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Student solutions manual for Burrows et.al.

Chemistry3

1
Fundamentals

Answerstoworkedexamples
WE1.1

Derivedunits
WorkouttheSIderivedunitformolarmass(themassofonemoleofasubstance).
Strategy
WriteanequationforthemolarmassandsubstitutetheSIunitsforthevarious
quantities.
Solution
Molarmassisthemassofsubstancepermole
/
wheremisthemassofsubstance,whichintheSIsystemhastheunitkg,andnthe
amountofsubstance,whichhastheunitmol.Theunitsofmolarmassaretherefore
kg
mol

kgmol

Molarmassesareoftenquotedinunitsofgmol1anditisimportanttobecarefulto
remembertoconvertthemtokgmol1beforesubstitutingintoanequationor
calculation.

WE1.3

Relativeatomicmassofmagnesium
Naturallyoccurringbrominecontains79Br(abundance50.69%)and81Br
(abundance49.31%).Calculatetherelativeatomicmassofnaturallyoccurring
bromine.
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Student solutions manual for Burrows et.al. Chemistry3

Strategy
Usetherelativeabundancestocalculateaweightedaveragerelativeatomicmass.
Solution
Theaveragerelativeatomicmassisgivenbytheweightedaverageofthemassesof
theindividualisotopes

wherexiindicatestherelativeabundanceofisotopei,andAr,iistherelativeatomic
massofisotopei.Apercentageof50.69indicatesarelativeabundanceof
50.69%

50.69/100

0.5069

so,usingthepreciserelativeatomicmassesfortheisotopesinTable1.5,then
0.5069

78.9183

0.4931

80.9163

79.90

wherethesolutionhasbeenquotedtofoursignificantfiguresbecausethisisthe
samelevelofprecisionasfortherelativeabundances.

WE1.5

Empiricalformulaeandmolecularformulae
Acompoundwasfoundtocontain1.18%hydrogen,42.00%chlorine,and56.82%
oxygenbymass.Whatisitsempiricalformula?
Strategy
Determinetherelativeamounts,i.e.numberofmoles,ofeachelementin100gofthe
compoundfromtherelativecompositionbymass,usingEquation1.2.Findthe
simplestratio,andhencetheempiricalformula,bydividingbythesmallestrelative
amount.
Solution
Thecompoundcontains56.82%oxygenbymass.Thus,100gofthecompoundmust
contain56.82gofoxygen.AccordingtoEquation1.2,thisisequivalenttoarelative
amountof
O

O/

56.82g/16.00gmol

3.551mol
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Student solutions manual for Burrows et.al. Chemistry3

Settingthecalculationsfortheotherelementsasatable,
H

Cl

%mass

1.18%

42.00%

56.82%

mass,m

1.18g

42.00g

56.82g

amount,n

1.18g
1.01gmol

ratio

42.00 g
35.45 g mol

1.17mol
1.17mol
1.17mol

1.00

56.82g

16.00gmol

1.18 mol
1.17 mol
1.17 mol

3.55mol

1.01

3.55mol
1.17mol

3.00

ThesimplestratiooftheamountsoftheelementsisthusH:Cl:O=1:1:3,sothatthe
empiricalformulaisHClO3.

WE1.7

Percentageyieldofareaction
IntheHaberprocess,nitrogenreactswithhydrogentoformammonia:
N2(g)+3H2(g)2NH3(g)
Thereactiondoesnotgotocompletionandanequilibriummixtureofreactantsand
productsisformed.Toinvestigatetheequilibrium,1.00molofnitrogenand3.00mol
ofhydrogenaresealedinacontainerat100atmpressureand400C.The
equilibriummixturecontains8.57gofammonia.Whatisthepercentageyieldofthe
reaction?
Strategy
Determinethemaximumtheoreticalyieldofammoniafromthestoichiometryofthe
reactionandtheamountsofstartingmaterials.Calculatethepercentageyieldfrom
theratiooftheactualtothetheoreticalyield.
Solution
Thestoichiometryofthereactionshowsthatwhen1.00molofnitrogenismixed
with3.00molofhydrogen,themaximumtheoreticalyieldofammoniais2.00mol.
Themolarmassofammoniais
14.00

1.01 gmol

17.03gmol
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Thus,themaximumtheoreticalyieldis
2.00mol

17.03gmol

34.06g

Then,usingEquation1.4,
percentageyield

actualyield
theoreticalyield

100

8.57g
34.06g

100

25.2%

WE1.9

Naminginorganiccompounds
Whatarethesystematicnamesfor(a)SeF4and(b)Fe(ClO4)3?
Strategy
FollowtherulesfornaminginorganiccompoundsonP.3031.
Solution
(a)Seleniumandfluorinecancombineinmorethanoneway,sothenumbersof
atomsintheformulaneedtobeidentified.Fluorineismoreelectronegative,sothe
compoundisseleniumtetrafluoride.
(b)Ironformsmorethanonetypeofion,sotheoxidationstateneedstobe
indicated.Theanionisperchlorate,ClO4,sothecompoundisiron(III)perchlorate
oriron(III)chlorate(VII).UsingIUPACnomenclature,itisiron(III)
tetraoxidochlorate(1).

WE1.11 Constructingandbalancingaredoxequationfromhalfequations
Fe2+ionsareoxidizedtoFe3+byMnO4ionsinacidicsolution.TheMnO4ionsare
reducedtoMn2+ions.Constructhalfequationsandabalancedoverallequationfor
thereaction.
Strategy
Writeunbalancedhalfequations.Thenbalancetheprimaryelementsandthen
balancethesecondaryelementssuchasHandO.Balancethechargebyadding
electronswhereappropriate.Finally,combinethetwohalfequations,multiplying
theequationsasappropriateinordertoensurethatthenumberofelectrons
balances.Cancelanycomponentsthatappearonbothsidesoftheequation.
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Student solutions manual for Burrows et.al. Chemistry3

Solution
Steps1and2:Writingtheunbalancedhalfequations

Fe2+(aq) Fe3+(aq)

oxidation

MnO4(aq) Mn2+(aq)

reduction

Step3:BalanceOandHbyaddingH2OandH+ions(inacidicsolution)
Fe2+(aq) Fe3+(aq)

oxidation

MnO4(aq)+8H+(aq) Mn2+(aq)+4H2O

reduction

Step4:Balanceelectricchargebyaddingelectrons
Fe2+(aq) Fe3+(aq)+e

MnO4(aq)+8H+(aq)+5e Mn2+(aq)+4H2O

oxidation
reduction

Step5:Multiplyoxidationhalfequation5,sonumberofelectronstransferredis
sameinbothhalfequations.
5Fe2+(aq) 5Fe3+(aq)+5e

MnO4(aq)+8H+(aq)+5e Mn2+(aq)+4H2O

oxidation
reduction

Step6:Addthetwohalfequationsandcancelouttheelectrons
5Fe2+(aq) 5Fe3+(aq)+5e

MnO4(aq)+8H+(aq)+5e Mn2+(aq)+4H2O

MnO4(aq)+8H+(aq)+5Fe2+(aq) 5Fe3+(aq)+Mn2+(aq)+4H2O

oxidation
reduction
overall

Steps7and8Nofurthersimplificationisnecessaryasatomsandchargesbalance.

WE1.13 Findingouthowmuchsoluteisinagivenvolumeofsolution
Asolutionofsodiumcarbonatehasaconcentrationof0.157moldm3.Whatvolume
ofsolutioncontainsexactly1.00gofsodiumcarbonate?
Strategy
Determinetheamountofsodiumcarbonatethecorrespondsto1.00gbycalculating
themolarmassandapplyingEquation1.2.Usethedefinitionofconcentrationto
determinethevolumeofsolution.
Solution
Themolarmassofsodiumcarbonate,Na2CO3,is
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N

CO

22.99

12.00

16.00 gmol

105.98gmol

UsingEquation1.2,theamountofsodiumcarbonatein1.00gis
N

CO

CO

1.00g/105.98gmol

CO

9.43

10 mol

Workingoutthevolumefromfirstprinciples,andthedefinitionofconcentrationas
theratiooftheamountofsubstancetothevolume,
Na CO

CO

sothat
N

CO

/ Na CO

10 mol/0.157moldm

9.43

60.1

10 dm

whichisequivalenttoavolumeof60.1cm3because1cm3=103dm3.

WE1.15 Gravimetricanalysis
A4.500gsampleofanoilcontainingthepesticideDDT(C14H9Cl5)washeatedwith
sodiuminalcoholtoliberateallthechlorinepresentasClions.Themixturewas
treatedwithsilvernitratesolutionand1.509gofAgClwererecovered.Calculatethe
percentage(bymass)ofDDTinthesample.
Strategy
Calculatethemolarmassofsilverchloride,AgCl,andhencetheamountofchloride,
Cl,ions.UsethestoichiometryofDDTtodeterminetheamountofthatcompound.
CalculatethemolarmassofDDTandthusthetotalmassofDDTpresentinthe
sampleofoil.Finally,findthepercentagebymassastheratioofthetotalmassof
DDTtothemassoftheoilsample.
Solution
Themolarmassofsilverchlorideis
A C

107.87

35.45 gmol

143.32gmol

Thus,1.509gofsilverchloridecorrespondsto
A C

A C

A C

1.509g/143.32gmol

0.01053mol

EachDDTmoleculecontainsfivechlorineatoms,sothat
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Student solutions manual for Burrows et.al. Chemistry3


DDT

A C

/5

0.01053mol/5

2.106

10 mol

ThemolarmassofDDTis
DDT

14

12.00

1.01

35.45 gmol

354.34gmol

sothatthemassofDDTinthesampleofoilis
DDT

DDT

DDT

2.106

10 mol

354.34gmol

0.7462g

Thepercentage,bymassofDDTinthesampleofoilisthus
DDT

100

0.7462g
4.500g

100

16.58%

WE1.17 Equilibriumconstantsintermsofconcentrations
Anequimolarmixtureofethanoicacidandethanolwasheatedat373K.At
equilibrium,theconcentrationofethanoicacidwasfoundtobe0.820moldm3.
Calculatetheconcentrationofethylethanoateintheequilibriummixture.
(Hint.Usethestoichiometricequationforthereactiontodeterminethe
concentrationofethanolintheequilibriummixture.)
Strategy
Writeabalancedchemicalequationforthereactionanduseittoproducean
expressionfortheequilibriumconstantintermsoftheconcentrationsofthe
productsandreactants.Rearrangetheexpression,usingthevalueforthe
equilibriumconstantintheWorkedExampletodeterminetheconcentrationoethyl
ethanoate.
Solution
Thebalancedequationforthereactionbetweenethanoicacidandethanolis
CH3CO2H(l)+C2H5OH(l)CH3CO2C2H5(l)+H2O(l)
sothattheequilibriumconstantis
CH CO C H l
CH CO H l

H O l
C H OH l

4.00

Ifequalamountsofethanoicacidandethanolaremixedinitially,then
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CH CO C H l

H O l

C H OH l

and
CH CO H l
sothat
CH CO C H l
0.820moldm

4.00

Rearranging,
CH CO C H l

4.00

0.820moldm

sothat
CH CO C H l

2.00

0.820moldm

1.64moldm

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Student solutions manual for Burrows et.al. Chemistry3

Answerstoboxes

Box1.3 TheAmesburyArcher
Howdothethreeisotopesofoxygenvaryinthenumberofprotons,neutrons,and
electronspresent?
Strategy
Deducetheatomicnumberandmassnumbersforthethreeisotopesofoxygenand
hencethenumberofprotonsandneutrons.
Solution
Theatomicnumberofoxygenis8,sothatallisotopeshave8protons.However,for
thethreeisotopesofoxygen,thenumberofneutronsinthenucleusdoesvary.The
numberofneutronsisgivenbythedifferencebetweenthemassnumberandthe
atomicnumber,sothatfor O,theatomicnumberis16,andthereforethereare
eightneutrons.Inthesameway,therearenineneutronsin O,andtenneutronsin
O.

Box1.5 Measuringlowconcentrations
Thelabelonabottleofmineralwatersaysitcontains27mgcalciumperlitre.
(a)WhatistheconcentrationofCa2+ionsinppm(bymass)andthepercentageby
massofCa2+ions?
(b)WhatistheconcentrationofCa2+ionsinmoldm3?
Strategy
Assumingthatthedensityofwateris1.0gdm3,calculatethemassofonelitreof
solution.CalculatetheproportionofCa2+ionsbymassasafractionofthetotalmass.
Solution
Assumingthatthedensityofmineralwateris1.0gcm3,thenonelitreofwater,
whichisequivalenttoavolumeof103cm3,has,fromWorkedExample1.1,amassof
1.0gcm

10 cm

1.0

10 g

1.0kg

Then,fromEquation1.6,theconcentrationbymassofCa2+ionsis
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C

C
H O

0.027g
1000g

10 ppm

0.027g
1000g

100%

(b)Theatomicmassofcalciumis

27ppm
0.027%

40.1gmol sothat,fromEquation1.8,
/

Ca

27

10 gdm /40.1gmol

6.7

10 moldm

Box1.7 Potentialenergyandkineticenergy
(a)Calculatetheenergyneededforabungeejumperweighing65.0kgtoclimbfrom
thegroundtoaplatform35.0mhigh.
(b)Calculatethekineticenergyofanitrogenmoleculetravellingat500ms1.
Strategy
UseEquation1.16,whichdefineshowthepotentialenergyofanobjectvarieswith
itsheightabovethesurfaceoftheEarth,andEquation1.17,whichdefinesanobjects
kineticenergy.
Solution
(a)Thegravitationalpotentialenergyofthepersonstandingontheplatformis
equaltotheenergyneededforthepersontoclimbfromthegroundtotheplatform.
Thus,fromEquation1.16,
PE

65.0kg

9.81ms

35.0m

22300kgm s

22.3kJ

(b)Themolarmassofnitrogenis
2

14.00gmol

28.00gmol

sothat,themassofanindividualnitrogenmoleculemustbe
/

4.651

28.00gmol /6.022

10 mol

10

kg

4.651

10

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fromEquation1.17,
KE

4.651

10

kg

500ms

5.81

10

Box1.9 Butanehairstylers
Thelabelonabutanerefillforahairstylerstatesthatitcontains14gofisobutane.
TheformulaofisobutaneisC4H10.
(a)Assumingthefuelburnscompletely,accordingtothethermochemicalequation
above,calculatetheheatenergysuppliedfrom14gofisobutane.
(b)Suggestastructuralformula(seeSection1.3,p.12)forisobutaneandgiveits
systematicIUPACname.
(YoucanreadaboutstructuralisomersandnaminghydrocarbonsinSection9.5,
p.415.Youwillbeabletocalculateenthalpychangesundermorerealisticconditions,
notjust25C,afterstudyingSection14.4,p.681.)
Strategy
Calculatetheamountofiosbutanethatisequivalentto14gandhenceworkoutthe
fractionofthemolarenthalpychange.
Solution
(a)Fromthethermochemicalequation,2878kJofenergyaresuppliedwhen1mol
ofbutanereactswithoxygenat298K.Themolarmassofisobuteneis
4

12.00

10

1.01 gmol

58.10gmol

sothat14.0gmustcorrespondtoanamount
/

14.0g/58.10gmol
0.241mol

0.241mol

2878kJmol

690kJ

(b)Drawingthestructureofisobuteneineitheratwoorthreedimensionalform
showsthatthesystematicIUPACnameis2methylpropane.

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Box1.11 WhyisKevlarsostrong?
Intermsofintermolecularattractions,suggestwhyitispossibletomakestrong
ropesoutofKEVLARornylon,butnotfrompolythene(poly(ethene)).
Strategy
Considerthenatureoftheinteractionsbetweenthechains.
Solution
HydrogenbondingbetweenadjacentchainsinKevlarandnylonleadstoordered
structuresinwhichthealignedchainscannotmovepastoneanotherveryeasily.In
poly(ethene),theonlyintermolecularattractionsbetweenthechainsaretheweaker
Londondispersioninteractions.So,fibresmadefromnylonorKevlararestronger
thanfibresmadefrompoly(ethene).

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Answerstoendofchapterquestions
1.

TheCCbondlengthinacrystalofdiamondis0.154nm.Whatisthisdistancein(a)
metres,(b)picometres,(c)ngstroms?
Strategy
UsetheSIprefixesinTable1.2toconvertthebondlength.Rememberthat1is
equivalentto11010m.
Solution
(a)1.541010m
(b)154pm
(c)1.54

3.

Asealedflaskholds10dm3ofgas.Whatisthisvolumein(a)cm3,(b)m3,(c)litres?
Strategy
UsetheSIprefixesinTable1.2.
Solution
Avolumeof10dm3,whichisequivalentto1L,maybewrittenas
10dm

10 dm

10

10 m

10

10 m

10 m

0.01m

But,1m3=106cm3,because
1m

10 cm

10 cm

sothat
10dm

10 m

10

10 cm

10 cm

5.

Howmanymolesofatomsarecontainedinthefollowingmasses:(a)22.0gof
magnesium;(b)43.2gofchlorine;(c)126mgofgold;(d)1.00kgofmercury?
Strategy
UseEquation1.2todeterminetheamountofeachelement,usingtheSIprefixesin
Table1.2toensurethattheunitsareconsistent.
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Solution
Theamountofeachelementisgivenbytheratioofthemasstothemolarmass
/
(a)Thus,formagnesium,whichhasamolarmassof24.31gmol1,then
M

22.0g/24.31gmol

0.905mol

43.2g/35.45gmol

1.22mol

(b)Forchlorine,
C

(c)Forgold,
A

126

10 g/196.97gmol

6.40

10 mol

(d)Formercury,
H

10 g/200.59gmol

4.99mol

7.

Thestructureofsuccinicacidisshownbelow
(a)Writedownthemolecularformulaofsuccinicacidandworkoutitsmolarmass.
(b)Whatistheempiricalformulaofsuccinicacid?
(c)Whatisthepercentageofcarboninsuccinicacid?
(d)Calculatetheamountofsuccinicacidina0.125gsampleofthepureacid.
(e)Howmanymoleculesofsuccinicacidarepresentinthe0.125gsample?
(f)Howmanycarbonatomsarepresentinthe0.125gsample?
Strategy
Considerthemolecularformulaofsuccinicacid.UseEquation1.2todeterminethe
amountofsuccinicacid.
Solution
(a)ThemolecularformulaofsuccinicacidisC4H6O4,sothatthemolarmassis
412.01 61.01 416.00 gmol

118.1gmol

(b)Theempiricalformula,whichistheratiooftheelements,isC2H3O2.
(c)Therearefourcarbonatomsineachmoleculeofsuccinicacid.Thus,the
proportionofthemassofthemoleculethatiscarbonis
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%C

12.01gmol

100%

/118.1gmol

40.7%

(d)Theamountofsuccinicacidis
/

0.125g/118.1gmol

1.06

10 mol

(e)Thenumberofmoleculesin0.125gsuccinicacidis
A

1.06

10

6.022

10 mol

6.38

10

(f)Everymoleculeofsuccinicacidcontainsfourcarbonatoms,sothetotalnumber
in0.125gsuccinicacid
4

6.38

10

2.55

10

9.

Astreamrunningoutfromacopperminecontainsadilutesolutionofcoppersulfate.
Asitpassesoveranirongrid,coppermetaldepositsonthegrid.
(a)Writeabalancedequation,withstatesymbols,forthereactiontakingplace.
(b)Writeanionicequationforthereaction.
(c)Assignoxidationstatestotheelementsineachofthereactantsandproductsin
theequationin(b).Usethesevaluestodecidewhathasbeenoxidizedandwhat
reduced.
Strategy
FollowtheapproachusedinWorkedExample1.10.
Solution
(a)

Fe(s)+CuSO4(aq)FeSO4(aq)+Cu(s)

(b)

Fe(s)+Cu2+(aq)Fe2+(aq)+Cu(s)

(c)Theoxidationstateofironchangesfrom0to+2,astheFe(s)reactstoform
Fe2+(aq).Theoxidationstateofcopperchangesfrom+2to0astheCu2+(aq)reacts
toformCu(s).Theironisthusoxidisedandthecopperreduced.

11.

Sodiumchromate(Na2CrO4)canbepreparedbyoxidizingachromium(III)saltwith
sodiumperoxide(Na2O2)inalkalinesolution.TheCr3+ionsareoxidizedtoCrO42
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ions.TheO22ionsarereducedtoOHions.Constructhalfequationsandabalanced
overallequationforthereaction.
Strategy
FollowthestepsonP.34.
Solution
Steps1and2:Writingunbalancedhalfequations,withelementsotherthanOandH
balanced

Cr3+(aq) CrO42(aq)

oxidation

O22(aq) OH(aq)

reduction

Step3:Thereactiontakesplaceinalkalinesolution.BalancingOandHbyfirst
addingH2OtobalancetheO,thenbalancingtheHbyaddingH2Otothesideofthe
halfequationthatneedsH,whilstaddingOHtotheotherside.Cancellingoutany
surpluswater.

Cr3+(aq)+4H2O(l) CrO42(aq)

oxidation

Cr3+(aq)+4H2O(l)+8OH(aq) CrO42(aq)+8H2O(l)

Cr3+(aq)+8OH(aq) CrO42(aq)+4H2O(l)

O22(aq) 2OH(aq)

O22(aq)+2H2O(l) 4OH(aq)

reduction

Step4:Balancingelectricchargesbyaddingelectrons

Cr3+(aq)+8OH(aq) CrO42(aq)+4H2O(l)+3e
O22(aq)+2H2O(l)+2e 4OH(aq)

oxidation
reduction

Step5:Multiplyingtheoxidationequation2,andthereductionequation3,so
thatthenumberofelectronstransferredisthesameinbothhalfequations.

2Cr3+(aq)+16OH(aq) 2CrO42(aq)+8H2O(l)+6e
3O22(aq)+6H2O(l)+6e 12OH(aq)

oxidation
reduction

Step6:Addingthetwohalfequationsandcancellingouttheelectrons

2Cr3+(aq)+16OH(aq) 2CrO42(aq)+8H2O(l)+6e
3O22(aq)+6H2O(l)+6e 12OH(aq)

oxidation
reduction

2Cr3+(aq)+16OH(aq)+3O22(aq)+6H2O(l)2CrO42(aq)+8H2O(l)+12OH(aq)overall

Steps7and8:SimplifyingtheequationbycancellingoutOH(aq)ionsandH2O(l)
molecules.Theatomsandchargesoneachsideoftheequationbalance.

2Cr3+(aq)+4OH(aq)+3O22(aq) 2CrO42(aq)+2H2O(l)

overall

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13.

Themostcommontypeofkidneystoneisformedfromcalciumethanedioate
(CaC2O4)whichprecipitatesoutintheurinarytractwhenconcentrationsofCa2+ions
andC2O42ionsbecometoohigh.Magnesiumionsareknowntoinhibittheformation
ofkidneystones.ToanalysetheconcentrationsofCa2+(aq)andMg2+(aq)ina
sampleofurine,theionswereprecipitatedasethandioatesandthemixed
precipitateofCaC2O4andMgC2O4analysedbygravimetricanalysis.

ThesolidethanedioateswerefirstheatedtoformamixtureofCaCO3andMgO.The
massofthismixturewas0.0433g.Thissolidwasthenheatedmorestronglytogive
amixtureofCaOandMgO.Themassofthesolidresiduefromthisprocesswas
0.0285g.WhatwasthemassoftheCa2+ionsintheoriginalsampleofurine?
Strategy
Calculatethemass,andthereforetheamount,ofCO2releasedwhentheCaCO3is
heated.Usethestoichiometryofthedecompositionreactiontodeterminethe
amountofCaCO3,andthusthemassofCa2+ionspresentintheoriginalsample.
Solution
ThemassofCaCO3andMgOis0.0433g,butdecreasesonheatingstronglythrough
thereaction
CaCO3(s)CaO(s)+CO2(g)
to0.0285g.ThemassofCO2mustthereforebe
0.0433g

CO

0.0285g

0.0148g

ThemolarmassofCO2is
12.01

CO

16.00 gmol

44.01gmol

sothattheamountofCO2liberatedis,fromEquation1.2
CO

CO

CO

0.0148g/44.01gmol

3.36

10 mol

ThestoichiometryofthereactionissuchthattheamountofCO2producedis
equivalenttotheamountofcalciumcarbonatethatdecomposes,sothat
C CO

CO

3.36

10 mol

Themolarmassofcalciumis
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Student solutions manual for Burrows et.al. Chemistry3

40.08gmol

sothatthemassofCa2+ionsintheoriginalsampleofurinemusthavebeen
C

3.36

10 mol

40.08gmol

0.0135g

15.

Onestageinthemanufactureofmethanolfrommethaneinvolvestheconversionof
synthesisgas(amixtureofCOandH2)tomethanol.Theconversioniscarriedout
overacatalystatatemperatureofaround500Kandapressureof100atm.

H=90.7kJmol1

CO(g)+2H2(g) CH3OH(g)

(a)WriteanexpressionforKpforthereaction.
(b)At500Kand100atmpressure,anequilibriummixturecontains42%CH3OH
and48%CO.CalculateavalueforKpatthistemperature.
(c)UseLeChateliersprincipletopredictwhatwouldhappentothepercentageof
methanolinthemixtureif:(i)thetemperatureincreases;(ii)thepressureincreases;
(iii)hydrogenisaddedatconstanttemperatureandpressure.
Strategy
Calculatethepartialpressuresofeachofthecomponentsfromtheproportionsand
thetotalpressure.RememberthattheH2makesuptheremainderofthemixture.
Solution
(a)FollowingthemethodonP.64,
CH OH
CO

(b)Thepartialpressureofthecomponentsdependsuponthefraction,x,andtotal
pressurepsothat
CH OH
CO

CH OH

0.42
0.48

CO

100atm

100atm

42atm

48atm

Thepartialpressureoftheremainingcomponent,H2,mustthereforebe
H

CH OH

CO

100atm

42atm

48atm

10atm

Sothat
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Student solutions manual for Burrows et.al. Chemistry3


CH OH
CO

42atm
48atm
10atm

8.8

10 atm

(c)(i)Theforwardreactionisexothermic,so,ifthetemperatureincreases,the
positionofequilibriummovestotheleft.Thepercentageofmethanolinthemixture
thereforedecreases.
(ii)Theamountofgasincreaseswhenmethanolreactstoformcarbonmonoxide
andhydrogen.Thus,anincreaseinpressurecausesthepositionofequilibriumto
movetotheright.Thepercentageofmethanolinthemixtureincreases.
(iii)Anincreaseinthepartialpressureofhydrogenwillcausethepositionof
equilibriumtomovetotheleft.Thepercentageofmethanolinthemixturewill
thereforeincreases.

OXFORD H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n
Oxford University Press, 2010. All rights reserved.