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Complex numbers in electrical engineering

Introduction Complex numbers Where are they used?

Scalar Quantity(Voltage, Current, Resistance) Vector Quantity (Impedance)
Complex numbers Like vectors
Representation of two dimensions with one number Argand Diagram
In Electronics, i = j because it could be confused with current
Main question why is it used? And where?
In DC, V = IR quantities are vectors
In AC there are waves two dimensions One wave for Voltage and one for current Both are not
in the same time due to resistance. Current is generally later.
Because of waves the resistance in DC is different from resistance in AC - Impedance
Electrical impedance is the measure of the resistance to a current when an AC voltage is applied.
It is the complex ratio of the voltage to the current in an alternating current (AC) circuit. Impedance
extends the concept of resistance to AC circuits
Possesses both magnitude and phase, unlike resistance, which has only magnitude.
When a circuit is driven with direct current (DC) can be thought of as impedance with zero phase
In AC, V = IZ , where Z = impedance
In general terms, impedance is the ratio V/I (voltage over current). V and I are not necessarily constant
in time, so they are represented by their frequency components (include equation).
So you see, in its basic form, you need two numbers to represent the ratio of two sine waves:
frequency and phase. A complex number is a mathematical convenience to carry over those two
values indirectly in their vector form.
Ac waves phase difference Asin (wt + theta), Theta is phase difference How late the second wave
Adds the dimension of time.
To simplify these dimensions, a complex number is used in order to convey two dimensions in one
A + jB represents two dimensions frequency (real part), Phase shift (complex part)
This doesnt mean that the phase shift is not quantifiable.
In my opinion, "imaginary" numbers could also be called "phase" numbers, or "time-displacement"
numbers because we represent the time difference between the sinusoids as a distance in the
imaginary direction.
Imaginary numbers allow us to treat time as a distance and make the equations much easier to deal
Ease of calculation : Rather than the circuit element's state having to be described by two different
real numbers V and I, it can be described by a single complex number z =V + i I. Similarly, inductance
and capacitance can be thought of as the real and imaginary parts of another single complex
number w = C + i L. The laws of electricity can be expressed using complex addition and multiplication.
In simpler terms, imagine an electronic piano. Each key produces a different tone. A volume control
changes the amplitude (volume) of all the keys by the same amount. That's how real numbers affect
signals. Now, imagine a filter. It makes some keys sound louder and some keys sound softer,
depending on their frequencies. That's complex numbers -- they allow an "extra dimension" of
Another benefit ease in solving differential equations. What is differential equation snow mover
example is at certain velocity, gathers more snow, more snow is more weight, more weight is less
velocity, less velocity, less snow and so on. This is solved quicker using the complex field in