSs.
c) Include the evaluation of biodiversity as an
integral part of any development project,
and ensure that the design of the project
includes measures to minimize any loss of
biodiversity and is vetted by experts.

4.14 Regional, national and


international coordination and
cooperation
Cooperation with international agencies and other
countries is generally required at the level of Government
of India. But Sikkim can access such support through
the Government of India in the interest of biodiversity
conservation. The present example is a support from JICA
for the 10 year SFBP which will have many components
for strengthening conservation of biodiversity. Similarly
Sikkim need support of UNESCO for inscription of
Khangchendzonga National Park as World Heritage
Site and place Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve in
the World Network (UNESCO) of Biosphere Reserves.
State may need technology and support for different
aspects of biodiversity conservation like re-introduction.
Cooperation with national institutions like GBPIHED
(Sikkim), ICFRE, WII, BSI, CZA, ZSI and others is
required in order to assess biodiversity and develop
methods for their conservation. Universities and
institutions in other neighboring states both private and
government may be of great help for this purpose.

Recommended Actions
a) Establish contact with UN bodies like UNESCO,
UNEP, Ramsar secretariat, IUCN and donor agencies
through GoI regarding collaboration or obtaining
technical support for biodiversity conservation.
b) Seek the cooperation of other research institutions
and universities within the state and in neighboring
states for assisting in different aspects of biodiversity
conservation including surveys and scientific studies.
c) Maintain a database of scientific and technical persons
in Sikkim with expertise in flora and fauna to facilitate
collaborative work among the organizations in Sikkim.
d) Annual brainstorming workshops to share and
document the work areas of different public sector and
private institutions working in the field of biodiversity
conservation so that work is not duplicated, but may
be supplemented, and experience and lessons learned
further documented through annual newsletter.
e) Outsource research or establish joint ventures amongst
research agencies in Sikkim.

S IKKIM B IO DIVE R S ITY AC TIO N P LAN 31

5. Responsibility
and Time Frame
The broad actions to be taken and
activities under each major action have
been outlined in the last chapter. But
all these issues need the involvement
of various departments of government,
organizations and individuals both
within the state and outside. Sometimes
more than one organization may
have to be involved in the process for
effective implementation of an identified
component. Unless they are clearly
identified and a broad time frame is
given for their implementation this
document may not serve any useful
purpose for the state. Hence, this chapter
attempts to indicate the responsibility
of different organizations/departments
and tentative broad time frames for
different organizations which are
required to carry out different functions
according to national and state policies,
laws and administrative arrangements
is indicated. The attached table outlines
in fairly exhaustive details such
responsibility and time frame.

32 S I K K I M B I O D I V E R S I T Y AC T I ON P L AN

Section 5. Responsibility and timeframe for Sikkim Biodiversity Action Plan and strategies
Sl.
Category
No.
1. Biodiversity
database

Recommended Actions
a) Establish a state biodiversity information
system with facilities for easy storage, retrieval
and distribution in an interactive manner.
b) Conduct biodiversity surveys and prepare
inventories utilizing services of local
institutions, particularly in unexplored
tracts, including an assessment of quantum
availability of economically important and
threatened plant in natural habitats, and
providing GPS coordinates for all sampling
areas.
c) Conduct regular surveys to monitor changes
in targeted species of wild and cultivated,
domesticated plants and animals using the
latest technologies and tools.
d) Update the list of endangered flora and fauna
based on national, international criteria.

Lead Agency

Partner Agencies

DFEWM (SBFP, GBPIHED (Sikkim)


WP)

Time
frame
S

DFEWM (SBFP, GBPIHED (Sikkim),


WP, SBB),
BSI, ZSI, Sikkim
University, etc.

DFEWM (WP,
SBB)

Dept. of Agriculture,
A.H., Fishery, GBPIHED
(Sikkim), BSI

DFEWM (WL,
SBB)

DFEWM (T, NTFP),


Horticulture
Department, GBPIHED
(Sikkim), BSI
DFEWM (T, WL, SBFP,
DREE), GBPIHED
(sikkim), BSI, ZSI,
universities, etc.
DFEWM, Tribal Welfare
Dept., GBPIHED
(Sikkim)
ICAR, Animal
Husbandry (Fisheries
and Livestock), Sikkim
Govt College, Sikkim
University
WII, BSI, ZSI, etc., law
enforcement agencies,
GBPIHED (Sikkim)

e) Assess populations and monitor species which DFEWM


are declining and plan how these species
should be recovered.
f) Develop a database on traditional knowledge. SBB, BMCs
g) Study and document microbial diversity, DFEWM,
including both beneficial and harmful Health
microbes in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Department
Agriculture
Department
h) Build the capacity of law enforcing officials DFEWM
for recognizing rare and threatened species
of plants and animals and provide necessary
reference materials.

Remarks

M
M

S IKKIM B IO DIVE R S ITY AC TIO N P LAN 33

Sl.
Category
No.
2. In-situ
biodiversity
conservation

Recommended Actions
a) Explore the scope for further expansion of the
PA network with stakeholders, identifying,
prioritizing biodiversity rich areas, e.g.
Dombang Gymnosperm Reserve.
b) Strengthen biodiversity monitoring systems in
the PA network and reserve forests.
c) Strengthen the capability of the DFEWM to
coordinate biodiversity monitoring systems in
the PA network and reserve forests.
d) Evaluate the experience of ongoing programs
to address human animal conflict and identify
effective approaches to strengthen programs
to prevent human-animal conflict.

e)

f)

g)

h)

i)

j)

k)

l)
m)

n)

o)

p)

q)
r)

Lead Agency

Partner Agencies

DFEWM (WL)

GBPIHED (Sikkim)
(BCM), BSI

DFEWM (WL,
T)
DFEWM(WP,
WL, Training
cell)
DFEWM
(WL), Animal
Husbandry,
Health Dept.
Revenue and
police
Initiate
well-planned
eco-development DFEWM
programmes in the fringes of PAs to improve (FDA)
the livelihood of dependant community.
Establish and notify permanent preservation DFEWM (WP,
plots for monitoring biodiversity along DREE)
different altitudinal zones and in different
habitats.
Develop a mechanism to identify and conserve DFEWM,
sacred groves and other religious landscapes, Ecclesiastical
e.g. Devithan around springs.
Dept
Conduct research on different aspects of DFEWM
species biology and ecosystem function in PAs (DREE),
and reserve forests.
GBPIHED
(Sikkim)
Promote reintroduction and recovery of DFEWM
threatened plant and animal species.
(HZP, P&G),
GBPIHED
(Sikkim)
(BCM)
Strengthen the capability of DFEWM and DFEWM (T,
other agencies to prevent poaching and illegal WL)
trade of wild animals, plants and their parts.
Identify habitat for key wildlife species outside DFEWM (WL)
of PAs and encourage conservation outside
the PA network on government and private
property.
Strengthen forest fire-fighting program.
DFEWM (T,
WL)
Conduct surveys of economically-important DFEWM
native bio-resources.
(SBB, NTFP),
GBPIHED
(Sikkim)
Develop strategies for conservation of unique DFEWM (Land
wetlands and potential Ramsar sites with Use & Env.,
the support of local communities and other SBFP)
stakeholders.
Identify and recognize large and old trees and DFEWM (T,
declare as heritage trees (for Hornbills, Flying WL)
Squirrels, Fruit bats, etc).
Link major butterfly habitats through strategic DFEWM (WL)
corridor development by planting indigenous
larval and nectar food plants (native) through
the involvement of various stakeholders
Develop approach to conserve identified DFEWM (WL)
Important Bird Areas (IBA)
Complete proposal for inscription of KBR, DFEWM
KNP as World Heritage site
(WL, SBFP),
GBPIHED
(Sikkim)

34 S I K K I M B I O D I V E R S I T Y AC T I ON P L AN

GBPIHED (Sikkim)
(BCM), BSI, WII, FSI
GBPIHED (Sikkim)
(BCM), BSI, WII, FSI,
ZSI
NGOs, WII,

Time
frame
M

Remarks

M
M
S

RMDD, Agriculture,
AHLF&VS, Tourism,
TDCs, NGOs.
GBPIHED (Sikkim)

GBPIHED (Sikkim), BSI,


RMDD

Universities, WII

Dept. of Agriculture,
Dept of AH

Police, NGOs, FDA,

Dept. of Public Relation,


Media, GBPIHED
(Sikkim)

NGOs, FDA

BSI

RMDD, PSS, BNHS,


WWF, Tourism Dept.

DST, HRDD, IITM

Nurseries, tourist
entrepreneurs, FDAs

NGOs, FDAs

Involve local
universities

Community
mobilization

Community
mobilization

Sl.
Category
No.
3
Ex-situ
biodiversity
conservation

Recommended Actions

a) Develop and standardize the propagation and DFEWM (SBFP,


mass multiplication protocols for the rare, NTFP, SMPB)
endangered and endemic plant species
GBPIHED
(Sikkim)
b) Develop and standardize the conservation DFEWM
breeding protocols for the rare, endangered (HZP)
and endemic faunal species and dove-tail it
with a reintroduction programme.
c) Implement programs to conserve the genetic Dept. of
diversity of native land races of cultivated Agriculture,
plants, domesticated animals and their wild AHLF&VS
relatives.
d) Identify the seed viability and develop storage GBPIHED
technologies for targeted species.
(Sikkim)
e)

f)

g)

h)
4

Agrobiodiversity
Conservation

Lead Agency

a)

Partner Agencies
Horticulture
Department
CZA

SBB, BMCs

DFEWM, Dept. of
Agriculture, and
scientific Institutions
Encourage propagation and cultivation of wild DFEWM
GBPIHED (Sikkim)
economic plants.
(Parks and
, FDAs, BMCs,
Gardens)
Agriculture Dept.
Create new botanical gardens and parks with DFEWM (Parks DFEWM (NTFP, T,
sections for different communities, focusing and Gardens)
WL, FCA), SPCB, SBFP,
on native species.
GBPIHED (Sikkim) ,
BSI, Ayurveda)
Improve labeling in existing and new gardens, DFEWM (Parks DFEWM (NTFP, T,
ex-situ conservation-arboretums, herbal and Gardens)
WL, FCA), SBFP,
gardens, etc.
GBPIHED (Sikkim) ,
BSI, Ayurveda)
Develop new ex-situ conservation facilities, DFEWM (SBFP,
e.g. butterfly park, bird park, etc.
WL, HZP)
Register local varieties under the Farmers Agriculture
NBAGR,NBPGR, ICAR,
Rights Act.
Dept.,
DARE, NBA
AHLFVS, SBB

b) Ensure direct access to market for organically


farmed local crop varieties though appropriate
certification to fetch more remunerative price
to the farmer.
c) Preserve local germ-plasm of field and
horticultural crops by screening germ-plasm
for desirable characters
d) Identify hotspots of agro-biodiversity and
cropping systems and promote on-farm
conservation through training programs and
use of appropriate incentives.

Time
frame
L

Remarks

Link to national
gene bank

M
M

M
M

Agriculture
Department

DST, funding agencies.


NABARD

Agriculture
Dept.,
AHLFVS, SBB
Agriculture
Dept.,
AHLFVS, SBB

NBAGR,NBPGR, ICAR,
DARE, NBA

NBAGR,NBPGR, ICAR,
DARE, NBA

link to
different gene
banks, clonal
preservation
centers and
collections
with different
universities
and research
institutes

S IKKIM B IO DIVE R S ITY AC TIO N P LAN 35

Sl.
Category
Recommended Actions
No.
5. Impact of
a) Identify the vulnerability of different sectors of
climate change
the state, such as forest, agriculture, livestock,
and microbial diversity and Himalayan
ecosystem towards climatic change.
b) Identify priority habitats for species and
ecosystems which are at risk due to climate
change through appropriate ecological criteria.
c) Use plant phenology as an indicator of climate
change and establish permanent phenology
monitoring stations along different altitude
zones.
d) Undertake other multidisciplinary research
for developing appropriate technology for
monitoring changes on biodiversity and assess
the adaptive mechanisms for biodiversity
components.
e) Develop adaptive management approaches
for relevant activities like change in forestry
management and watershed management for
soil and moisture conservation and enhance
green cover.
f) Help retard climate change both globally
and locally and develop ways to minimize
or eliminate such activities which enhances
climate change.
6.

State
Development
Activities and
Biodiversity
Conservation

a) Involve local agencies in impact assessments


(EIA) of development projects in order to
limit the impact on surrounding biodiversity
and habitats.
b) Enforce the guidelines so that all EIAs of major
developmental projects should be properly
authenticated with herbarium specimens
and other records from project area. All RET
species falling in those area should be properly
documented.
c) Evaluate Environmental Management Plans
(EMPs) and monitor its implementation.
Prepare rehabilitation plan in case of
displacement of local people due to any project
considering their social, cultural, economic
and other livelihood needs.
d) Build capacity of the department to carry out
mid-term assessment
e) Avoid the development projects affecting
wetlands and other biodiversity rich area.

7.

Impact of
pollution

Lead Agency

Partner Agencies

DST

DFEWM, Dept. of
Agriculture, RMDD,
Animal Resources

GBPIHED
DFEWM, Sikkim
(Sikkim)
University
(BCM), BSI
DFEWM (WP),
GBPIHED
(Sikkim)

Universities
and Research
Centers

DFEWM. DST,
GBPIHED (Sikkim), WII

DFEWM (T,
Land Use & E,
WL), RMDD

Dept. of Agriculture,
Animal Resources, DST,
ICFRE

DFEWM

DFEWM (T,
WL, SBFP, Land
Use & Env),
State Pollution
Control Board
DFEWM (T,
WL, SBFP, Land
Use & Env),
State Pollution
Control Board
DFEWM (T,
WL, SBFP, Land
Use & Env),
State Pollution
Control Board

Need better
linkages to
ensure that
research results
are shared.

State Pollution Control


Board (SPCB)
CWC; GBPIHED
(Sikkim) , BSI, GSI, ZSI

Guidelines
from MoEF

CWC; GBPIHED
(Sikkim) , BSI, GSI, DST

Guidelines
from MoEF

DFEWM (T, WL, SBFP,


Land Use & Env), CWC;
GBPIHED (Sikkim),
BSI, GSI, DST, Revenue
Department

Guidelines
from MoEF,
Govt of India

DFEWM

DFEWM (FCA, Development agencies,


T, WL)
Tourism Dept & other
Line Deptts.
DFEWM
Research institutions and
(SPCB),
universities
Fisheries Dept.
DFEWM
Industries, PCB
(SPCB)

a) Conduct research to study the impacts of


different types of pollution on biodiversity and
develop preventive measures.
b) Monitor and regulate industrial effluents so
that neither terrestrial nor aquatic biological
resources are adversely affected.
c) Promote the use of organic manures, bio- Agriculture
fertilizers, bio-insecticides or biological Department
control and discourage excessive use of
chemical fertilizers and biocides.

36 S I K K I M B I O D I V E R S I T Y AC T I ON P L AN

Time
Remarks
frame
L
Included in
2011 State
Climate Change
Action Plan
S

NGOs

L
L
L

Sl.
Category
No.
8. Biodiversity
conservation
with use of
technological
interventions

9.

10.

Sustainable
utilization of
biodiversity
resources

Management
of invasive
species

Recommended Actions

Lead Agency

Partner Agencies

a) Use of conventional and biotechnological tools GBPIHED


on a pilot basis for conserving endangered (Sikkim),
species.
DFEWM
(SBFP), DST
b) Encourage value added production from RMDD,
the local bio-resources using innovative DFEWM
technologies as a tool for sustainable use of (FDA)
biodiversity for livelihood.

Sikkim university

a) Identify and document ethno-biological GBPIHED


knowledge, including the safety and efficacy of (Sikkim) ,
traditional medicinal practices.
DFEWM
(NTFP)
b) Identify alternate income generating activities RMDD,
to divert the people from livelihoods which DFEWM
negatively impact biodiversity, e.g. grazing,
overexploitation bioresources, etc.
c) Promote the management of bamboos and Agriculture
canes and other NTFPs, sustainably with the Dept., DFEWM
participation of local communities and other (NTFP)
stakeholders and make a data base.
d) Promote agro-forestry on private lands.
Agriculture
Dept/DFEWM.
e) Promote bee keeping for improving RMDD, Khadi
pollination and providing livelihood to local & Gramodyog
communities.
f) Document, disseminate and promote best
practices of traditional method of bioresources through proper study on traditional
methods of utilization.
g) Promote ex-situ cultivation of high value trade
taxa, including medicinal plants to support
livelihood of communities and ensure that
wild stock is not depleted.
h) Extend traditional sustainable land use
practices which have been validated through
research.
a) Conduct research on ecological assessment of
invasive species and related habitat changes,
and maintain a database.

RMDD,
DFEWM
(SBFP)
GBPIHED
(Sikkim) ,
DFEWM
Agriculture
Dept

GBPIHED
(Sikkim) ,
DFEWM (T,
WL, SBFP),
b) Strengthen measures to contain and manage DFEWM (T,
any spread of invasive species. Develop inter- WL)
sectoral approach for the same.
c) Develop system for early warning on new DFEWM
sightings of invasive species in the state.
(T, WL)/
Agriculture
d) Support capacity building particularly at field DFEWM (T,
level to control spread of invasive species.
WL)
e) Support restoration of area affected by invasive
species, including occupied butterfly habitat,
by planting or regeneration native species.
g) Strengthen existing quarantine arrangement
to ensure that invasive species do not enter
Sikkim through international borders of three
neighboring countries. Establish a quarantine
cell in the state.

Time
frame
M

Agriculture Department,
Animal Husbandry,
DST, Dept. of Small
, Cottage Industries,
Tribal Welfare, DFEWM,
NGOs
DFEWM (T, SBFP),
Ayurveda, BSI

DFEWM (T, WL, SBFP),


Tourism Department,
NGOs

Industries Dept.,
RMDD, DHH, Tourism,
DST

RMDD, NGOs

DFEWM, Dept. of
Agriculture, Industries
and Tribal Welfare,
GBPIHED (Sikkim),
HRDD
Dept. of Tribal
Welfare, Agriculture
Dept, Ayurveda Dept,
GBPIHED (Sikkim)
DFEWM (T, Wildlife,
NTFP), RMDD,
Ayurveda, Men-TseKhang, Agriculture Dept.
RMDD, DFEWM (social
forestry)

BSI, Agriculture Dept.,


NCBS, IBSD, Animal
Husbandry Dept.

Fishery , Agriculture,
Animal Husbandry

Fishery , Agriculture,
RMDD, GBPIHED
(Sikkim)
Agriculture , Fishery
Dept., Animal
Husbandry Dept.
DFEWM
Agriculture , Fishery
Dept., BSI, other
developmental agencies,
GBPIHED (Sikkim)
DFEWM (SBB) Fishery Dept. Animal
Agriculture
Husbandry Dept.
Dept, ICAR

Remarks

M
S
M

S IKKIM B IO DIVE R S ITY AC TIO N P LAN 37

Sl.
Category
No.
11. Valuation of
Biodiversity
Resources

12.

13

14.

Recommended Actions
a) Develop a system of natural resource
accounting for Sikkim reflecting both
ecological and economic values of biodiversity,
using UN guidelines, wherever necessary.
b) Support studies to validate the valuation
process.

Promotion of
Awareness on
Biodiversity

a) Provide training to government and nongovernment agencies to strengthen their


role in biodiversity conservation. Increase
the awareness of law enforcement staff on
biodiversity and identification or endangered
flora and fauna by providing training and
relevant materials.
b) Produce and disseminate literature based on
research and documents on best practices to
relevant functionaries and stakeholders, also
using electronic media.
Policy,
a) Strengthen the capacity of state and local
legislation and
institutions for effective enforcement of the
Biodiversity Acts, including ensuring TK and
administrative
ABS mechanisms.
measures
b) Review the policies and laws for conservation
and management of sacred landscapes,
grasslands and other areas of importance for
biodiversity conservation.
c) Prepare Peoples Biodiversity Registers and
strengthen mechanisms with the support of
technical institutions, JFMCs, EDCs and PSSs.
d) Include the evaluation of biodiversity as an
integral part of any development project, and
ensure that the design of the project includes
measures to minimize any loss of biodiversity
and is vetted by experts on biodiversity.
Regional,
a) Establish contact with UN bodies like
national and
UNESCO, UNEP, Ramsar secretariat, IUCN,
international
ICIMOD and donor agencies through GoI
coordination
regarding collaboration or obtaining technical
support for biodiversity conservation.
b) Seek the cooperation of other research
institutions and universities in neighboring
states for assisting in different aspects of
biodiversity conservation including surveys
and studies.
c) Maintain a database of scientific and technical
persons in Sikkim with expertise in flora and
fauna to facilitate collaborative work among
the organizations in Sikkim.
d) Annual brainstorming workshops to share
and document the work areas of different
public sector and private institutions working
in the field of conservation so that work is
not duplicated and experience and lessons
learned further documented through annual
newsletter.
e) Outsource research or establish joint ventures
with research agencies.

38 S I K K I M B I O D I V E R S I T Y AC T I ON P L AN

Time
frame
M

Lead Agency

Partner Agencies

GBPIHED
(Sikkim)
DFEWM( WP)

DST, IIFM, ICFRE and


related organizations

DFEWM
(SBFP)

DFEWM with support of


GBPIHED (Sikkim) and
related organizations and
experts
GBPIHED (Sikkim) , BSI
DIET, AATI, RMDD,
SIRD, Tourism Dept.,
security forces, NGOs
and related organizations
and experts

RMDD, NGOs,
GBPIHED (Sikkim),
HRDD, ICAR, NCBS

State Biodiversity Board,


Home (Police)

GBPIHED (Sikkim) ,
BSI, DST, Ecclesiastical
and Cultural Dept., law
Dept., Home Dept., etc
State Biodiversity Board

DFEWM (FCA, Line Departments,


T, WL), project GBPIHED (Sikkim), BSI
proponents

DFEWM,
(HR wing,
trainers will be
identified)

DFEWM
(Extension
wing, SBFP),
IPR
DFEWM (SBB)

DFEWM (T,
WL, SBB)
DFEWM (SBB,
BMC, ENVIS)

DFEWM (Land
Use & E., T,
WL) (with
MoEF, Govt of
India)
DFEWM
(DREE)

R&D institutes like


GBPIHED (Sikkim)

R&D organizations and


relevant universities

DFEWM
(ENVIS, SBB,
Research wing),
DST
DFEWM
(SBFP, SBB),
GBPIHED
(Sikkim) and
other Research
Institutions
DFEWM

S-L

Other research
organizations

Remarks

6. Abbreviations
BSI

Botanical Survey of India

KNP

Khangchendzonga National Park

CO

Commanding Officer

LMOs

Living Modified Organisms

CZA

Central Zoo Authority

MoEF

EDC

Eco-development Committee

Ministry of Environment and


Forests

FCA

Forest Conservation Act

NGOs

Non Government Organizations

NTFPs

Non-Timber Forest Products

PAs

Protected Areas

GBPIHED G. B. Pant Institute for Himalayan


Environment and Development
GIS

Geographical Information System

PSS

Pokhri Sanrakshan Samiti

GO

Government Officers

PWD

Public Works Department

GOI

Government of India

SAP

Strategy and Action Plan

GOS

Government of Sikkim

UGC

University Grant Commission

ICAR

Indian Council for Agriculture


Research

UN

United Nations

IPM

Integrated Pest Management

IWDP

Integrated Wasteland
Development Project

ICFRE

Indian Council of Forest Research


and Education

IUCN

International Union for


Conservation of Nature

JFMC

Joint Forest Management


Committee

KCC

Khangchendzonga Conservation
Committee

KBR

Khangchendzonga Biosphere
Reserve

UNESCO United Nations Educational,


Scientific and Cultural
Organization
UNEP

United Nations Environment


Programme

ZSI

Zoological Survey of India

WII

Wildlife Institute of India

WPA

Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972

WLS

Wildlife Sanctuary

WB

West Bengal

BIS

Bureau of Indian Standards

CBD

Convention on Biological
Diversity

S IKKIM B IO DIVE R S ITY AC TIO N P LAN 39

7. References
Acharya, B., Vijayan, L. and Chettri, B.
2010. The bird community of Shingba
Rhododendron wildlife sanctuary, Sikkim,
Eastern Himalaya, India. Tropical Ecology
51(2): 149-159
Ali, S. 1962. The Birds of Sikkim. Oxford
University Press. New Delhi.
Badola, H.K. and Butola, J.S. 2005. Effect of
Ploughing Depth on the Growth and Yield of
Heracleum candicans: a Threatened Medicinal
Herb and a Less-explored Potential Crop of
the Himalayan Region. Journal of Mountain
Science 2 (2): 173-180.
Badola, H.K. 2010b. A vegetable fern,
Diplazium esculentum - potential to food
security and socio-economic development in
Himalaya. Non-wood News (Rome) 20: 10-11.
Badola, H.K. and Pradhan, B.K. 2010a.
Discovery of new populations of a rare species
Rhododendron niveum in Khangchendzonga
National Park, Sikkim. The Rhododendron
(Off. Jour Australian Rhodo. Soc) 50: 41-49.
Badola, H.K, and Pradhan, BK. 2010b.
Population exploration of Rhododendron
maddenii in Sikkim, bordering
Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve questioning rarity and endangerment. NeBIO
1(1): 1-9.
Badola, H.K. and Pradhan, B.K. 2011.
Economic viability of cultivation of Swertia
chirayita, a high value endangered medicinal
herb in Himalaya (J. Medicinal & Spice
Plants, Germany) 16(3):118-124. [+ cover
photograph].
Badola, H.K., Singh, K.K., Lepcha, G, Kumar,
S and Pradhan, B. 2006. Plants Conservation
Park in Gangtok-Sikkim Zoo. HimaParyavaran 18(2): 15-16.

40 S I K K I M B I O D I V E R S I T Y AC T I ON P L AN

Buffum, B., Lawrence, A. and Temphel, K. J.


2010. Equity in Community Forests in Bhutan.
Int. Forestry Review 12(3): 187-199.
Chettri, N., Jackson, R. and Sharma, E. 2005.
Birds of Khecheopalri and Yuksom-Dzongri
trekking corridor West Sikkim. Journal of Hill
Research 18: 16-25.
Ganguli-Lachungpa, U.1996: Avifauna of
trans-Himalayan and alpine grasslands in
Sikkim, India. Proceedings of the Salim Ali
Centenary Seminar, 1976. pp 196-207
Gurung, B. 2002. The Medicinal Plants of the
Sikkim Himalayas. Sikkim, India
Haribal, M. 1992. The Butterflies of Sikkim
Himalaya and their Natural History.Sikkim
Nature Conservation Foundation (SNCF),
Gangtok, Sikkim
Hooker, J. D. 1855. Himalayan Journals.
Today & Tomorrows Printers & Publishers,
24B/5 Original Road, New Delhi. (4th Indian
Reprint 1987).
Idrisi, M.S., Badola, H.K. and Singh, R. 2010.
Indigenous knowledge and use of medicinal
plants by local communities in Rangit Valley,
South Sikkim, India. NeBIO 1(2): 34-45.
Islam, Z.M. and A. R. Rahmani (2004)
Important Bird areas in India: priority site for
conservation. Bombay Natural History Society,
Mumbai, 989-931 pp.
Lucksom, S.Z. 2007. The Orchids of Sikkim
and north east Himalaya. Concept, Siliguri,
India.
Kholia, B.S. 2010. Ferns and Fern-allies of
Sikkim. Sikkim State Biodiversity Borard,
DFEWMD, Govt of Sikkim, Gangtok, Sikkim.

Mainra, A., H.K. Badola and B. Mohanty


(Eds.) 2010. Proc., International Conference,
Rhododendrons:Conservation and Sustainable
Use, FEWMD, Government of Sikkim,
Gangtok-Sikkim. Printed at CONCEPT,
Siliguri, India. p. 100.
MoEF, 2008. National Biodiversity Action
Plan.

Sharma, T. R. and Lachungpa, U. 2002.


Status, Distribution and Management of
Mountain Ungulates in Sikkim. Envis Bulletin
1(1): 38-43.
Sikkim Biodiversity Strategy and Action
Plan 2003. Government of Sikkim, DFEWM,
Sikkim..

Myers, N., Mittermier, R.A., Mittermier,


C.G., da Fonseca, G.A.B. and Kent, J.2000.
Biodiversity hotspots for conservation
priorities. Nature 40: 853858.

Singh P. and Chauhan AS. 1997. Plant


diversity in Sikkim Himalaya. In: Hajra PK,
Mudgal V, editors. Plant Diversity Hotspots in
India: An Overview. Calcutta, India: BSI, pp
137162.

Pradhan, B.K. and Badola, H.K. 2008a.


Ethnomedicinal plant use by Lepcha tribe of
Dzongu valley, bordering Khangchendzonga
Biosphere Reserve, in North Sikkim, India.
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
4:22 doi:10.1186/1746-4269-4-22.

Singh, H.B and Sundriyal, R.C. 2005.


Composition, economic use and nutrient
contents of alpine vegetation in the
Kanchendzonga Biosphere Rserve, Sikkim
Himalaya India. Artic, Antarctic and Alpine
Research 37: 591-601.

Pradhan, B.K. and Badola, H.K. 2008b. Seed


germination response of populations of Swertia
chirayita following periodical storage. Seed
Technology Vol. 30: 63-69.

Tambe, S. and Rawat, G.S. 2010. The


Alpine Vegetation of the Khangchendzonga
Landscape, Sikkim Himalaya. Mountn. Res.
Dev. 30:266-274.

Pradhan, U.C. and S.T. Lachungpa,


1990. Sikkim Himalayan Rhododendrons,
Primulaceae Books, Kalimpong, West Bengal,
p. 130.

Leopard (HZP)

S IKKIM B IO DIVE R S ITY AC TIO N P LAN 41

Contacts of working group members


Dr. Hemant K. Badola
Scientist E (Conservation of Biodiversity),
GB Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment
& Development, Sikkim Unit, Gangtok
(Campus: Pangthang), Sikkim, India
(E-mail: hkbadola@gmail.com,
hkbadola@rediffmail.com)
Dr. B. S. Kholia
Scientist C, Botanical Survey of India,
Gangtok, Sikkim
(E-mail: bskholia_bsi@yahoo.co.in)
Ms. Usha Lachungpa
Principal Research officer, Forest
Environment & Wildlife Management
Department, Govt of Sikkim, Gangtok,
Sikkim, India
(E-mail: ushaglachungpa@gmail.com)
Dr. Bill Buffum
Team Leader/Participatory Forest
Management Specialist, The Louis Berger
Group, Inc., Sikkim Biodiversity Conservation
and Forest Management Project
(E-mail: bill@lbgetindia.com)
Dr. Jiro Iguchi
Biodiversity Conservation Consultant,
Project Management Consultant, Sikkim
Biodiversity Conservation and Forest
Management Project,
(E-mail: jiroiguchi@mac.com)
Mr. Saroj K. Patnaik
Protected Area Management Consultant,
Project Management Consultant, Sikkim
Biodiversity Conservation and Forest
Management Project, 81, Fishery Lane,
Budheswari Colony,
Bhubaneswar - 751006. India
(Email:saroj_p9@yahoo.com

42 S I K K I M B I O D I V E R S I T Y AC T I ON P L AN

Acknowledgement
Various stakeholders inclusive of
representatives from other government
departments, representatives of R & D
Institutes of Sikkim, representatives of JFMCs,
EDCs, local communities, NGOs, local tourism
bodies, tour and hotel operators, power
developers, and national and international
consultants from Project Management
Consultants of SBFP. Forest department
acknowledges the Working Committee
for analysis and editorial works. Dechen
Lachungpa, Dr. Sandeep Tambe (Sikkim
Biodiversity Book), Kusal Gurung and Khangri
Tours and Treks for providing photographs.

S IKKIM B IO DIVE R S ITY AC TIO N P LAN 43

8. Process Involved in the Formulation of


The Sikkim Biodiversity Action Plan
Sikkim is rich in biodiversity compared to
its size in the world. This is because of the
enormous altitudinal gradient creating a
range of climatic zones making a marvelous
diversity of flora and fauna. Hence, our state
gifted with abundant natural resources needs
conservation, preservation and protection.
Rapid decline in biodiversity has been
happening worldwide and this poses a serious
threat to mankind. An analysis of the current
trends and future scenarios shows that this
loss is likely to continue in the foreseeable
times. Human activities have enhanced the
rate of loss of biodiversity and the ecosystem
services they provide. Factors such as growth in
population, development imperatives, habitat
fragmentation, introduction of invasive alien
species and more recently, global warming in
the last few decades have resulted in pressure
on biodiversity world over.
On 15th September 2011, Forests,
Environment and Wildlife Management
Department (FEWMD) organized a workshop
at Forest Conference Hall, Deorali to review
and formulate Sikkim Biodiversity Action
Plan (SBAP) previously called as Sikkim
Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (SBSAP).
This workshop was to review the SBSAP
that was prepared in 2003, in consultations
with various stakeholders all over Sikkim.
Representatives from various government
agencies, representatives of many R & D
Institutes of Sikkim, representatives of JFMCs,
EDCs, local communities, NGOs, local tourism
bodies, tour and hotel operators, power

44 S I K K I M B I O D I V E R S I T Y AC T I ON P L AN

developers, and national and international


consultants from Project Management
Consultants of SBFP also attended the
workshop.
At present new environmental issues
have come up which has their effects on
the biodiversity of the state. SBAP contains
identification and analysis of problems
related with biodiversity conservation in
the state, as well as detailed action plans for
the government and communities. In this
workshop, group discussions were held on
developing strategies for conservation of
diversity of flora, fauna, agro biodiversity,
traditional ecological knowledge and
microbial diversity. The outcome of the group
discussions, analysed by a committee, gave
draft for the Sikkim Biodiversity Action Plan
and uploaded in the departmental and project
websites inviting comments from the public in
general.
A final workshop held on 29th June 2012 at
Forest Conference Hall, Deorali, the revision
was finalized. Many stakeholders and officials
from various line departments provided inputs,
which gave shape the revision as per the need
of the present issues concerning conservation
of biodiversity.
The Japan International Cooperation
Agency (JICA) assisted Sikkim Biodiversity
Conservation and Forest Management Project
(SBFP) organized these workshops along with
the specialists in the Project Management
Consultant.

design & printed at: CONCEPT, +91 94340 44739

Sikkim Biodiversity Conservation & Forest Management Project (SBFP)


Forest, Environment & Wildlife Management Department
Forest Secretariat, Deorali, Gangtok
e-mail: dfo-bc@sbfpjica.org