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MODELING AND SIMULATION OF A GAS-TURBINE

SYSTEM

Assumptions:
i.

The mass added in the form of fuel in the combustor is negligible

ii.

Pressure drop in the combustor is negligible so that p2=p3

iii.

Heat transfer to the environment is insignificant

iv.

Assume perfect gas properties throughout the cycle with a constant CP of 1.015kJ/(kg.K)

Unknowns:
PC : Power required by compressor in kW
PS : Output power of the turbine in kW
PT : Power delivered by the turbine in kW
p2 : Compressor pressure in kPa
p3 : Combustor pressure in kPa
p2=p3=p (according to the assumption-ii)
T2 : Combustor inlet temperature in oC
T3 : Combustor outlet temperature in oC
m : Mass flow rate in kg/s

Knowns:
The rate of energy added to the fluid at the combustor by burning fuel, q=5500kW
Compressor inlet air temperature, T1=29oC
Compressor inlet air pressure, p1=101kPa
Turbine exhaust gas pressure, p4=101kPa

(a) Developing a mathematical model for the system

Performance characteristics of compressor:


Variation of p with m
Assumption: performance of the compressor is represented by a second order algebraic equation with
one independent variable. Then a polynomial of degree n = 2 can be employed to exactly fit 2 + 1 = 3
data points of figure 2 graph 1.

Then the general form of the polynomial is taken as


p = f(m) = a0 + a1m + a2m2 ..1*
by figure 2graph 1
at m=3kg/s, p=310kPa.
by 1*; 310 = a0+ 3a1 + 9a2....1
at m=5kg/s, p=240kPa
by 1*; 240 = a0 + 5a1+ 25a22
at m=7kg/s, p=110kPa
by 1*; 110 = a0 + 7a1 + 49a23
by solving simultaneous equations 1, 2 and 3;
a0 = 302.5
a1 = 25
a2 = -7.5
According to 1*
p = 302.5 + 25m 7.5m21*

Variation of Pc with p
Assume above variation is represented by a second order algebraic equation with one independent
variable. Then a polynomial of degree n = 2 can be employed to exactly fit 2 + 1 = 3 data points of
figure2 graph2.

The general form of the polynomial is then taken as


Pc = f(p) = a0 + a1p +a2p22*
by figure 2 graph 2
at p = 100kPa, pc = 40kW
by 2*; 40 = a0 + 100a1 + 1002a2 1

at p = 210kPa, pc = 160kW
by 2*; 160 = a0 + 210a1 + 2102a22
at p = 315kPa, pc = 360kW
by 2*; 360 = a0 + 315a1 + 3152a2 3
by solving simultaneous equations 1, 2 and 3;
a0 = 10.4017
a1 = -0.0826
a2 = 0.0038
According to 2*
Pc = 10.4017 0.0826p + 0.0038p22*
Performance characteristics of gas turbine:
Variation of m with p and T3
Assume above variation is represented by a second order algebraic equation with two independent
variables. Then following polynomial can be employed to exactly fit 9 data points of figure3 graph1.

Then the general form of the polynomial is


m = (a0 + a1p + a2p2) + (b0 + b1p + b2p2)T3+ (c0 + c1p + c2p2)T32.3*
by figure3 graph1;
at T3 = 5000 C;
by 3*; m = (a0 + a1p + a2p2) + (b0 + b1p + b2p2)x500 + (c0 + c1p + c2p2)x500 2
= (a0 + 500b0 + 5002c0)+ (a1 + 500b1 + 500 2c1) p + (a2 + 500b2 + 5002c2)p2
at p = 100kpa , m =3.5kg / s
by 3*; 3.5 = a0 + 500b0 + 500 2c0 + 100a1 +500x100b1+ 5002x100c1 + 1002a2 + 500x1002b2 +
1002x1002c21
at p = 200kPa, m = 5.2 kg/s
by 3*; 5.2 = a0 + 500b0 + 5002c0 + 200a1 + 500x200b1 + 5002x200c1 + 2002a2 + 500x2002b2 +
5002x2002c22
at p = 300kPa, m = 6.4kg/s
by 3*; 6.4 = a0 + 500b0 + 5002c0 + 300a1 + 500x300b1 + 5002x300c1 + 3002a2 + 500x3002b2 +
5002x3002c23

at T3 = 6250C;
by 3*; m = (a0+ a1p+ a2p2) + (b0 + b1p + b2p2)x625 + (c0+ c1p+ c2p2)x6252
= (a0 + 625b0 + 6252c0)+ (a1 + 625b1 + 6252c1) p + (a2 + 625b2 + 6252c2)p2
at p = 120kPa , m = 3.1kg/s
by 3*; 3.1 = a0 + 625b0 + 6252c0 + 120a1 + 120x625b1+ 120x6252c1 + 1202a2 +1202x6252b2 +
1202x6252c24
at p = 225kPa, m = 4.4kg/s
by 3*; 4.4 = a0 + 625b0 + 6252c0 + 225a1 + 225x625b2 + 225x6252c1 + 2252a2 + 2252x6252b2 +
2252x6252c25
at p = 310kPa, m = 5.2kg/s
by 3*; 5.2 = a0 + 625b0 + 6252c0 + 310a1 + 310x625b2 + 310x6252c1 + 2252a2 + 2252 x6252b2 +
2252x6252c26
at T3 = 7500 C;
by 3*; m = (a0+ a1p+ a2p2) + (b0+ b1p + b2p2)x625 + (c0+ c1p+ c2p2)x6252
= (a0 + 625b0 + 6252c0) + (a1 + 625b1 + 6252c1) p + (a2 + 625b2 + 6252c2)p2
at p = 140kPa, m =2.6kg/s
by 3*; 2.6 = a0 + 750b0 + 7502c0 + 140a1 + 140x750b1 + 140x7502c1 + 1402a2 + 1402x7502b2 +
1402x7002c27
at p = 250kPa, m = 3.6kg/s
by 3*; 3.6 = a0 + 750b0 + 7502c0 + 250a1 + 250x750b2 + 250x7502c1 + 2502a2 + 2502x7502b2 +
2502x7502c28
at p = 330kPa, m = 4.2kg/s
by 3*; 4.2 = a0 + 750b0 + 7502c0 + 330a1 + 330x750b2 + 330x7502c1 + 3302a2 + 3302x7502b2 +
3302x7502c29
by solving simultaneous equations 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,6,7,8 and 9 using Matlab
a0 = 2.6266
b0 = -3.7133x10-3
c0 = 2.1201x10-6

a1 = 0.0483
b1 = -4.7066x10-5
c1 = -1.2062x10-9
a2 = -4.6019x10-5
b2 = -2.5725x10-8
c2 = -3.2626x10-11
According to 3*;
m = (2.6266 + 0.0483p -4.6019x10-5p2) + (-3.7133x10-3 -4.7066x10-5p -2.5725x10-8p2)T3 +
(2.1201x10-6 - 1.2062x10-9p -3.2626x10-11p2)T32.3*
Variation of PT with p and T3
Assume above variation is represented by a second order algebraic equation with two independent
variables. Then following polynomial can be employed to exactly fit 9 data points of figure3 graph2.

Then the general form of the polynomial is


PT = (a0 + a1p + a2p2) + (b0 + b1p + b2p2) T3 + (c0 + c1p + c2p2)T32.4*
By figure 3 graph 2
at T3 = 7500 C;
by 4*; PT = (a0 + a1p + a2p2) + (b0 + b1p + b2p2)x750 + (c0 + c1p + c2p2)x7502
= (a0 + 750b0 + 7502c0) + (a1 + 750b1 + 7502c1)P + (a2 + 750b2 + 7502c2)P2
at p = 100kPa, PT =400kW
by 4*; 400 = a0 + 750b0 + 7502c0 + 100a1 + 750x100b1 + 7502x100c1 + 1002a2 +750x1002b2 +
7502x1002c21
at p = 200kPa, PT = 1000kW
by 4*; 1000 = a0 + 750b0 + 7502c0 + 200a1 + 750x200b1 + 7502x200c1 + 2002a2 + 750x2002b2 +
7502x2002c22
at p = 300kPa, PT = 1550kW
by 4*; 1550 = a0 + 750b0 + 7502c0 + 300a1 + 750x300b1 + 7502x300c1 + 3002a2 + 750x3002b2 +
7502x 3002c23

at T3 = 6250C;
by 4*; PT = (a0 + a1p + a2p2) + (b0 + b1p + b2p2)x625 + (c0 + c1p + c2p2)x6252
= (a0 + 625b0 + 6252c0) + (a1+ 625b1 + 6252c1) P + (a2 + 625b2 + 6252c2)P2
at p = 100kPa, PT = 350kW
by 4*; 350 = a0 + 625b0 + 6252c0 + 100a1 + 625x100b1 + 6252x100c1 + 1002a2 + 625x1002b2 +
6252x1002c2.4
at p = 200kPa, PT = 900kW
by 4*; 900 = a0 + 625b0 + 6252c0 + 200a1 + 625x200b1 + 6252x200c1 + 2002a2 + 625x2002b2 +
6252x2002c2.5
at p = 300kPa, PT = 1400kW
by 4*; 1400 = a0 + 625b0 + 6252c0 + 300a1 + 625x300b1 + 6252x300c1 + 3002a2 + 625x3002b2 +
6252x3002c2.6
at T3 = 5000C;
by 4*; PT = (a0+ a1p + a2p2) + (b0+ b1p + b2p2)x500 + (c0+ c1p + c2p2)x5002
= (a0 + 500b0 + 5002c0) + (a1 + 500b1+ 5002c1)p + (a2 + 500b2 + 5002c2)p2
at p = 100kPa, PT = 300kW
by 4*; 300 = a0 + 500b0 + 5002c0 + 100a1 + 500x100b1 + 5002x100c1 + 1002a2 + 500x1002b2 +
5002x1002c2.7
at p = 200kPa, PT = 800kW
by 4*; 800 = a0 + 500b0 + 5002c0 + 200a1 + 500x200b1 + 5002x200c1 + 2002a2 + 500x2002b2 +
5002x2002c2.8
at p = 300kPa, PT = 1250kW
by 4*; 1250 = a0 + 500b0 + 5002c0 + 300a1 + 500x300b1 + 5002x300c1 + 3002a2 + 500x3002b2 +
5002x3002c2.9
By solving simultaneous equations 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,6,7,8 and 9 using Matlab
a0 = -250
b0 = 0
c0 = 0

a1 = 3.75
b1 = 0.004
c1 = 0
a2 = -0.0025
b2 = 0
c2 = 0
According to 4*;
PT = (-250 + 3.75p -0.0025p2) + 0.004pT3.4*
Energy Balance for compressor
5*

PC + mCPT1 = mCPT2 + VCP

assuming system is at steady state;


by 5*; PC= mCP(T2-T1)
PC = mx1.03x(T2 -25)
PC = 1.03m(T2 -25).5*
Energy balance for combustor
q + mCPT2 = mCPT3 + VCP

.6*

assuming system is at steady state;


q = mCP(T3 T2)
2500 = 1.03m(T3 T2).6*
Shaft power
PT = PC + PS
PS = PT PC........7*
Mathematical model for the system;
p = 302.5 + 25m 7.5m2.. 1*
PC = 10.4017 0.0826p + 0.0038p2... 2*
m = (2.6266 + 0.0483p - 4.6019x10-5p2) + (-3.7133x 10-3 - 4.7066x10-5p -2.5725x10-8p2)T3 +
(2.1201x10-6 - 1.2062x10-9p - 3.2626x10-11p2)T32 3*
PT = (-250+3.75p+ - 0.0025p2) + 0.004pT3... 4*
Pc = 1.03m(T2 -25). 5*
2500 = 1.03m(T3 T2).... 6*
Ps = PT PC ... 7*

b) Information flow diagram

m
Compressor

p
Compressor

m
Turbine

T3
PC
Compressor

T2

PT
Combustor

Shaft
Power
PC

PS

c) For iteration method of successive substitution, Initial guess for m; m = 1kg/s is taken
by 1*; P = 302.5 + 25x1 7.5x12
= 320kPa
by 2*; PC = 10.4017 0.0826x320 + 0.0038x3202
= 373.0897kW
by 5*; T2 = 373.0897/(1.03x1) + 25
= 387.223oC
by 6*; T2 = 2500/(1.03x1) + 387.0897
= 2814.4075oC
by 4*; PT = -250 + 3.75x320 0.0025x3202 + 0.004x320x2814.4075
= 4296.4416kW
by 9*; PS = 4296.4416 -373.0897
= 3923.3519kW
by 3*; m = 2.6266 + 0.0483x320 - 4.6019x10-5x 3202 -3.7133x10-3 - 4.7066x10-5x320 +
2.5725x10-8x 3202x2814.4075 +2.1201x10-6 - 1.2062x10-9x320 + 3.2626x10-11x 3202x
2814.40752
= 8.1439kg/s
m = 8.1439kg/s is used as second guess for the second iteration. Above method is repeated until the
calculated value of PS is converged. Results obtained by the above method is illustrated in following
table.
mguess
(kg/s)
1.0000
8.1439
1.9285
0.6522
1.5000
1.4500
1.4300
1.4290
1.4280
1.4270

p(kPa)
320.0000
8.6770
322.8190
315.6142
323.1250
322.9813
322.9133
322.9097
322.9061
322.9025

Pc(kW)
373.0897
9.9711
379.7430
362.8588
380.4687
380.1276
379.9663
379.9579
379.9494
379.9409

T2(oC)
387.2230
26.1887
216.1728
565.1870
271.2580
279.5213
282.9716
283.1464
283.3214
283.4966

T3(oC)
2814.4075
324.2269
1474.7403
4286.9309
1889.3810
1953.4417
1980.3034
1981.6659
1983.0304
1984.3967

PT(kW)
4296.4416
-206.3960
2604.3381
6096.5875
3142.7193
3224.0876
3258.1071
3259.8312
3261.5577
3263.2863

mPS(kW)
m(kg/s) mguess
3923.3519 8.1439 7.1439
-216.3671 1.9285 -6.2153
2224.5951 0.6522 -1.2764
5733.7287 36.3657 35.7135
2762.2506 1.0908 -0.4092
2843.9600 1.3102 -0.1398
2878.1407 1.4143 -0.0157
2879.8733 1.4197 -0.0093
2881.6082 1.4252 -0.0028
2883.3454 1.4307 0.0037

ANNEXURE
M-file for calculating coefficients of equation 1*
A=[1 3 9;1 5 25; 1 7 49];
B=[310;240;110];
X=A\B %X=[a0; a1; a2]

M-file for calculating coefficients of equation 2*


A=[1 100 100^2;1 210 210^2; 1 315 315^2];
B=[40;160;360];
X=A\B %X=[a0; a1; a2]

M-file for calculating coefficients of equation 3*


format long
A=[1 500 500^2 100 500*100 (500^2)*100 100^2 500*100^2 (500^2)*(100^2);
1 500 500^2 200 500*200 (500^2)*200 200^2 500*200^2 (500^2)*(200^2);
1 500 500^2 300 500*300 (500^2)*300 300^2 500*300^2 (500^2)*(300^2);
1 625 625^2 120 625*120 (625^2)*120 120^2 625*120^2 (625^2)*(120^2);
1 625 625^2 225 625*225 (665^2)*225 225^2 625*225^2 (625^2)*(225^2);
1 625 625^2 310 625*310 (625^2)*310 310^2 625*310^2 (625^2)*(310^2);
1 750 750^2 140 750*140 (750^2)*140 140^2 750*140^2 (750^2)*(140^2);
1 750 750^2 250 750*250 (750^2)*250 250^2 750*250^2 (750^2)*(250^2);
1 750 750^2 330 750*330 (750^2)*330 330^2 750*330^2 (750^2)*(330^2)];
B=[3.5; 5.2; 6.4; 3.1; 4.4; 5.2; 2.6; 3.6; 4.2];
X=A\B %X=[a0; a1; a2; b0; b1; b2; c0; c1; c2]

M-file for calculating coefficients of equation 4*


format long
C=[1 750 750^2 100 750*100 (750^2)*100 100^2 750*100^2 (750^2)*(100^2);
1 750 750^2 200 750*200 (750^2)*200 200^2 750*200^2 (750^2)*(200^2);
1 750 750^2 300 750*300 (750^2)*300 300^2 750*300^2 (750^2)*(300^2);
1 625 625^2 100 625*100 (625^2)*100 100^2 625*100^2 (625^2)*(100^2);
1 625 625^2 200 625*200 (625^2)*200 200^2 625*200^2 (625^2)*(200^2);
1 625 625^2 300 625*300 (625^2)*300 300^2 625*300^2 (625^2)*(300^2);
1 500 500^2 100 500*100 (500^2)*100 100^2 500*100^2 (500^2)*(100^2);
1 500 500^2 200 500*200 (500^2)*200 200^2 500*200^2 (500^2)*(200^2);
1 500 500^2 300 500*300 (500^2)*300 300^2 500*300^2 (500^2)*(300^2)];
D=[400; 1000; 1550; 350; 900; 1400; 300; 800; 1250];
Y=C\D %X=[a0; a1; a2; b0; b1; b2; c0; c1; c2]