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Nov 11, 2014

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MODELING AND SIMULATION OF A GAS-TURBINE SYSTEM

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MODELING AND SIMULATION OF A GAS-TURBINE SYSTEM

© All Rights Reserved

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SYSTEM

Assumptions:

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

Assume perfect gas properties throughout the cycle with a constant CP of 1.015kJ/(kg.K)

Unknowns:

PC : Power required by compressor in kW

PS : Output power of the turbine in kW

PT : Power delivered by the turbine in kW

p2 : Compressor pressure in kPa

p3 : Combustor pressure in kPa

p2=p3=p (according to the assumption-ii)

T2 : Combustor inlet temperature in oC

T3 : Combustor outlet temperature in oC

m : Mass flow rate in kg/s

Knowns:

The rate of energy added to the fluid at the combustor by burning fuel, q=5500kW

Compressor inlet air temperature, T1=29oC

Compressor inlet air pressure, p1=101kPa

Turbine exhaust gas pressure, p4=101kPa

Variation of p with m

Assumption: performance of the compressor is represented by a second order algebraic equation with

one independent variable. Then a polynomial of degree n = 2 can be employed to exactly fit 2 + 1 = 3

data points of figure 2 graph 1.

p = f(m) = a0 + a1m + a2m2 ..1*

by figure 2graph 1

at m=3kg/s, p=310kPa.

by 1*; 310 = a0+ 3a1 + 9a2....1

at m=5kg/s, p=240kPa

by 1*; 240 = a0 + 5a1+ 25a22

at m=7kg/s, p=110kPa

by 1*; 110 = a0 + 7a1 + 49a23

by solving simultaneous equations 1, 2 and 3;

a0 = 302.5

a1 = 25

a2 = -7.5

According to 1*

p = 302.5 + 25m 7.5m21*

Variation of Pc with p

Assume above variation is represented by a second order algebraic equation with one independent

variable. Then a polynomial of degree n = 2 can be employed to exactly fit 2 + 1 = 3 data points of

figure2 graph2.

Pc = f(p) = a0 + a1p +a2p22*

by figure 2 graph 2

at p = 100kPa, pc = 40kW

by 2*; 40 = a0 + 100a1 + 1002a2 1

at p = 210kPa, pc = 160kW

by 2*; 160 = a0 + 210a1 + 2102a22

at p = 315kPa, pc = 360kW

by 2*; 360 = a0 + 315a1 + 3152a2 3

by solving simultaneous equations 1, 2 and 3;

a0 = 10.4017

a1 = -0.0826

a2 = 0.0038

According to 2*

Pc = 10.4017 0.0826p + 0.0038p22*

Performance characteristics of gas turbine:

Variation of m with p and T3

Assume above variation is represented by a second order algebraic equation with two independent

variables. Then following polynomial can be employed to exactly fit 9 data points of figure3 graph1.

m = (a0 + a1p + a2p2) + (b0 + b1p + b2p2)T3+ (c0 + c1p + c2p2)T32.3*

by figure3 graph1;

at T3 = 5000 C;

by 3*; m = (a0 + a1p + a2p2) + (b0 + b1p + b2p2)x500 + (c0 + c1p + c2p2)x500 2

= (a0 + 500b0 + 5002c0)+ (a1 + 500b1 + 500 2c1) p + (a2 + 500b2 + 5002c2)p2

at p = 100kpa , m =3.5kg / s

by 3*; 3.5 = a0 + 500b0 + 500 2c0 + 100a1 +500x100b1+ 5002x100c1 + 1002a2 + 500x1002b2 +

1002x1002c21

at p = 200kPa, m = 5.2 kg/s

by 3*; 5.2 = a0 + 500b0 + 5002c0 + 200a1 + 500x200b1 + 5002x200c1 + 2002a2 + 500x2002b2 +

5002x2002c22

at p = 300kPa, m = 6.4kg/s

by 3*; 6.4 = a0 + 500b0 + 5002c0 + 300a1 + 500x300b1 + 5002x300c1 + 3002a2 + 500x3002b2 +

5002x3002c23

at T3 = 6250C;

by 3*; m = (a0+ a1p+ a2p2) + (b0 + b1p + b2p2)x625 + (c0+ c1p+ c2p2)x6252

= (a0 + 625b0 + 6252c0)+ (a1 + 625b1 + 6252c1) p + (a2 + 625b2 + 6252c2)p2

at p = 120kPa , m = 3.1kg/s

by 3*; 3.1 = a0 + 625b0 + 6252c0 + 120a1 + 120x625b1+ 120x6252c1 + 1202a2 +1202x6252b2 +

1202x6252c24

at p = 225kPa, m = 4.4kg/s

by 3*; 4.4 = a0 + 625b0 + 6252c0 + 225a1 + 225x625b2 + 225x6252c1 + 2252a2 + 2252x6252b2 +

2252x6252c25

at p = 310kPa, m = 5.2kg/s

by 3*; 5.2 = a0 + 625b0 + 6252c0 + 310a1 + 310x625b2 + 310x6252c1 + 2252a2 + 2252 x6252b2 +

2252x6252c26

at T3 = 7500 C;

by 3*; m = (a0+ a1p+ a2p2) + (b0+ b1p + b2p2)x625 + (c0+ c1p+ c2p2)x6252

= (a0 + 625b0 + 6252c0) + (a1 + 625b1 + 6252c1) p + (a2 + 625b2 + 6252c2)p2

at p = 140kPa, m =2.6kg/s

by 3*; 2.6 = a0 + 750b0 + 7502c0 + 140a1 + 140x750b1 + 140x7502c1 + 1402a2 + 1402x7502b2 +

1402x7002c27

at p = 250kPa, m = 3.6kg/s

by 3*; 3.6 = a0 + 750b0 + 7502c0 + 250a1 + 250x750b2 + 250x7502c1 + 2502a2 + 2502x7502b2 +

2502x7502c28

at p = 330kPa, m = 4.2kg/s

by 3*; 4.2 = a0 + 750b0 + 7502c0 + 330a1 + 330x750b2 + 330x7502c1 + 3302a2 + 3302x7502b2 +

3302x7502c29

by solving simultaneous equations 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,6,7,8 and 9 using Matlab

a0 = 2.6266

b0 = -3.7133x10-3

c0 = 2.1201x10-6

a1 = 0.0483

b1 = -4.7066x10-5

c1 = -1.2062x10-9

a2 = -4.6019x10-5

b2 = -2.5725x10-8

c2 = -3.2626x10-11

According to 3*;

m = (2.6266 + 0.0483p -4.6019x10-5p2) + (-3.7133x10-3 -4.7066x10-5p -2.5725x10-8p2)T3 +

(2.1201x10-6 - 1.2062x10-9p -3.2626x10-11p2)T32.3*

Variation of PT with p and T3

Assume above variation is represented by a second order algebraic equation with two independent

variables. Then following polynomial can be employed to exactly fit 9 data points of figure3 graph2.

PT = (a0 + a1p + a2p2) + (b0 + b1p + b2p2) T3 + (c0 + c1p + c2p2)T32.4*

By figure 3 graph 2

at T3 = 7500 C;

by 4*; PT = (a0 + a1p + a2p2) + (b0 + b1p + b2p2)x750 + (c0 + c1p + c2p2)x7502

= (a0 + 750b0 + 7502c0) + (a1 + 750b1 + 7502c1)P + (a2 + 750b2 + 7502c2)P2

at p = 100kPa, PT =400kW

by 4*; 400 = a0 + 750b0 + 7502c0 + 100a1 + 750x100b1 + 7502x100c1 + 1002a2 +750x1002b2 +

7502x1002c21

at p = 200kPa, PT = 1000kW

by 4*; 1000 = a0 + 750b0 + 7502c0 + 200a1 + 750x200b1 + 7502x200c1 + 2002a2 + 750x2002b2 +

7502x2002c22

at p = 300kPa, PT = 1550kW

by 4*; 1550 = a0 + 750b0 + 7502c0 + 300a1 + 750x300b1 + 7502x300c1 + 3002a2 + 750x3002b2 +

7502x 3002c23

at T3 = 6250C;

by 4*; PT = (a0 + a1p + a2p2) + (b0 + b1p + b2p2)x625 + (c0 + c1p + c2p2)x6252

= (a0 + 625b0 + 6252c0) + (a1+ 625b1 + 6252c1) P + (a2 + 625b2 + 6252c2)P2

at p = 100kPa, PT = 350kW

by 4*; 350 = a0 + 625b0 + 6252c0 + 100a1 + 625x100b1 + 6252x100c1 + 1002a2 + 625x1002b2 +

6252x1002c2.4

at p = 200kPa, PT = 900kW

by 4*; 900 = a0 + 625b0 + 6252c0 + 200a1 + 625x200b1 + 6252x200c1 + 2002a2 + 625x2002b2 +

6252x2002c2.5

at p = 300kPa, PT = 1400kW

by 4*; 1400 = a0 + 625b0 + 6252c0 + 300a1 + 625x300b1 + 6252x300c1 + 3002a2 + 625x3002b2 +

6252x3002c2.6

at T3 = 5000C;

by 4*; PT = (a0+ a1p + a2p2) + (b0+ b1p + b2p2)x500 + (c0+ c1p + c2p2)x5002

= (a0 + 500b0 + 5002c0) + (a1 + 500b1+ 5002c1)p + (a2 + 500b2 + 5002c2)p2

at p = 100kPa, PT = 300kW

by 4*; 300 = a0 + 500b0 + 5002c0 + 100a1 + 500x100b1 + 5002x100c1 + 1002a2 + 500x1002b2 +

5002x1002c2.7

at p = 200kPa, PT = 800kW

by 4*; 800 = a0 + 500b0 + 5002c0 + 200a1 + 500x200b1 + 5002x200c1 + 2002a2 + 500x2002b2 +

5002x2002c2.8

at p = 300kPa, PT = 1250kW

by 4*; 1250 = a0 + 500b0 + 5002c0 + 300a1 + 500x300b1 + 5002x300c1 + 3002a2 + 500x3002b2 +

5002x3002c2.9

By solving simultaneous equations 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,6,7,8 and 9 using Matlab

a0 = -250

b0 = 0

c0 = 0

a1 = 3.75

b1 = 0.004

c1 = 0

a2 = -0.0025

b2 = 0

c2 = 0

According to 4*;

PT = (-250 + 3.75p -0.0025p2) + 0.004pT3.4*

Energy Balance for compressor

5*

by 5*; PC= mCP(T2-T1)

PC = mx1.03x(T2 -25)

PC = 1.03m(T2 -25).5*

Energy balance for combustor

q + mCPT2 = mCPT3 + VCP

.6*

q = mCP(T3 T2)

2500 = 1.03m(T3 T2).6*

Shaft power

PT = PC + PS

PS = PT PC........7*

Mathematical model for the system;

p = 302.5 + 25m 7.5m2.. 1*

PC = 10.4017 0.0826p + 0.0038p2... 2*

m = (2.6266 + 0.0483p - 4.6019x10-5p2) + (-3.7133x 10-3 - 4.7066x10-5p -2.5725x10-8p2)T3 +

(2.1201x10-6 - 1.2062x10-9p - 3.2626x10-11p2)T32 3*

PT = (-250+3.75p+ - 0.0025p2) + 0.004pT3... 4*

Pc = 1.03m(T2 -25). 5*

2500 = 1.03m(T3 T2).... 6*

Ps = PT PC ... 7*

m

Compressor

p

Compressor

m

Turbine

T3

PC

Compressor

T2

PT

Combustor

Shaft

Power

PC

PS

c) For iteration method of successive substitution, Initial guess for m; m = 1kg/s is taken

by 1*; P = 302.5 + 25x1 7.5x12

= 320kPa

by 2*; PC = 10.4017 0.0826x320 + 0.0038x3202

= 373.0897kW

by 5*; T2 = 373.0897/(1.03x1) + 25

= 387.223oC

by 6*; T2 = 2500/(1.03x1) + 387.0897

= 2814.4075oC

by 4*; PT = -250 + 3.75x320 0.0025x3202 + 0.004x320x2814.4075

= 4296.4416kW

by 9*; PS = 4296.4416 -373.0897

= 3923.3519kW

by 3*; m = 2.6266 + 0.0483x320 - 4.6019x10-5x 3202 -3.7133x10-3 - 4.7066x10-5x320 +

2.5725x10-8x 3202x2814.4075 +2.1201x10-6 - 1.2062x10-9x320 + 3.2626x10-11x 3202x

2814.40752

= 8.1439kg/s

m = 8.1439kg/s is used as second guess for the second iteration. Above method is repeated until the

calculated value of PS is converged. Results obtained by the above method is illustrated in following

table.

mguess

(kg/s)

1.0000

8.1439

1.9285

0.6522

1.5000

1.4500

1.4300

1.4290

1.4280

1.4270

p(kPa)

320.0000

8.6770

322.8190

315.6142

323.1250

322.9813

322.9133

322.9097

322.9061

322.9025

Pc(kW)

373.0897

9.9711

379.7430

362.8588

380.4687

380.1276

379.9663

379.9579

379.9494

379.9409

T2(oC)

387.2230

26.1887

216.1728

565.1870

271.2580

279.5213

282.9716

283.1464

283.3214

283.4966

T3(oC)

2814.4075

324.2269

1474.7403

4286.9309

1889.3810

1953.4417

1980.3034

1981.6659

1983.0304

1984.3967

PT(kW)

4296.4416

-206.3960

2604.3381

6096.5875

3142.7193

3224.0876

3258.1071

3259.8312

3261.5577

3263.2863

mPS(kW)

m(kg/s) mguess

3923.3519 8.1439 7.1439

-216.3671 1.9285 -6.2153

2224.5951 0.6522 -1.2764

5733.7287 36.3657 35.7135

2762.2506 1.0908 -0.4092

2843.9600 1.3102 -0.1398

2878.1407 1.4143 -0.0157

2879.8733 1.4197 -0.0093

2881.6082 1.4252 -0.0028

2883.3454 1.4307 0.0037

ANNEXURE

M-file for calculating coefficients of equation 1*

A=[1 3 9;1 5 25; 1 7 49];

B=[310;240;110];

X=A\B %X=[a0; a1; a2]

A=[1 100 100^2;1 210 210^2; 1 315 315^2];

B=[40;160;360];

X=A\B %X=[a0; a1; a2]

format long

A=[1 500 500^2 100 500*100 (500^2)*100 100^2 500*100^2 (500^2)*(100^2);

1 500 500^2 200 500*200 (500^2)*200 200^2 500*200^2 (500^2)*(200^2);

1 500 500^2 300 500*300 (500^2)*300 300^2 500*300^2 (500^2)*(300^2);

1 625 625^2 120 625*120 (625^2)*120 120^2 625*120^2 (625^2)*(120^2);

1 625 625^2 225 625*225 (665^2)*225 225^2 625*225^2 (625^2)*(225^2);

1 625 625^2 310 625*310 (625^2)*310 310^2 625*310^2 (625^2)*(310^2);

1 750 750^2 140 750*140 (750^2)*140 140^2 750*140^2 (750^2)*(140^2);

1 750 750^2 250 750*250 (750^2)*250 250^2 750*250^2 (750^2)*(250^2);

1 750 750^2 330 750*330 (750^2)*330 330^2 750*330^2 (750^2)*(330^2)];

B=[3.5; 5.2; 6.4; 3.1; 4.4; 5.2; 2.6; 3.6; 4.2];

X=A\B %X=[a0; a1; a2; b0; b1; b2; c0; c1; c2]

format long

C=[1 750 750^2 100 750*100 (750^2)*100 100^2 750*100^2 (750^2)*(100^2);

1 750 750^2 200 750*200 (750^2)*200 200^2 750*200^2 (750^2)*(200^2);

1 750 750^2 300 750*300 (750^2)*300 300^2 750*300^2 (750^2)*(300^2);

1 625 625^2 100 625*100 (625^2)*100 100^2 625*100^2 (625^2)*(100^2);

1 625 625^2 200 625*200 (625^2)*200 200^2 625*200^2 (625^2)*(200^2);

1 625 625^2 300 625*300 (625^2)*300 300^2 625*300^2 (625^2)*(300^2);

1 500 500^2 100 500*100 (500^2)*100 100^2 500*100^2 (500^2)*(100^2);

1 500 500^2 200 500*200 (500^2)*200 200^2 500*200^2 (500^2)*(200^2);

1 500 500^2 300 500*300 (500^2)*300 300^2 500*300^2 (500^2)*(300^2)];

D=[400; 1000; 1550; 350; 900; 1400; 300; 800; 1250];

Y=C\D %X=[a0; a1; a2; b0; b1; b2; c0; c1; c2]

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