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MEC551

THERMAL ENGINEERING

CHAPTER 01
THERMODYNAMIC & HEAT TRASNFER
ENERGY & SUSTAINABILITY

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PREPARED BY:
http://www.childrensbiblestudy.com

PN. ROSNADIAH BAHSAN


FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
UiTM SHAH ALAM

OBJECTIVES:
The objectives of Chapter 1 are to:

Understand how thermodynamics & heat


transfer related to each other,
Understand the basic mechanisms of heat
transfer,
Develop an awareness on global warming
issues, ozone depleting substances, renewable
energy and sustainable energy issues.
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1.1 THERMODYNAMICS
Heat

Energy

What is Thermodynamics?
Conservation of
Energy principle

Law of
Thermodynamics
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1.1 THERMODYNAMICS
From the Greek words:
therme

(heat) & dynamis (power) the efforts

to convert heat into power

The science of energy transfer


study of the effects of work,
heat and energy on a system
The

1.1 THERMODYNAMICS
concerned with the

amount of total

heat transfer

as a system undergoes a
process from one equilibrium state to
another

no indication

gives
process will take

of

how long

the

1.1 CONSERVATION OF ENERGY PRINCIPLE

1.1 CONSERVATION OF ENERGY PRINCIPLE

Energy cannot

be created or destroyed. It
only can be transform from one form to another
form

Conservation of energy principle: During an interaction,

energy can change from one form to


another but the total amount of energy
remains constant.

1.1 ZEROTH LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS


Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics:

Thermodynamic equilibrium & Temperature

If two

bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a


third body, they are also in thermal equilibrium
with each other.

By replacing the third body with a thermometer, the Zeroth law can be

two bodies are in thermal equilibrium


if both have the same temperature reading
even if they are not in contact.
restated as

1.1 ZEROTH LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS


Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics:

Thermodynamic equilibrium & Temperature

Two bodies reaching thermal equilibrium after being brought


into contact in an isolated enclosure.
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1.1 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS


An expression of
the conservation of energy principle.

The first law of thermodynamics:

Mathematical model

Ein Eout = esystem

The first law asserts that

energy is a thermodynamic

property.
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1.1 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

It asserts that energy

has quality as well as


quantity, and actual processes occur in the
direction of decreasing quality of energy.

Example; a cup of hot coffee left on a table eventually cools,


but a cup of cool coffee in the same room never get hot by
itself

The high temperature energy of the coffee is degraded


(transform into less useful form at a lower temperature) once
it is transferred to the surrounding air
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1.1 APPLICATION AREAS

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1.1 APPLICATION AREAS

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1.1 APPLICATION AREAS

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1.1 APPLICATION AREAS

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1.1 APPLICATION AREAS

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What is Heat?

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Heat
the form

of energy

can be transferred

from one system to

another
as a result of a temperature

difference

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What is Heat Transfer ?


process by which heat
energy moves from one area to
another
the physical

the determination

energy

of rates of
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What is Heat Transfer ?


It occurs when the

difference temperature

exists in a medium or between media

from high
temperature to a lower temperature
The transfer of heat is normally

object.

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1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Heat can be transferred from place to another place by


three PROCESSES or MODES.
i) CONDUCTION
ii) CONVECTION
iii) RADIATION

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1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Conduction Process
The transfer of energy from the more energetic
particle of substance to the adjacent less energetic
ones as a result of interactions between the
particles.

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http://sheryltan789.blogspot.com

1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Conduction in solids
it is due to the combination of vibrations of the
molecules in a lattice and energy transport by free electron
www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/learning

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1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Conduction in solids
www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/learning

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1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Conduction in solids
www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/learning

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1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Conduction in liquids and gases


it is due to the collision and diffusion of the

molecules during their random motion


http://www.spaceflight.esa.int/

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1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Conduction Process
Heat flows

object

from the warmer to the cooler

until the temperature for both objects

are the same

The transfer of heat between two bodies or two

parts of the same body through molecules

occur across the


medium in solids, liquids and gases and from
The heat transfer that will

one to another

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1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Convection Process

between a solid surface and


moving fluid at different temperatures
occur

the combined effects of conduction and fluid

motion

change of phase of a fluid

also considered to

be convection
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1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Convection Process

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1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Convection Process

The cooling of boiled egg by convection

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1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Convection Process
Natural/Free Convection
if the fluid motion is caused by buoyancy forces
that are induced by density differences due to the

variation of temperature in the fluid.

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The cooling of boiled egg by convection

1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Convection Process
Forced convection
if the fluid is

forced to flow over the


surface by external means such as a fan,
pump, or the wind.

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The cooling of boiled egg by convection

1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Convection Process
water.me.vccs.edu/

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1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Convection Process
npg2.com/krdo/weatherblog/

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1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Convection Process

http://sheryltan789.blogsp
ot.com

In Boiling Water

www.sltechgroup.com/blog

www.grammarpolice.net/

CONDENSATION

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1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Convection Process

http://sheryltan789.blogspot.com
http://sheryltan789.blogspot.com

A radiator in the room heats up the room by convection

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1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Radiation Process
Interacts with matter via either:

Emission: Light is released


Absorption: Light is captured
Transmission: Light is allowed to pass through

Reflection: Light is bounced away


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1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

the transmission

of heat energy by
Radiation Process rays passing from a heat source to an
absorbing material.

energy emitted by matter in the form of


electromagnetic waves (or photons)
The

Does not require any


medium for energy transfer
Take place in a

intermediate

vacuum

Heat from the sun reaches us by infrared radiation


Absorption of infrared radiation causes temperature rise
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1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Thermal Radiation Process

form of radiation emitted by bodies because


of their temperature
the

It is volumetric

phenomenon and all solids, liquid and


gases emit, absorb, or transmit radiation to varying
degrees.
It differs

radiation

from other forms of electromagnetic

such as X-rays, gamma rays, microwaves, radio waves, and


television waves that are not related to temperature.

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1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Thermal Radiation Process

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1.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM

OF HEAT TRANSFER

Thermal Radiation Process


Emission of infrared radiation causes the
temperature of the objects themselves to fall
The rate of heat transfer by radiation is affected by the
following factors:

i) Color and texture of the surface


ii) Surface Temperature
iii) Surface Area
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ACTIVITY 1

MODE 3?
MODE 1?
MODE 2????
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ACTIVITY 2

MODE 2????

MODE 1?

MODE 3?

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APPLICATIONS

http://www.sfu.ca/~mbahrami/research.html

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APPLICATIONS

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APPLICATIONS

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APPLICATIONS

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1.3 SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT


WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE ENERGY

energy sources

that will allow the Earth to sustain

balanced,
healthy ecosystems and human life

energy that can potentially be kept up well


into the future without causing harmful
repercussions for future generations

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1.3 SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT


TYPES OF ENERGY RESOURCES

Renewable

Nonrenewable

can be replenished in
a human lifetime

take longer than a human


lifetime to replace

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Source: www.ncpre.iitb.ac.in

1.3 SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT

World Energy Scenario

World Energy Consumption


1 Quadrillion BTU = 1015 BTU = 1015 x 1054 Joules
Source: www.ncpre.iitb.ac.in

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1.3 SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT

World Electricity Scenario

Electricity Consumption Bar Graph

Source: www.ncpre.iitb.ac.in

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1.3

Ozone Depleting Substances and Global Warming


Issues
OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES
a chemical substance

consisting of some combination of chlorine, fluorine,


or bromine plus carbon, such as chlorofluorocarbons
and hydro chlorofluorocarbons that has been shown to
destroy stratospheric ozone
commonly found in aerosol products, foams, and fire
extinguishers, and are used as refrigerants and in airconditioning and cooling equipment

1.3

Ozone Depleting Substances and Global Warming


Issues

1.3

Ozone Depleting Substances and Global Warming


Issues

1.3

Ozone Depleting Substances and Global Warming


Issues
www.epa.gov/ozone/science/process.html

1.3

Ozone Depleting Substances and Global Warming


Issues

1.3

Ozone Depleting Substances and Global Warming


Issues

1.3

Ozone Depleting Substances and Global Warming


Issues

1.3

Ozone Depleting Substances and Global Warming


Issues

1.3

Ozone Depleting Substances and Global Warming


Issues

1.3

Ozone Depleting Substances and Global Warming


Issues

1.3

Ozone Depleting Substances and Global Warming


Issues

1.3

Ozone Depleting Substances and Global Warming


Issues

1.3

Ozone Depleting Substances and Global Warming


Issues

1.3

Ozone Depleting Substances and Global Warming


Issues

1.3

Ozone Depleting Substances and Global Warming


Issues

1.3

Ozone Depleting Substances and Global Warming


Issues

1.3

Ozone Depleting Substances and Global Warming


Issues

1.4

Renewable Energy Resources and Technologies.


Sustainable Energy Management

1.4

Renewable Energy Resources and Technologies.


Sustainable Energy Management

1.4

Renewable Energy Resources and Technologies.


Sustainable Energy Management

1.4

Renewable Energy Resources and Technologies.


Sustainable Energy Management

1.4

Renewable Energy Resources and Technologies.


Sustainable Energy Management

REFERENCES
1.

Yunus A. Cengel, MEC551 Thermal Engineering, McGraw Hill, 1st


Edition, 2011.

2. Yunus A. Cengel, Introduction to Thermodynamics and Heat


Transfer, McGraw-Hill, 2008.
3.

Incropera et.al., Heat and Mass Transfer, John Wiley, 6th Edition,
2007.

4.

J.P.Holman, Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill, 10th Edition,2010.

5.

P.K.Nag, Heat Transfer, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2003.


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THANK YOU

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SOLID

MELTING/FUSION
DEPOSITION

FREEZING

SUBLIMATION

GAS

CONDENSATION
BOILING/EVAPORATION

LIQUID
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