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Exercises Set F

F-01 Joule postulated that the temperature of water when it comes down a waterfall

rises. Consider the waterfall to be an open thermodynamic system and estimate

the height z through which the water should fall for its temperature to rise by

List all other assumptions made while solving the problem.

F-02 Steam is supplied to a turbine with hi = 3.2 MJ/kg and it leaves with he =

2.5 MJ/kg. The entrance and exit velocities are Vi = 170 m/s and Ve = 280 m/s.

If the heat loss is 50 kJ/kg, what is the work done?

F-03 A steady flow system receives m

= 60 kg/min of gas at pi = 0.2 MPa, Ti = 90

this process, Q = 2 kW of heat is supplied from external sources, and the increase

in enthalpy is he hi =7.8 kJ/kg. Determine the power output.

F-04 A centrifugal air compressor compresses 5 m3 /min of gas from 10 N/cm2 to

70 N/cm2 . The inlet and exit specific volumes are 0.8 m3 /kg and 0.4 m3 /kg

respectively. The duct diameter is 10 cm at the inlet and 5 cm at the exit.

Determine (a) rate of flow work, (b) mass flow rate, and (c) change in velocity.

F-05 A steam turbine receives steam at a rate of 5400 kg/hr and develops power of

600 kW. Neglecting heat losses, determine the change in specific enthalpy of steam

flowing through the turbine if (a) the entrance and exit velocities and heights are

negligible, and (b) if the entrance and exit velocities are 50 m/s and 320 m/s

respectively, and the inlet is 4 m above the exhaust.

F-06 In a steady-state apparatus, the work done by the system is 80 kJ/kg of fluid.

The specific volume, pressure, and velocity at the inlet and exit are 0.5 m3 /kg,

8 bar, 12 m/s, and 0.7 m3 /kg, 1 bar, 220 m/s respectively. The inlet is 10 m

above the exit and the total heat loss is 10 kJ/kg of fluid. What is the change in

specific internal energy?

F-07 A ship propulsion system incorporates a compressor which receives steam at

3.4 bar with 5 percent moisture. It delivers it dry and saturated at 8 bar. Steam

flow rate is 5 kg/s. The compression is adiabatic. Diameters of the inlet and exit

ducts are 20 cm. The mechanical efficiency of the machine is 92%. (a) Determine

the power required to drive the compressor. (b) Is the process possible or impossible? Why? What is the limiting exit state? Assume that the exit pressure is

fixed.

F-08 The inlet conditions for the nozzle of a steam turbine are 60 bar, 350 . The exit

conditions are 10 bar, 0.9 dry. (a) If the steam flow rate is 10,000 kg/hr, determine

the exit velocity and exit area. (b) Is the process possible or impossible? Why?

What is the limiting exit state and exit velocity? Assume that the exit pressure

is fixed.

F-09 The inlet conditions of a water pump are 1 bar, 25 , and the exit pressure is

180 bar. The pump consumes 75 kW of power and pumps 12,000 litres of water

per hour (at inlet conditions). Determine the temperature of water at the exit

of the pump. If we define the ideal pump as the one which does the pumping

isothermally, what is the efficiency of the pump?

F-10 Feedwater at 0.1 bar is pumped from a condenser into a boiler at 25 bar. Water

at the exit of condenser is saturated and the compression is isentropic. Determine

the work done per kg of water pumped, and the flow work.

F-11 Water at a rate of 120 kg/min enters a pump at 1 bar, 35 . Thepump power

is 110 kW, and the pump raises the pressure to 5 bar. The water then passes

through a boiler in which 1800 kJ/kg of heat is added. Assuming negligible

pressure drop in the boiler, determine the state at the exit of the boiler and the

velocity at that point if the diameter of the exit duct is 20 cm.

F-12 Water flows through a horizontal venturimeter at a steady rate of 600 kg/min.

The inlet and throat diameters of the venturi are 6.0 cm and 3.0 cm respectively.

If there is no transfer of heat or work, and no change in internal energy, and if the

density remains constant at 1000 kg/m3 , what will be the pressure drop between

the inlet and throat in bar?

F-13 Wet steam at 10 bar is passed through a throttling calorimeter. The state of

steam after throttling is 0.75 bar, 100 . What is the dryness fraction of steam

before throttling?

F-14 A rigid, insulated bottle of volume V0 is perfectly evacuated. The stopper is

opened and ambient air (at p0 , T0 ) is allowed to flow in. When the flow stops,

the stopper is replaced. Determine the final temperature of air in the bottle.

F-15 Steam enters the nozzle of a steam turbine with a velocity of 5 m/s at a pressure

of 40 bar and 600 . The pressure and temperature at nozzle exit were measured

as 1 bar, 200 . Determine (a) exit velocity, (b) entropy production rate if the

flow rate of steam is 1.5 kg/s, and (c) isentropic efficiency of the nozzle.

F-16 An adiabatic steam turbine handles 10 kg/s of steam. The inlet state is 10 bar,

dry saturated. The exit pressure is 1 bar. The isentropic efficiency of the turbine

is 0.8. Determine (a) exit state, (b) power output, and (c) entropy production

rate.

stream which enters the heat exchanger at 150 . Both streams have a flow rate

of 2 kg/s and flow without any loss of pressure. Determine (a) heat transferred

between the streams, and (b) entropy production rate. Assume cp = 1.0 kJ/kg K

for air.

F-18 120 kg/hr of saturated water at 8 bar enters a heat exchanger and leaves at 4 bar,

200 . Hot air enters at 600 , 2 bar, and leaves at 240 , 2 bar. Determine

(a) flow rate of air, (b) heat transfer rate from air to water, (c) rate of entropy

outflow for each stream, and (d) entropy production rate. Use cp = 1.0 kJ/kg K

for air.

F-19 An adiabatic cylinder C consists of two parts A and B, separated by a fixed,

diathermic, partition D as shown in the figure below:

m

C

D

B

The chamber at the left is continuously flushed with dry saturated steam at a

pressure pA , and hence is initially full of it. The right chamber is now filled with

an ideal gas (with constant specific heats at a temperature TB which is lower than

TA (= Tsat (pA )). Heat is transferred across the diathermic partition from steam

to air, and the temperature of air finally reaches TA . Any steam which condenses

remains in chamber A (i.e. the exit state of A is always dry saturated steam at

pA ).

(a) Explain, with appropriate equations, how you will determine (1) the heat

transferred across the partition, (2) the mass of condensed steam in chamber A,

and (3) the change in entropy of air in B. (Nomenclature: mB : mass of air in B,

3

steam in A, mf : final mass of water (condensate) in A, hf , hg , hf g : properties of

steam.)

10 kg.

F-20 The figure below shows a butane cylinder of diameter D = 0.4 m and height

H = 0.8 m. The butane is at 300 K. Initially, the level of liquid in the cylinder

in 0.7 m. The valve is opened, and some butane is taken out for consumption.

During this process, (a) the temperature of butane is maintained at 300 K, (b) it

absorbs heat from the environment, which is at 310 K, and (c) only dry saturated

vapour leaves the cylinder. The final level of butane is 0.3 m. Determine the mass

of butane consumed, and the heat absorbed. Butane properties at 300 K are:

psat = 2.607 bar, f = 570.5 kg/m3 , g = 6.559 kg/m3 , hf = 564.0 kJ/kg, hg =

924.7 kJ/kg.

vap

liq

of air at 80and 2 bar to provide warm air at 25and 1 bar. The mixer is an

F-21 Cold air at 0 and 1 bar, and a flow rate of 1 kg/s is mixed with a hot stream

adiabatic open system with rigid walls. Determine (a) flow rate of hot air, and

(b) rate of entropy production. (c) Which irreversible process has taken place?

F-22 A throttling and separating calorimeter is used to measure the dryness fraction

Throttle

Separator

A, 1 bar, xA = 1, m

A = 0.9 kg/s

B, 1 bar, xB = 0, m

B = 0.1 kg/s

A sample of steam is throttled to near ambient temperature, and then put through

4

a separating chamber, where it is split into two streams. Stream A is dry saturated steam and stream B is saturated liquid. The flow rates of the two streams

are measured as m

A = 0.9 kg/s and m

B = 0.1 kg/s. (a) Determine the dryness

fraction of steam in the duct. (b) Can a simple throttling calorimeter be used

for this measurement? Why?

F-23 An incompressible liquid (density , isobaric sp heat cp ) of mass M is filled in

a tank, at an intial temperature T0 . The top surface is open to the atmosphere

(at p0 ). For t 0, a stream of the same fluid enters the tank at a temperature

Ti , the inflow rate is m

i . At the same time, fluid at a rate of m

e is withdrawn

from the tank. Assume that the liquid in the tank is well mixed and neglect any

heat transfer between the liquid and the surroundings. Derive expressions for

(a) rate of change of temperature of the liquid in the tank at t = 0, and (b) rate

of entropy production at t = 0.

F-24 Study the figure shown below. The pump P pumps water into the boiler B. The

steam generated runs a turbine T. The exhaust of the turbine is split into two

streams 5 and 6 in the separator S. The mixer M is used to mix some water

from boiler inlet and some steam from boiler exit to provide a mixed steam 9.

State 4: 2 bar; State 5: 2 bar, sat.liq.; State 6: 2 bar, dry.sat.vap.; State 9:

50 bar, dry.sat.vap.; m

4 = 10 kg/s; m

9 = 1 kg/s; isentropic efficiency of turbine

0.8. Determine (a) power produced by the turbine, (b) mass flows at 5, 6, 7,

8, and 1, (c) power comsumed by the pump, (d) rate of heat absorption in the

boiler, and rate of production of entropy in (e) the turbine, (f) the separator, and

(g) the mixer.

Q b

t

W

T

M

6

9

5

S

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