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Design of Temporary Excavation

and Lateral Support System


for the DSD Sheung Wan
Stormwater Pumping Station
By Eric Li - GCG (Asia)

Presented to the HKIE Geotechnical Division


18th June 2008

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HKIE Technical Talk ELS Design for SWSPS 18 June 2008

Sheung Wan Stormwater


Pumping Station (SWSPS)
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HKIE Technical Talk ELS Design for SWSPS 18 June 2008

Project Set Up


DSD Contract DC/2006/10

Contract Sum : HK$ 78 million (approx)

Designer : Drainage Services Department


(with GEO as in-house geotechnical consultant)

Site Supervision : DSD Drainage Project Division


(with the engagement of an IGE)

Contractor : China National Chemical Engineering Group

ELS Designer : Geotechnical Consultant Group (Asia) Ltd.

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HKIE Technical Talk ELS Design for SWSPS 18 June 2008

57m

~ -7.1mPD

43m

~ -5.9mPD

Pile Cap Layout Plan

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HKIE Technical Talk ELS Design for SWSPS 18 June 2008

43m
~ +4.0mPD
Retaining Wall

Pile Cap / Base Slab


~ -5.9mPD
~ -7.1mPD

Typical North-South Section

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HKIE Technical Talk ELS Design for SWSPS 18 June 2008

Selection of Retaining Wall Type


Wall Types Considered:
Diaphragm Wall
Bored Pile Wall
Pipe Pile Wall
Sheet Pile Wall
No wall (open cut)
Design Objectives:
Approximate max. 10m deep excavation
Effective control of settlement due to excavation
and groundwater drawdown

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HKIE Technical Talk ELS Design for SWSPS 18 June 2008

Approx. Location of Site

Reclamation and Seawall Dredging Plan


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Approx. Extent of SWSPS

Vertical Seawall (Indicative)

Victoria Harbour

Typical Cross Section


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Pre-Contract Ground investigation


2 series in 2002 & 2006 (32 holes)
Common sampling, field and laboratory tests
In situ vane & pressuremeter tests

Pre-Contract Borehole Location Plan


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HKIE Technical Talk ELS Design for SWSPS 18 June 2008

Fill

Rock Fill

Sand Fill
Marine Deposits

Alluvium

CDG

North-South Geological Section


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HKIE Technical Talk ELS Design for SWSPS 18 June 2008

Existing Salt
Water PS
Fill

Marine Deposits
Alluvium

CDG

East-West Geological Section


(away from Seawall)
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HKIE Technical Talk ELS Design for SWSPS 18 June 2008

Seawall Cope Line

Isopach of Soft Marine Clays


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Small sink hole at sea wall


Seawall Cope Line

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5m3 sink hole

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15m3 sink hole

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10/10/06

30/9/06

20/9/06

10/9/06

31/8/06

21/8/06

HKIE Technical Talk ELS Design for SWSPS 18 June 2008

0.000

Settlement (m)

-0.100

SS Markers on Seawall

SS1
SS2

-0.200

SS3
SS4

10/10/06

30/9/06

20/9/06

10/9/06

31/8/06

21/8/06

-0.300

0.000
GS20
GS21
GS24
GS25

Settlement (m)

-0.100

-0.200

GS Markers on Ground Adjacent to Seawall


-0.300

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Settlement near Seawall


HKIE Technical Talk ELS Design for SWSPS 18 June 2008

Design Considerations


Reclamation Site

Sensitive Structures nearby, i.e. WSD Pumping Station

High water table, i.e. 1.2m below existing ground level


(+3.0mPD)
Presence of thick layer of variable FILL
& soft MARINE DEPOSITS

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HKIE Technical Talk ELS Design for SWSPS 18 June 2008

Design Methodology


Drained and Undrained Conditions

Lateral Stability

Global Slope Stability

Base Stability

Hydraulic Stability

Dewatering

Ground Deformation / Settlement

Structural Capacities

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HKIE Technical Talk ELS Design for SWSPS 18 June 2008

Plot of SPT-N against Elevation

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Plot of Undrained Shear Strength (Cu) against Elevation


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Walings & Struts


(3 levels)

FSP IV Sheet Pile

Adopted Shoring Layout Plan

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Longitudinal Cross Section further from Seawall


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Longitudinal Cross Section nearest Seawall


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Transverse Cross Section


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Penetration
(T.A.M.) Grout

Jet Grout
Sheetpile
(not shown for clarity)

Elevation of Wall D
(Showing Grouting Ground Improvement)

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HKIE Technical Talk ELS Design for SWSPS 18 June 2008

Culvert

East

West

Fill
Marine Deposit
Alluvium
CDG

Grout A
Grout B

Finite Element Analysis


(East-West Section)

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max = 115mm
max = 60mm

East Wall

West Wall

Wall Deflection (East-West Section)

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max = 18mm

max = 82mm

West Wall

East Wall

Ground Settlement (East-West Section)

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max = 102mm
max = 88mm

South Wall

North Wall

Wall Deflection (North-South Section)

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max = 53mm
max = 75mm

South Wall

North Wall

Ground Settlement (North-South Section)


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Seawater

Fill (Sand)
Seawall
Tilt = 1/650

Fill (Rock)

Exaggeration scale: 30

Deformation of Seawall

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Slope Stability Analysis


(South Wall)

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Principal Instrumentation :
- Ground settlement markers (SS, GS, SA)
- Inclinometers (IN, INX)
- Standpipe Piezometer (SP, PZ, PP)
- Building Tilt Marker

North Wall

West Wall

East Wall

Instrumentation Layout Plan


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Outline Construction Programme


for Key Activities

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Settlem ent agains t Tim e

H-Piling, Sheetpiling, Ground Improvement Grouting

0.050

Excavation

0.000
-0.050

Pile Cap

Settlem
ent (m
)

-0.100
-0.150
-0.200

SS Markers on Seawall

01-Jan-08

01-Nov-07

01-Dec-07

01-Oct-07

01-Sep-07

01-Aug-07

01-Jul-07

01-Jun-07

01-M
ay-07

01-Apr-07

01-M
ar-07

SS 4

01-Feb-07

01-Sep-06

SS1

01-Jan-07

S S2

01-Oct-06

SS 3

01-Aug-06

-0.350

01-Dec-06

-0.300

01-Nov-06

-0.250

D ate

Settlem ent agains t Tim e


0.000

-0.100

Settlem
ent (m
)

-0.200

-0.300

-0.400

GS Markers on Ground Adjacent to Seawall


-0.500

01-Jan-08

01-Dec-07

01-Nov-07

01-O
ct-07

01-Sep-07

01-Aug-07

01-Jul-07

01-Jun-07

01-M
ay-07

01-Apr-07

01-M
ar-07

01-Feb-07

01-Jan-07

GS20

01-Dec-06

01-Nov-06

GS24

01-O
ct-06

01-Sep-06

01-Aug-06

GS23
-0.600

D ate

Ground Settlement Time Plot behind North Wall (Seawall)

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Settlement against Time

H-Piling, Sheetpiling, Ground Improvement Grouting

0.000

Excavation

-0.050

Pile Cap

-0.100

Settlement (m )

-0.150
-0.200
-0.250
-0.300
-0.350
-0.400
-0.450

GS31

GS34

GS28
01-Jan-08

01-Dec-07

01-Nov-07

01-Oct-07

01-Sep-07

01-Aug-07

01-Jul-07

01-Jun-07

01-May-07

01-Apr-07

01-M ar-07

01-Feb-07

01-Jan-07

01-Dec-06

01-Nov-06

01-Oct-06

01-Sep-06

01-Aug-06

-0.500

Date

Ground Settlement Time Plot behind East Wall

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GS31 (9.6m)

GS28 (6.2m)

GS34 (15.6m)

Predicted max = 82mm

Inclinometer IN2 (1m)

Predicted max = 115mm

Ground Deformation behind East Wall


(due to excavation only)
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HKIE Technical Talk ELS Design for SWSPS 18 June 2008

Settlement against Time


0.010

0.000

-0.010

-0.030

Predicted max = 18mm

-0.040

-0.050

-0.060

SS13

SS9

SS10

SS14

01-Jan-08

18-Dec-07

04-Dec-07

23-Oct-07

20-Nov-07

09-Oct-07

06-Nov-07

25-Sep-07

11-Sep-07

28-Aug-07

31-Jul-07

14-Aug-07

17-Jul-07

03-Jul-07

19-Jun-07

05-Jun-07

22-May-07

24-Apr-07

08-May-07

10-Apr-07

27-Mar-07

13-Mar-07

30-Jan-07

27-Feb-07

13-Feb-07

16-Jan-07

02-Jan-07

19-Dec-06

05-Dec-06

21-Nov-06

24-Oct-06

07-Nov-06

10-Oct-06

26-Sep-06

12-Sep-06

29-Aug-06

15-Aug-06

-0.070
01-Aug-06

Settlement (m)

-0.020

Date

Ground Settlement Time Plot behind West Wall

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Displacement (mm)
5
10

15

4.0
2.0
0.0
-2.0

Elevation (mPD)

-4.0
-6.0

"+" toward excavation

-8.0

Predicted max = 60mm

-10.0
-12.0
-14.0
-16.0

Inclinometer IN5 (1m)

-18.0

Ground Deformation behind West Wall


(due to excavation only)
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HKIE Technical Talk ELS Design for SWSPS 18 June 2008

Jet grouting

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Jet grout cuts insitu soft clay and mixes that with
injected cement

Disturbed clay is displaced to surface in slurry


form

Jet nozzle is typically 1.4mm to 3mm dia.

Applicable to more cohesive soils where T.A.M.


grouting may not work

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Temporary casing for


drilling through fill.
Withdrawn prior to jetting.
(optional)
Soil Overburden

PVC tubing to assist spoil


return. (optional)

Jet Grout Zone

Typical Set up of Jet Grouting


(Double Tube Method)
Ref. : CNCEC

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HKIE Technical Talk ELS Design for SWSPS 18 June 2008

1. Set up rig

2. Drill to toe level

4. Commence Jetting

5. Simultaneously withdrawal and


rotation of grout string to next level

Sequence of Jet Grouting


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3. Test jetting

6. Jet grout completed.


Withdraw grout string

Ref. : CNCEC

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Jet grout parameters

Jet grout parameters adopted at SWSPS


Target grouted dia.
Grout pressure
Air pressure
Withdraw rate
Rotation rate

= 1500 2000 mm
= 300 400 bars
= 8 - 12 bars
= 13 to 15 min/m
= 6 7 rev/step

Target strength & stiffness


UCS
Elastic modulus

= 600 kPa
= 150 MPa

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Jet Grout Core Sample


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Hole S2

Hole S5

(UCS: typically 7-10 MPa, sometimes >40 MPa)

Jet Grout Core Sample

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T.A.M. Grout Core Sample

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T.A.M. Grout Core Sample

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Sheetpiling (by push-in method)

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Suitable in area where vibration is undesirable

With limited penetration depth

Difficult to overcome obstruction

Tend to be more costly

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Sheetpiling by push-in method


At SWSPS

Giken rig with special tool to


overcome obstruction (up to 1m)

Maximum 24m long sheet pile

Limited to Type IV sheetpile

Ref : Giken Seisakusho Co. Ltd

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Sheetpiling by push-in method


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Augering to assist penetration


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Drilling through Obstructions


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Cutter Head for Rock Obstructions

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Alignment out-of-line when


encountering obstructions
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Groundwater leaking through


retaining wall

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Excavation in progress
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Disposal by barge
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Installing waling and strut


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Excavation completed

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Concreting in progress
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Concreting in progress
(3 concrete pumps & 13 concrete trucks)

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Foundation Completed

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HKIE Technical Talk ELS Design forRef.


SWSPS
: DSD 18 June 2008

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Before Commencement

After Completion
Ref. : DSD

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HKIE Technical Talk ELS Design for SWSPS 18 June 2008

Summary
Issues to be considered in ELS design
Site history
Site characterization
Design parameters (drained or undrained)
Design objective and constraints
Retaining wall installation effects
Economy and construction programme

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Acknowledgement

Drainage Services Department


China National Chemical Engineering Corp
Hyder Consulting Limited

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Thank You !

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