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# MEC551

THERMAL ENGINEERING

CHAPTER 01
THERMODYNAMIC & HEAT TRASNFER
ENERGY & SUSTAINABILITY

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PREPARED BY:
http://www.childrensbiblestudy.com

FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
UiTM SHAH ALAM

OBJECTIVES:
The objectives of Chapter 1 are to:

## Understand how thermodynamics & heat

transfer related to each other,
Understand the basic mechanisms of heat
transfer,
Develop an awareness on global warming
issues, ozone depleting substances, renewable
energy and sustainable energy issues.
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1.1 THERMODYNAMICS
Heat

Energy

What is Thermodynamics?
Conservation of
Energy principle

Law of
Thermodynamics
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1.1 THERMODYNAMICS
From the Greek words:
therme

## The science of energy transfer

study of the effects of work,
heat and energy on a system
The

1.1 THERMODYNAMICS
concerned with the

amount of total

heat transfer

as a system undergoes a
process from one equilibrium state to
another

no indication

gives
process will take

of

how long

the

## 1.1 CONSERVATION OF ENERGY PRINCIPLE

Energy cannot

be created or destroyed. It
only can be transform from one form to another
form

## energy can change from one form to

another but the total amount of energy
remains constant.

## 1.1 ZEROTH LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics:

If two

## bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a

third body, they are also in thermal equilibrium
with each other.

By replacing the third body with a thermometer, the Zeroth law can be

## two bodies are in thermal equilibrium

if both have the same temperature reading
even if they are not in contact.
restated as

## 1.1 ZEROTH LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics:

## Two bodies reaching thermal equilibrium after being brought

into contact in an isolated enclosure.
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## 1.1 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

An expression of
the conservation of energy principle.

## The first law of thermodynamics:

Mathematical model

## The first law asserts that

energy is a thermodynamic

property.
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## has quality as well as

quantity, and actual processes occur in the
direction of decreasing quality of energy.

## Example; a cup of hot coffee left on a table eventually cools,

but a cup of cool coffee in the same room never get hot by
itself

## The high temperature energy of the coffee is degraded

(transform into less useful form at a lower temperature) once
it is transferred to the surrounding air
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## 1.1 APPLICATION AREAS

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What is Heat?

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Heat
the form

of energy

can be transferred

## from one system to

another
as a result of a temperature

difference

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## What is Heat Transfer ?

process by which heat
energy moves from one area to
another
the physical

the determination

energy

of rates of
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## What is Heat Transfer ?

It occurs when the

difference temperature

## exists in a medium or between media

from high
temperature to a lower temperature
The transfer of heat is normally

object.

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OF HEAT TRANSFER

## Heat can be transferred from place to another place by

three PROCESSES or MODES.
i) CONDUCTION
ii) CONVECTION

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## 1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Conduction Process
The transfer of energy from the more energetic
particle of substance to the adjacent less energetic
ones as a result of interactions between the
particles.

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http://sheryltan789.blogspot.com

## 1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Conduction in solids
it is due to the combination of vibrations of the
molecules in a lattice and energy transport by free electron
www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/learning

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## 1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Conduction in solids
www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/learning

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## 1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Conduction in solids
www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/learning

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OF HEAT TRANSFER

## Conduction in liquids and gases

it is due to the collision and diffusion of the

## molecules during their random motion

http://www.spaceflight.esa.int/

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## 1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Conduction Process
Heat flows

object

## occur across the

medium in solids, liquids and gases and from
The heat transfer that will

one to another

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## 1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Convection Process

## between a solid surface and

moving fluid at different temperatures
occur

motion

## change of phase of a fluid

also considered to

be convection
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## 1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Convection Process

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## 1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Convection Process

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## 1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Convection Process
Natural/Free Convection
if the fluid motion is caused by buoyancy forces
that are induced by density differences due to the

## variation of temperature in the fluid.

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The cooling of boiled egg by convection

## 1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Convection Process
Forced convection
if the fluid is

## forced to flow over the

surface by external means such as a fan,
pump, or the wind.

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The cooling of boiled egg by convection

## 1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Convection Process
water.me.vccs.edu/

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## 1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Convection Process
npg2.com/krdo/weatherblog/

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## 1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Convection Process

http://sheryltan789.blogsp
ot.com

In Boiling Water

www.sltechgroup.com/blog

www.grammarpolice.net/

CONDENSATION

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## 1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Convection Process

http://sheryltan789.blogspot.com
http://sheryltan789.blogspot.com

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## 1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Interacts with matter via either:

## Emission: Light is released

Absorption: Light is captured
Transmission: Light is allowed to pass through

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## 1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

the transmission

of heat energy by
Radiation Process rays passing from a heat source to an
absorbing material.

## energy emitted by matter in the form of

electromagnetic waves (or photons)
The

## Does not require any

medium for energy transfer
Take place in a

intermediate

vacuum

## Heat from the sun reaches us by infrared radiation

Absorption of infrared radiation causes temperature rise
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OF HEAT TRANSFER

## form of radiation emitted by bodies because

of their temperature
the

It is volumetric

## phenomenon and all solids, liquid and

gases emit, absorb, or transmit radiation to varying
degrees.
It differs

## such as X-rays, gamma rays, microwaves, radio waves, and

television waves that are not related to temperature.

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OF HEAT TRANSFER

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## 1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Emission of infrared radiation causes the
temperature of the objects themselves to fall
The rate of heat transfer by radiation is affected by the
following factors:

## i) Color and texture of the surface

ii) Surface Temperature
iii) Surface Area
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ACTIVITY 1

MODE 3?
MODE 1?
MODE 2????
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ACTIVITY 2

MODE 2????

MODE 1?

MODE 3?

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APPLICATIONS

http://www.sfu.ca/~mbahrami/research.html

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APPLICATIONS

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APPLICATIONS

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APPLICATIONS

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## 1.3 SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT

WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE ENERGY

energy sources

## that will allow the Earth to sustain

balanced,
healthy ecosystems and human life

## energy that can potentially be kept up well

into the future without causing harmful
repercussions for future generations

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## 1.3 SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT

TYPES OF ENERGY RESOURCES

Renewable

Nonrenewable

can be replenished in

## take longer than a human

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Source: www.ncpre.iitb.ac.in

## World Energy Consumption

1 Quadrillion BTU = 1015 BTU = 1015 x 1054 Joules
Source: www.ncpre.iitb.ac.in

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## Electricity Consumption Bar Graph

Source: www.ncpre.iitb.ac.in

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1.3

## Ozone Depleting Substances and Global Warming

Issues
OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES
a chemical substance

## consisting of some combination of chlorine, fluorine,

or bromine plus carbon, such as chlorofluorocarbons
and hydro chlorofluorocarbons that has been shown to
destroy stratospheric ozone
commonly found in aerosol products, foams, and fire
extinguishers, and are used as refrigerants and in airconditioning and cooling equipment

1.3

Issues

1.3

Issues

1.3

## Ozone Depleting Substances and Global Warming

Issues
www.epa.gov/ozone/science/process.html

1.3

Issues

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Issues

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Issues

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Issues

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1.3

Issues

1.4

## Renewable Energy Resources and Technologies.

Sustainable Energy Management

1.4

## Renewable Energy Resources and Technologies.

Sustainable Energy Management

1.4

## Renewable Energy Resources and Technologies.

Sustainable Energy Management

1.4

## Renewable Energy Resources and Technologies.

Sustainable Energy Management

1.4

## Renewable Energy Resources and Technologies.

Sustainable Energy Management

REFERENCES
1.

Edition, 2011.

## 2. Yunus A. Cengel, Introduction to Thermodynamics and Heat

Transfer, McGraw-Hill, 2008.
3.

Incropera et.al., Heat and Mass Transfer, John Wiley, 6th Edition,
2007.

4.

5.

## P.K.Nag, Heat Transfer, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2003.

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THANK YOU

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SOLID

MELTING/FUSION
DEPOSITION

FREEZING

SUBLIMATION

GAS

CONDENSATION
BOILING/EVAPORATION

LIQUID
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