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ABSTRACT

The Perfect Gas Expansion Apparatus (Model: TH 11) is use in conducting this
experiment. There are seven experiments which are Boyles Law experiment, Gay-Lussac Law
experiment, Isentropic Expansion Process, Stepwise Depressurization, Brief Depressurization,
Determination of ratio of volume, and Determination of the ratio of heat capacity. The purpose on
carrying out these experiment are to make us more familiarize with several fundamental
thermodynamic processes, to determine the relationship between pressure and volume of an ideal
gas, to compare the experimental results with theoretical results, to determine the relationship
between pressure and temperature of an ideal gas, to demonstrate the isentropic expansion
process, to study the response of the pressurized vessel following stepwise depressurization, to
study the response of the pressurized vessel following a brief depressurization, to determine the
ratio of the heat capacity and to determine the ratio of volume and compares it to the theoretical
value. The general start-up procedure was carried out in all of these seven experiments. Firstly,
the equipment was connected to the single phase power supply and then switched on the unit.
After that, all valves were fully opened and the pressure reading on the panel were checked to
make sure that the chambers are under athmospheric pressure. Then, all the chamber were
closed. The pipe were connected from compressive port of the pump to the pressurized chamber
or connected from the pipe from vacuum port of the pump to vacuum chamber and the apparatus
was ready to be used. Besides, the procedures for every experiment were carried out as follows
from the manual. After that, the general shut-down procedures were also carried out after
finishing all of the experiments. First of all, the pump was switched off and the both pipes were
removed from the chambers. The valves were fully opened to release the air inside the chambers
and the main switch and the power supply were switched off. The procedure must be done as
follows as in the manual to prevent the repeating in doing the experiment for few times. For the
Boyles Law experiment the PV must be calculated otherwise for the determination of ratio of
volume experiment, the ratio of volume were calculate and the ratio of heat capacity also must be
calculate in the determination of the ratio of heat capacity experiment.

INTRODUCTION

The Perfect Gas Expansion Apparatus (Model: TH 11) is a self-sufficient bench top unit
designed to allow us (students) familarize with several fundamental thermodynamics processes.
Demonstration of the thermodynamics processes is performed with air forsafe and convenient
operation. The Perfect Gas Law Apparatus is customarily designed and developed to provide
students a comprehensive understanding of First Law of Thermodynamics, Second Law of
Thermodynamics and relationship between P-V-T. The Perfect Gas Expansion Apparatus enable
us to have a good understanding in energy conservation law and direction in which the processes
proceed. The Perfect Gas Expansion Apparatus comes with one pressure vessel and one vacuum
vessel. Both vessels are made of glass tube. The vessels are interconnected with a set of piping
and valves. A large diameter pipe provides gradual or instant change. Air pump is provided to
pressurize or evacuate air inside the vessels with the valves configured appropriately. The
pressure and temperature inside the vessels are monitored with pressure and temperature sensors
and clearly displayed by digital indicator on the control panel. With an optional automatic data
acquisition system, the modern version of a classic Clement and Desormes experiment can be
conducted as pressure and temperature changes can be monitored continuously with the
computer. The Perfect Gas Expansion Apparatus comes complete with the pressure vessel of
25L, vacuum vessel of 12.37L and bothe are made of glasses. The temperature sensor with the
range of 0-1000c and pressure sensor with the range of 160kPa that mounted on the top of
vessels. There are seven experiment were conducted during this session which are Boyles Law
experiment,

Gay-Lussac

Law

experiment,

Isentropic

Expansion

Process,

Stepwise

Depressurization, Brief Depressurization, Determination of ratio of volume, and Determination of


the ratio of heat capacity. These experiments were carried out to make us more familiarize with
several fundamental thermodynamic processes, to determine the relationship between pressure
and volume of an ideal gas, to compare the experimental results with theoretical results, to
determine the relationship between pressure and temperature of an ideal gas, to demonstrate the
isentropic expansion process, to study the response of the pressurized vessel following stepwise
depressurization, to study the response of the pressurized vessel following a brief
depressurization, to determine the ratio of the heat capacity and to determine the ratio of volume

and compares it to the theoretical value. The reading of pressure and temperature were recorded
shown on the panel. The perfect gas expansion apparatus (figure 1):

Figure 1. model: TH 11
OBJECTIVES
There are several objectives for carrying this experiment which are:
1. To make us more familiarize with several fundamental thermodynamic processes.
2. To determine the relationship between pressure and volume of an ideal gas.(experiment1)
3. To compare the experimental results with theoretical results. (experiment 1)
4. To determine the relationship between pressure and temperature of an ideal
gas.(experiment 2)
5. To demonstrate the isentropic expansion process.(experiment 3)
6. To study the response of the pressurized vessel following stepwise depressurization
(experiment 4)
7. To study the response of the pressurized vessel following a brief depressurization.
(experiment 5)
8. To determine the ratio of volume and compares it to the theoretical value. (experiment 6)
9. To determine the ratio of th eheat capacity. (experiment 7)

THEORY
The perfect gas is also known as ideal gas. An ideal gas is defined as one in which all
collisions between atoms or molecules are perfectly elastic and which there are no intermolecular
attractive forces. An ideal gas is also an imaginary substance taht obeys the ideal gas equation of
state. In 1662, Robert Boyle, an Englishman, discovered in the experiment taht the pressure of
gases is inversely proportional to their volume in avacuum chamber. In 1802, J. Charles and J.
Gay Lussac, Frenchman, determine that at low pressure the volume of a gas is proportional to its
temperature. That is,
P = R(

(1)

Where the constant of proportionality R is called the gas constant and is different for each gas.
Equation (1) is called the ideal gas equation of state. Any gas that obeys this law is called an
ideal gas. In ideal gas equation of state, P is the absolute pressure, T is the absolute temperature
and V is the specific volume. The ideal gas equation of state can be written in other form:
V = mv, thus
PV = mRT

(2)

By writing equation (2) twice for fixed mass and simplifying, the properties of ideal gas at two
different sataea are related toeach other by:

(3)

It has been experimentally observed that ideal gas relation closely approximately the P-v-T
behaviour of real gases at low density. At low pressure and high temperature, the density of gas
decreases, and the gas behaves as an ide4al gas under these conditions.
Besides of ideal gas equation of state, the ideal gas also oneys the following law:
a. Boyles Law
b. Charless Law
c. Gay-Lussacs Law
The Boyles Law is a special law that describes the inversely proportional relationship between
the absolute pressure and volume of a gas, if the temperature is kept constant within a closed
system. The mathematical equation for Boyle;s Law is:
PV = k
(4)
Where P = pressure of the system
V = volume of the gas
K = constant vlue representative of the pressure and volume of the system

As long as the temperature remains constant at teh same value , the same amountof energy given
to the system persists throughout its operation and therefore,theoretically, the value of k remain
constant. By forcing the volume V of the fixed quantity of gas to increase, keeping the gas at the
initially measured temperature, the pressure p must decrease proportionally. On the contrary,
reducing the volume of the gas will increase the pressure. The Boyles Law is used to predict the
result of introducing a change, in volume and pressure only, to the initial state of a fixed quantity
of gas. The equation below and after expansion process, where the temperature before and after
the process are the same.
p1V1 = p2V2

(5)

Charless Lawis a gas law which states that: At constant pressure, the volume of a given mass of
an ideal gas increases or decreases by the same factor as its temperature (in Kelvin) increases or
decreases.
The formula for this law is:
(6)
Where V = volume of the gas
T = temperature of the gas (measured in Kelvin)
K = constant
To maintain the constant, k, during the heating of gas at fixed pressure, the volume must icrease.
On the other hand, cooling the gas decreases the vlume. The exact value of the constant need not
be known to make use of the law in comparison between two volumes of gas at equal pressure.
(7)
As a conclusion, when the temperature increases, the volume of the gas increases.
Gay Lussacs Law states that the pressure of a fixed quantity of gas at costant temperature is
directly proportional to its temperature in Kelvin.
The formula is:
(8)
Where P = pressure of the gas
T = temperature of the gas (measured in Kelvin)
K = constant
The temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance; as the kinetic energy
of a gas increases, its particle collide with the container walls more rapidly, and therefore
exerting increased presure. In order to coompare the same substance under two different sets of
condition, the law can be written as:
(9)

APPARATUS
The Perfect gas Expansion Apparatus.
Valve (V02)
Valve
(V01)
Electrode
Pressure
Relief Valve
Vacuum
vessel

Pressure
Vessel

1. Perfect gas expansion apparatus (model: TH 11)

METHADOLOGY
General start-up (apparatus model: TH 11)
1. The equipment was connected to the single phase power supply and then switched on the
unit.
2. After that, all valves were fully opened and the pressure reading on the panel were
checked to make sure that the chambers are under athmospheric pressure.
3. Then, all the chamber were closed.
4. Th e pipe were connected from compressive port of the pump to the pressurized chamber
or connected from the pipe from vacuum port of the pump to vacuum chamber.
5. Next, the apparatus was ready to be used.
General shut-down procedure
1. The pump was switched off and the both pipes were removed from the chambers.
2. The valves were fully opened to release the air inside the chambers.

3. The main switch and the power supply were switched off.
Experiment 1: Boyles Law Experiment
1. The general start up procedure were performed. Assured that all valves were fully closed.
2. The compressive pump was switched on and the pessure inside the chamber were
allowed to increase up to about 150kPa. Then, the pump was switched off and the hose
was removed from the chamber.
3. The pressure reading inside the chamber were monitored until it stabilized.
4. The pressure reading before expansion for both chambers were recorded.
5. The valve 02 was fully opened and the pressurized air were allowed to flows into the
atmospheric chamber.
6. The pressure reading after expansion for both chambers were recorded.
7. The experimental procedure were repeated for the following conditions:
a) From atmospheric chamber to vacuum chamber. (on pump to release preeure until 5060kpa at vacuum chamber)
b) From pressurized chamber to vacuum chamber. (on pump to release preeure until 5060kpa at vacuum chamber)
8. The PV value were calculated and the Boyles Law was proved.
Experiment 2: Gay-Lussac Law experiment
1. The general start-up procedure were performed and assured that all valves were fully
closed.
2. The hose were connected from the compressive pump to pressurized chamber.
3. The compressive pump was switch on and the temperature were recorded for every
increment of 10kPa in the chamber. The pump was stopped when the pressure PT
reached about 160kPa.
4. Then, the valve 01 was slightly opened and the pressurized air were allowed to flows out.
The temperature reding were recorded for every decrement of 10kPa.
5. The experiment was stopped when the pressure reached atmospheric pressure.
6. Te experiment were repeated for three times to get the average value.
7. The graph of pressure versus temperature was plotted.
Experiment 3: Isentropic Expansion Process
1. The general start up procedure was performed.
2. The hose was connected from compressive pump to the pressurized chamber.

3. The compressive pump was switched on and the pressure inside the chamber were
allowed to increased until about 160kPa. Then, the pump was switch off and the hose
from the chamber was removed as well.
4. The pressyre reading inside the chamber were monitored until it stabilize. The pressure
reading PT1 and the temperature TT1 were recorded.
5. Then, the valve 02 was slightly opened and the air were allowwd to flow out slowly until
it reached atmospheric pressure.
6. The pressure reading and the temperature reading after the expansion process were
recorded.
7. The isentropic expansion process were discussed.

Experiment 4:Stepwise Depressurization


1. The general start-up procedure were performed and all valves were assured to be fully
closed.
2. The hose was conected from compressive pump to pressurized chamber.
3. The compressive pump was switched on and the pressure inside chamber were allowed to
increased until about 160kPa. Then, the pump was switched off and the hose was
removed from the chamber.
4. The pressure reading inside the chamber were monitored until it stabilized. The pressure
reading PT 1 were recorded.
5. The valve 01 was fully opened and the it was bringing back to the close position
instantly. The pressure reading PT 1 were monitored and recorded until it became
stabled.
6. The step 5 was repeated fo at least four times.
7. The pressure reading were displayed on a graph and discussed about it.
Experiment 5: Brief Depresurization
1. The general start-up were performed as well. All valves were assured to be fully closed.
2. The host was connected from compressive pump to pressurized pump.
3. The compressive pump was switched on and the pressure inside the chamber were
allowed to increase until about 160kPa.
4. The pressure reading inside the chamber were monitored until it stabilized. The presusre
reading PT 1 were recorded.
5. The valve 01 was fully opened and brought it back to the closed position after seconds.
The pressure reading PT 1 were recorded and monitored until it became stabled.
6. The pressure reading were displayed on a graph and discussed about it.

Experiment 6 : Determination of ratio of volume


1. The general start-up were performed as well. All valves were assured to be fully closed.
2. The compressive pump was switched on and the pressure inside the chamber were allowed
to increase until about 150kPa. Then, the pump was switched off and the hose was removed
from the chamber.
3. The pressure reading inside the chamber were monitored until it stabilized.
4. The pressure reading before expansion for both chambers were recorded.
5. The valve 02 was opened and the pressurized air were allowed to flows into the atmospheric
chamber slowly.
6. The pressure reading for both chambers were recorded after the expansion.
7. The experimental procedures were repeated for the following conditions:
a) From atmospheric chamber to vacum chamber
b) From pressurized chamber to vacuum chamber
8. The ratio of the volume were calculated and compared with the theoretical value.
Experiment 7: Determination of the ratio of heat capacity
1. The general start-up were performed as well. All valves were assured to be fully closed.
2. The host was connected from compressive chamber to pressurized chamber.
3. The compressive pump was switched on and the pressure inside the chamber were
allowed to increase until about 160kPa. Then, the pump was switched off and the hose
was removed from the chamber.
4. The pressure reading inside the chamber were monitored until it stabilized. Then, the
pressure reading PT 1 and the temperature reading TT 1.
5. The valve 01 was fully opened and brought it back to the closed position after seconds.
The pressure reading PT 1 and temperature TT 1 were recorded and monitored until it
became stabled.
6. The ratio of heat capacity were determined and compared with the theoretical value.

RESULT
Experiment 1: Boyles Law Experiment
Before Expansion
Pressure chamber
Vacuum chamber
PT1
150.3 kPa
PT2
101.2 kPa
TT1
25.5 C
TT2
24.0 C

Increment,
P(kPa)
101.6
111.8
121.4
131.2
141.3
151.3
161.7

After Expansion
Pressure chamber
Vacuum chamber
PT1
134.1 kPa
PT2
133.7 kPa
TT1
24.1 C
TT2
26.0 C

Experiment 2: Gay-Lussac Law Experiment


T1 (C) T2 (C) T3 (C)
Decrement,
T1 (C)
P(kPa)
23.7
24.1
24.4
151.7
26.0
24.3
25.0
25.2
141.7
25.5
26.1
25.5
25.6
131.2
25.0
26.5
26.5
26.3
121.7
24.0
27.1
27.5
27.1
111.7
23.6
27.7
28.2
27.0
101.7
23.2
28.8
28.7
28.6

increment
180
160

pressure kPa

140
120
100

temperature 1

80

temperature 2

60

temperature 3

40
20
0
23.7

24.3

26.1

26.5

27.1

27.7

28.8

10

T2 (C)

T3 (C)

28.8
28.1
26.9
26.2
25.3
25.0

29.0
28.3
27.6
27.0
26.2
25.9

decrement
160
140
pressure kPa

120
100

temperature 1

80

temperature 2

60

temperature 3

40
20
0
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Before Expansion
After Expansion

P1 (initial) kPa
161.1
128.3
108.9
103.5

28.3

27.6

27

26.2

25.9

Experiment 3: Isentropic Expansion Process


PT 1 (kPa)

TT 1 (0C)

161.3
101.5

29.2
26.4

Experiment 4: Stepwise Depressurization


(Pressurized Chamber)
P2 ( open and close instantly) kPa
123.8
106.8
102.4
101.6

P3 (stable) kPa
127.6
108.7
103.2
102.1

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pressure, kPa

stepwise depressurization
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

Series1
Series2
Series3
Series4

PT1 (initial)
161.3

Experiment 5: Brief Depressurization


Pressure Chamber
PT1 (after opened a few second)
102.7

PT1 (stable)
108.5

brief depressurization
pressure, kPa

200
150
100
50
0
PT1 (initial)

Before expansion
After expansion

PT1 (after opened a


few second)

PT1 (stable)

Experiment 6: Determination of Ratio of Volume


Pressure chamber
Vacuum chamber
PT1 (kPa)
TT1 (C)
PT1 (kPa)
TT1 (C)
151.1
29.5
101.1
24.9
133.9
27.3
131.6
27.1

Experiment 7: Determination of Ratio of Heat Capacity


Pressure chamber
PT1 (kPa)
TT1 (C)
Before expansion
160.3
30.2
After expansion
104.1
28.1

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SAMPLE OF CALCULATION
CALCULATION
Experiment 1: Boyles Law
PV= k

T= Constant in closed system

Properties of ideal gas at two different states;


P1V1= P2V2
T1
T2
P1V1 = P2V2

(when T= Constant)

PV= RT
V= RT/P
Before expansion
in pressurized chamber
P1 = 150.3 Kpa
T1= 25.5 0C/ 298.65 K
V1 = (8.314)(298.65)
150.3
= 16.52 m3

P1V1= (150.3)(16.52)
= 2483 Kpa.m3

in vacuum chamber
P1 = 101.2 Kpa
T2= 24.0 0C/ 297.15 K
V2= (8.314)(297.15)
101.2
= 24.4 m3

P2V2 = (101.2)(24.41)
= 2470.3 Kpa.m3

After expansion
In the pressurized chamber

in vacuum chamber

P1 = 134.1 Kpa

P2 = 133.7 Kpa

T1= 24.1 0C/ 297.25 K

T2= 26.0 0C/ 299.15 K

V1 = (8.314)(297.25)
134.1

V2= (8.314)(297.15)
133.7

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= 18.43 m3
P1V1= (134.1)(18.43)

= 18.60 m3
P2V2 = (133.7)(18.60)

= 2471.5 Kpa.m3

= 2486.8 Kpa.m3

The Boyles Law is used to predict before and after expansion process;
P1V1 = P2V2

(T1 = T2)

P1V1 = P2V2
(2483.0 Kpa.m3) = (2486.8 Kpa.m3)

(2470.3 Kpa.m3) = (2471.5 Kpa.m3)

Sample error calculation:


2486.8 2483.0 x 100 %
2483.0

2471.5 - 2470.3 x 100%


2470.3

= 0.15%
EXPERIMENT 1 : BOYLES LAW EXPERIMENT
PV = k
P1V1 = k

= 0.05%

T = constant
;

P2V2 = k

P1V1 = P2V2
Before Expansion = after expansion
( P pressurized + P atmospheric) (25 L + 12.5L) = ( P pressurized + P atmospheric) V2
(157.5 kPa + 101.1 kPa)(37.5L) = (139.2 kPa + 138.6 kPa) V2
258.6 (37.5) = 277.8V2
V2= 34.9 L
P1V1 = P2V2
Before Expansion = after expansion
( P vacuum+ P atmospheric) (25 L + 12.5L) = ( P vacuum + P atmospheric) V2
(54.4 kPa + 101.9 kPa)(37.5L) = (85.8 kPa + 86.5 kPa) V2
156.3 (37.5) = 172.3V2
V2= 34.02 L

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It is proved that for Boyless law it means that when pressure increase the volume decrease.

EXPERIMENT 2: GAY-LUSSAC LAW EXPERIMENT.


Average temperature :
Tavg=
Ex:
Tavg

Tavg

= 24.3 C

EXPERIMENT 6: DETERMINATION OF RATIO VOLUME.


From pressurized chamber to atmospheric chamber :

(
Pf =

)
(

)
(

Pf = 125.6 kPa

= 1.0
From atmospheric chamber to vacuum chamber :
(

(
(

Pf =
Pf = 89.97 kPa

15

= 2.77
Theoretical value :
m1 = 28.966 (air)
m2 = 0 (vacuum)
(

)
(

Pf =
Pf = 67.8kPa

=2

From pressurized chamber to vacuum chamber:


(

)
(

)
(

Pf =
Pf = 125.17 kPa
2.0
Theoretical value :
m1 = 28.966 (air)
m2 = 0 (vacuum)
(

)
(

Pf =
Pf = 106.67kPa

= 2.0

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EXPERIMENT 7: DETERMINATION OF RATIO OF HEAT CAPACITY.

=
= 0.446

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DISCUSSION
The purpose of this experiment is to demonstare or familiarize the students with several
fundamental thermodynamic processes and alsom to relate it. The first experiment (Boyles Law
Experiment) are to determine the relationship between pressure and volume of an ideal gas and
to compare the experimental results with theoretical results. For the first experiment the PV
value were calculated which are 142.2. The Boyles Law is approved as the value of PV is
calculated. Thus, the absolute pressure is inversely proportional with volume of gas if the
temperature is kept constant within a closed system.
For the second experiment which related with the Gay Lussacs experiment, the purpose
of this experiment is to determine the relationship between pressure and temperature of an ideal
gas. The graph of pressure versus temperature was plotted which are the graph of increment and
also graph of decrement. Meanwhile, the purpose of carrying out the experiment 3 (isentropic
expansion process) is to demonstrate the isentropic expansion process and the (pressure) PT 1
and (temperature) TT1 after and before expansion which are recorded in the table of experiment
3. After that, the purpose of carrying out the experiment 4 (stepwise depressurization) is to study
the response of the pressurized vessel following stepwise depressurization. Besides that, the
pressure reading that is displayed on a graph. In this experiment, as the valve is open and closed
instantly, the pressure will decrease abruptly before it increasing back as it becomes stables. The
next is experiment 5 is brief depressurization where the point of carrying out this experiment is
to study the response of the pressurized vessel following a brief depressurization. All the
pressure reading is displayed on the graph after undergo all the experiments.
The objective for the experiment 6 (determination of ratio) is to determine the ratio of
volume and compares it to the theoretical value. The ratio of the volume for pressurized chamber
is -0.0886. Lastly, the experiment 7 (determination of ratio of heat capacity), in this experiment
the ratio of heat capacity is determined. The result which is the ratio of heat capacity is 0.446.
The initial values of PT 1 before expansion and PT 1 after expansion are 160.3 and 104.1
respectively. As the graph pressure versus temperature plotted at the experiment 2, it proves that
the as the temperature rising the pressure also rising and like wise. This obeyed the equation of
an ideal gas which the pressure is inversely proportional with temperature. For the experiment 3
which is related to the isentropic expansion, the temperature is decrease as the pressure also

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decrease. The results that have been taken during carrying out the experiment is not too accurate due to
some parallax error.

CONCLUSION
As the conclusion, the purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate the students with
several fundamental thermodynamic processes. The purpose of the first experiment is to
determine the relationship between pressure and volume of an ideal gas and to compare the
experimental results with theoretical results which have been calculated and the Boyles Law
calculation also is proven throughout this experiment. For the first experiment the PV value were
calculated which are 142.2 for pressurized chamber. For the experiment 6 which related to the
determination of ratio pressurized chamber ratio is calculated which is-0.886. Meanwhile, as for
the experiment 7 that related to the determination of ratio of heat capacity which is the ratio of
heat capacity result was calculated and the result is 0.446 with the initial value of PT 1 before
expansion and PT 1 after expansion are 160.3 and 104.1 respectively. As the graph pressure
versus temperature plotted at the experiment 2, it proves that the as the temperature rising the
pressure also rising and like wise. This obeyed the equation of an ideal gas which the pressure is
inversely proportional with temperature. For the experiment 3 which is related to the isentropic
expansion, the temperature is decrease as the pressure also decrease. Meanwhile, experiment 4
for is to study the response of the pressurized vessel following stepwise depressurization. In this
experiment, as the valve is open and closed instantly, the pressure will decrease abruptly before
it increasing back as it becomes stables.

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RECOMMENDATIONS
There are a few recommendations that are necessary in these experiment in order to get a
more accurate results. Ensure that the Perfect gas expansion apparatus (model: TH 11) is in
good conditions before and after perform experiment. The lab manual given should be
followed respectively and sequencly while carrying out the experiment. The general start-up
and general shut-down procedure must be performed before and after use the apparatus.
During releasing all the pressure inside the pressurize chamber, the valve should be opened
slowly otherwise it will cause us becoming deaf due to the pressure that released is higher.
Make sure that the pump is switched off after reload the pressure inside the pressurize
chamber.
REFFRENCES
1) Thermodynamics and engineering approach, Yunus Cengel,
Michael Boles, 4th Ed.
2) http://www.google.com.my/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=perfect+gas+expan
sion+apparatus&source
3) http://www.discoverarmfield.co.uk/data/th5/?js=enabled
4) http://vohweb.chem.ucla.edu/voh/classes%5Cspring12%5C114ID2
6%5CT9-GNS.pdf
5) http://www.pete.metu.edu.tr/files/216labmanual.pdf
6) http://www.chemeng.queensu.ca/courses/CHEE218/projects/GasE
xpansion/ExpansionProcessesofPerfectGas.php (lab manual)

APPENDICES

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