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VOLUME 1

Welding Metallurgy
Carbon and Alloy Steels

Volume I
Fundamentals

George E. Linnert
GML Publications
Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, USA

Fourth Edition

Published by the American Welding Society


Miami, Florida, USA

Contents

Contents
Chapter One:
Background to Welding Metallurgy
MILESTONES IN WELDING HISTORY

1
1

THE FUTURE OF WELDING


WHAT IS WELDING METALLURGY?
PUTTING WELDING METALLURGY TO USE

4
6
12

WELDING TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES

12

SUGGESTED READING

15

Chapter Two:
The Structure of Metals
ATOMS
Elementary Particles
Electrons
Positrons
Atomic Nuclei
Protons
Neutrons
Atom Construction
Isotopes of Elements
Isobars
Atomic Weight
Atomic Mass
Atom Valency
lonization
Radioactivity
Atom Size or Diameter
THE ELEMENTS
AGGREGATES OF ATOMS
The Solid State
The Crystalline Solids
Amorphous Solids
The Liquid State
The Gaseous State
FUNDAMENTALS OF CRYSTALS
Identification of Planes and Directions in Crystals
Basic Types of Crystals

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vi

Welding Metallurgy
Inert Gas Crystals
Ionic Crystals
Covalent Crystals
Metallic Crystals

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THE CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE OF METALS


How Does a Crystal Grow from the Melt?
The Formation of Dendrites
The Formation of Grains
The Shape of Grains
The Size of Grains
Undercooling

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THE IMPORTANCE OF A CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE


Allotropic Transformation
Solubility in the Solid State
Plasticity in Metallic Crystals
Slip in Crystalline Structures
Slip and Lattice Orientation
Slip in Polycrystalline Metals
Observing Slip
Twinning in Crystalline Structures
Lattice Imperfections: Dislocations
Point Defects
Edge Dislocations
Screw Dislocations
Stacking Faults
Other Lattice Imperfections
Cold-Working Metals

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EXAMINATION OF METAL STRUCTURES


Fracture Appearance Assessment
Metallography
Metallography Using Optical Microscopy
Quantitative Metallography
Metallography Using the Electron Microscope
Metallography Using Ion Microscopy
Tunnel-Effect Microscopy
Chemical Analysis of Microstructural Constituents
Newer Techniques in Metallurgy

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FRACTOGRAPHY

123

SUGGESTED READING

131

Chapter Three:
The Properties of Metals
STRUCTURE SENSITIVITY OF PROPERTIES
DIRECTIONALITY IN PROPERTIES

133
133
135

Contents

vii

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
Elastic Behavior of Metals
Young's Modulus of Elasticity
Poisson's Ratio
Limits of Elasticity and Proportionality
Plastic Yielding in Metals
Yield Strength
Breaking Strength of Metals
Tensile Strength
True Stress and True Strain
Notched Tensile Strength
Ductility
Elongation
Reduction of Area
Ductility Indications from Special Tests
Hardness
Static Indentation Hardness Testing
Microhardness Testing
Dynamic Hardness Testing
Scratch Hardness Testing
Conversion of Hardness Numbers
Toughness
Introduction of Impact Testing

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FRACTURE IN METALS
Ductile Fracture
Brittle Fracture
Intergranular Fracture
Conditions Affecting Fracture Toughness
Effect of Temperature
Effect of Stress Axiality
Stress Gradient
Stress Multiaxiality
Effect of Rate of Strain
Effect of Cyclic Stress (Fatigue)
Fatigue Crack Initiation
Fatigue Crack Propagation
Fatigue Crack Failure
Cyclic Stress Limits to Avoid Fatigue Failure
Cyclic Stress Conditions
Variable Loading and Cumulative Fatigue Damage

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FRACTURE MECHANICS: ASSESSMENT OF FRACTURE


TOUGHNESS
Brittle Fracture Test Parameters
Section Dimensions
Plotting Coordinates
Crack Surface Displacement Mode
Plane-Strain

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Welding Metallurgy
Plane-Stress
Stress Distribution
Procedures for Evaluating Propensity for Brittle Fracture
Use of Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics
Development of Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics
Crack Tip Opening Displacement Testing
The J-lntegral Test Method
Fatigue Cracking Assessment by Fracture Mechanics
Mechanical Properties at Low Temperature
Strength at Low Temperature
Impact Toughness at Low Temperature
Test Methods for Toughness Evaluation
Correlation of Results from Fracture Toughness Tests
Improved Mechanical Properties for Low-Temperature Service
Mechanical Properties at Elevated and High Temperatures
Short-Time Elevated Temperature Testing
Long-Time Elevated Temperature Testing
Mechanical Properties After Plastic Work
Hot Work
Cold Work
Peening
Irradiation

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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Density
Thermal Properties
Specific Heat
Thermal Conductivity
Melting Point or Melting Range
Heat of Fusion
Viscosity and Surface Tension of Molten Metals
Boiling Point and Heat of Vaporization
Thermal Expansion and Contraction
Thermionic Work Function
Electrical Properties
Magnetic Properties
Evaluation of Magnetization
Summary of Magnetic Behavior
Involvement of Magnetization in Welding

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CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Corrosion of Metals
Corrosion in Aqueous Solutions
Corrosion in Hot Gases
Corrosion in Molten Metals
Corrosion in Molten Salt
Forms of Corrosion Pertinent to Weldments
Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)
SUGGESTED READING

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293

Contents

Chapter Four:
Effects of Alloying Elements
ALLOYING
Alloys in the Liquid State
Phase Diagrams
Binary Phase Diagrams
Ternary Phase Diagrams
Phase Diagrams for Multi-Element Alloys
Alloys in the Solid State
Factors Influencing Solid Solubility
Formation of Intermediate Phases and Compounds
Mechanisms and General Effects of Alloying
Role of Crystalline Structure
Role of Microstructure
Mechanisms for Altering Mechanical Properties
ALLOYING ELEMENTS IN IRON
Carbon
Analysis of the Iron-Iron Carbide Diagram
Manganese
Phosphorus
Sulfur and Selenium
Silicon
Copper
Chromium
Nickel
Molybdenum
Niobium (Columbium)
Vanadium
Aluminum
Nitrogen
Titanium
Boron
Cobalt
Tungsten
Lead
Other Alloying Elements
BENEFIT OF REVERSING THE ALLOYING TREND
Residual Elements
SUGGESTED READING

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310
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359

Chapter Five:
Types of Steel and Their Manufacture

361

GENERAL CATEGORIES OF IRON AND STEEL

361

IRON PRODUCTION BY ORE REDUCTION


Blast Furnace

362
362

ix

Welding Metallurgy
Direct Reduction Processes

365

CAST IRON
WROUGHT IRON
POWDER METALLURGY

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367

STEELMAKING PROCESSES
Significance of Acid and Basic Steelmaking
Bessemer Converter
Open Hearth Furnace
Rimmed Steel
Capped Steel
Killed Steel
Semikilled Steel
Vacuum Deoxidized Steel
Oxygen Steelmaking
Basic Oxygen Steelmaking
L-D Process
Kaldo Process
Off-Gas BOF
Q-BOP Process
Lance-Bubbling-Equilibrium
Ladle Refining
Slag Removal
Mixing Capability
Alloying Additions
Vacuum Treatment
Temperature Adjustment
Desulfurization
Electric-Arc Furnace
Electric-Induction Furnace
Electroslag Remelting

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SPECIAL MELTING PROCESSES


Vacuum Induction Melting
Vacuum Consumable-Electrode Remelting
Electron-Beam Melting
Argon-Oxygen Decarburization (AOD)
FOUNDRY AND STEEL MILL OPERATIONS
Ingot Steelmaking Practice
Continuous Casting of Steel

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400

HOT WORKING OPERATIONS


Thermo-Mechanical Control Process (T-MCP)
COLD FINISHING
HEAT TREATMENT
CONTINUOUS COATING OF STRIP STEEL IN COILS
TYPES OF STEEL
Carbon Steels

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407
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409
410
410

Contents
Alloy Steels
Construction
Automotive, Aircraft, and Machinery
Low-Temperature Service
Elevated Temperature Service
High-Alloy Steels
Austenitic Manganese Steel
Stainless Steels
Heat-Resisting Steels
Tool Steels

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415
415

STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS FOR STEELS


Unified Numbering System
AISI-SAE System of Standard Carbon and Alloy Steels
ASTM Standards
API Specifications
Aerospace Material Specifications
ASME Material Specifications
AWS Specifications, Codes and Rules
CARBON AND ALLOY STEEL USED IN WELDED CONSTRUCTION
Qualities of Steel Important to Welding
Factors Affecting the Weldability of Steel
Chemical Composition
Mechanical Properties
Metallurgical Structure
Internal Soundness
Cleanliness
THE FUTURE OF STEELS AND THEIR WELDABILITY
New Steels and Product Forms
Dissimilar-Metal Welding
Repair Welding The Ultimate Challenge

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430
431
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439

SUGGESTED READING

439

Chapter Six:
Welding Methods and Processes

444

SOLID-STATE WELDING (SSW)

444

FUSION WELDING

445

BRAZING AND SOLDERING


HEAT SOURCES FOR WELDING AND CUTTING
Electrical Heat Generation
Electric Arc
Electron Beam
Electric Resistance
Electromagnetic Radiation
Laser Beams

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xi

xii

Welding Metallurgy
Chemical Heat Generation
Mechanical Heat Generation

465
466

THE WELDING AND CUTTING PROCESSES


Arc Welding Process
Power Sources for Arc Welding
Auxiliary Equipment for Arc Welding
Basic Forms of Arc Welding
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
Stud Arc Welding (SW)
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)
Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)
Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
Plasma Arc Welding (PAW)
Percussion Welding (PEW)
Magnetically Impelled Arc Welding
Welding Arc Technology
Resistance Welding Processes
Resistance Spot Welding (RSW)
Resistance Seam Welding (RSEW)
Projection Welding (PW)
Upset Welding (UW)
Flash Welding (FW)
Electrical Metal-Explosion Welding Process
Induction Welding (IW)
Electroslag Welding (ESW)
Electron Beam Welding (EBW)
Welding in a High Vacuum (EBW-HV)
Welding in a Medium Vacuum (EBW-MV)
Nonvacuum Electron Beam Welding (EBW-NV)
Tracking Joints During Electron Beam Welding
Laser Beam Welding (LBW)
Nature of Laser Beams and Plasma Generation
Basic Techniques in Laser Welding
Attributes of Laser Welding
Laser Welding Difficulties and Defects
Shielding Gas Effects in Laser Welding
Filler Wire Feeding in Laser Welding
Oxyfuel Welding (OFW)
Oxyacetylene Welding (OAW)
Thermite Welding (TW)

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585

SOLID-STATE WELDING PROCESSES


Hot Pressure Welding (HPW)
Induction Welding (IW)
Friction Welding (FRW)
Inertia-Drive Friction Welding
Direct-Drive Friction Welding

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592
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595

Contents
Materials Suited for Friction Welding
Mechanical Properties of Friction Welds
Other Forms of Friction Welding
Explosion Welding (EXW)
Diffusion Welding (DFW)
Ultrasonic Welding (USW)
Cold Welding (CW)
Electrostatic Bonding
Electrodeposition Welding

xiii
595
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612
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619

BRAZING AND SOLDERING PROCESSES


Brazing Processes (B)
Soldering (S)

620
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SURFACING BY WELDING AND THERMAL SPRAY


Buildup
Buttering
Hardfacing
Overlaying and Cladding

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632

THERMAL CUTTING PROCESSES


Metallurgical Effects of Thermal Cutting
Oxygen Cutting Processes (OC)
Oxyfuel Gas Cutting (OFC)
Chemical Flux Cutting (FOC)
Metal Powder Cutting (POC)
Electric Arc Cutting Processes (AC)
Air Carbon Arc Cutting (CAC-A)
Plasma Arc Cutting (PAC)
Electron Beam Cutting (EBC)
Laser Beam Cutting (LBC)
SUGGESTED READING

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639
640
643
647
651

Chapter Seven:
Temperature Changes in Welding
TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
Heat
Temperature
Thermal Flow
Conduction, Convection, and Radiation
Enthalpy and Entropy
TEMPERATURE AND TIME IN WELDING
Heat Flow Equations
Heat Source Characterization
Rate of Heating
Heating Potential of Energy Sources
OAW Heating Potential
AW Heating Potential

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xiv

Welding Metallurgy
FRW Heating Potential
EBW Heating Potential
LBW Heating Potential
Electrical Resistance Heating Potential
Peak Temperatures
Defining the Weld Zone
Numerical Modeling of Temperatures
Temperature Distributions
Effects of Temperature Distribution on Cooling Rate
Special Considerations Regarding Temperature Distribution
Time at Temperature
Furnace Heating for Welding Simulation
Temper Color as an Indicant
Resistance Heating for Welding Simulation
Cooling Rate of Heated Zones
Correlation with Heat Input
Workpiece Pre-Weld Temperature
Instantaneous Cooling Rate
Influence of Travel Speed on Weld Zone Size
Hardness/Microstructure/CoolingRate Relationship
Cooling End Points

CONTROL OF TEMPERATURE IN FUSION WELDING


Predictive Diagrams for Fusion Welding Parameters
Mathematical Modeling of Fusion Welding
Sensory Systems for Adaptive Control of Fusion Welding
Adaptive Control of Solid-State Welding Processes
SUGGESTED READING

Chapter Eight:
Fluxes, Slags, and Gases for Shielding

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705

708

OXIDATION OF IRON

708

OXIDATION OF STEEL
Carbon/Oxygen Reaction in Molten Steel
Oxidation of Solid Steel
PREVENTING OXIDATION DURING WELDING
Shielding Slags
Fluxes
Controlled Atmospheres
Vacuum
Technique
Deoxidizers
Protective Surface Alloys
Liquid Blankets

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718
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721
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722

SHIELDING THE JOINING PROCESSES FROM AIR


Carbon Arc Welding

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Contents
Metal Arc Welding
Covered Electrodes
Generic Electrode Coverings and Typical Formulas
Flux Cored Electrodes
Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
Types of SAW Fluxes and Their Classification
Methods of Manufacturing SAW Fluxes
Physical Chemistry of Fluxes in SAW Process
Transfer of Elements Between SAW Flux/Slag and Weld Metal
Electroslag Welding
Gas Shielded Arc Welding
Argon
Helium
Carbon Dioxide
Propane
Nitrogen
Hydrogen
Miscellaneous Gas Additives
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
Gas Metal Arc Welding
Globular Transfer in GMAW
Repelled Transfer in GMAW
Projected Transfer in GMAW
Streaming or Axial-Spray Transfer in GMAW
Pulsed Spray Transfer in GMAW-P
Rotating Droplet (Kinking) Transfer in GMAW
Explosive Drop Transfer in GMAW
Short Circuiting Transfer in GMAW-S
Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)
Plasma Arc Welding (PAW)
Electrogas Welding (EGW)
Other Welding Processes Using Gas Shielding
Laser Beam Welding (LBW)
Non-Vacuum Electron Beam Welding (EBW-NV)
Protecting Brazing Processes From Air
Soldering Ways to Achieve Bonding
Fluxes for Soldering
Mechanical Means to Accomplish Solder Bonding
SUGGESTED READING

Chapter Nine:
Simple Welds in Iron and Steel
FUSION WELDS
Solidification of Weld Metal
Modes of Primary Solidification Structure
The Weld Zone

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797

xv

xvi

Welding Metallurgy
The Unmixed Zone
The Partially Melted Zone
The Heat-Affected Zone
Unaffected Base Metal

SOLID-STATE WELDS
MICROSTRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN SOLID
IRON AND STEEL
Phase Changes in Steel
Ferrite
Austenite
Cementite
Pearlite
Widmanstatten Pattern
Microstructural Changes in Steel During Heating
Microstructures Formed in Steel During Cooling
Martensitic Microstructures
Isothermal Transformation of Austenite
Pearlite Formation Isothermally
Bainite Formation Isothermally
Martensite Formation
Reappraisal of Microstructures Formed in Steel
Upper Bainite
Lower Bainite
Importance of Critical Cooling Rate
Importance of Delay-Time Before AusteniteTransformation
Martensite: Implications in Welding
Temperature Range for Martensite Formation
Quantitative Prediction of Martensite Formation
Martensite Hardness Rationale
Martensite Formation Monitoring by AE Signals
IT Diagrams: Summation of Usefulness
Transformation of Austenite During Continuous Cooling
PREDICTION OF MICROSTRUCTURES IN THE HEAT-AFFECTED
ZONES OF WELDS
Jominy Method of Predicting HAZ Microstructure
Mathematical Approach to Prejudging HAZ Suitability
TRANSFORMATIONS IN WELD METAL
Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagrams for Weld Metal
Importance of Weld Metal Composition
Role of Grain Size in Weld Metal
Influence of Nonmetallic Inclusions in Weld Metal
STUDY OF A TYPICAL FUSION WELD IN STEEL
Making Welds with Good Toughness
The Challenge of Optimizing Welding Procedures
Base Metal
Weld Metal
Welding Process and Procedure

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851
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856
857
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870
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883
888
889
890
890

Contents

Weldment Property Testing


Nondestructive Examination
SUGGESTED READING

Appendixes

xvii

890
890
891

893

I. ACRONYMS FOR ORGANIZATIONS


II. STANDARD TERMINOLOGY REFERENCES

893
895

III. SYMBOLS USED IN TEXT AND TABLES


IV. ALPHABETS USED IN SCIENTIFIC NOTATION

896
896

V. ABBREVIATIONS & ALPHABETICAL DESIGNATIONS


VI. SI BASE UNITS
VII. STRESS CONVERSION: MPa => ksi
VIII. TEMPERATURE CONVERSION: CELSIUS <=> FAHRENHEIT

897
901
902
905

IX. THE ELEMENTS: SYMBOLS & PROPERTIES

907

X. THE ELEMENTS: ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS

913

XI. ELECTRONIC DATABASES & COMPUTER PROGRAMS

919

Index

923

NOTE: To assist the reader In finding specific Information on a particular subject, the
contents of each chapter has been demarcated In a separate listing located on the first
verso page preceding that chapter. In addition, the contents of each chapter, Including the Technical Briefs and the tables In the Appendixes, have been extensively
cross-catalogued In the Index located on pages 923 to 940.

xviii

Welding Metallurgy

Technical Briefs
Brief

Page

No.

Title

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Transition Joints Between Different Steels


What is an Angstrom?
Thermonuclear Fusion
Hydrogen - The Building Block of the Elements
Miller Indices
Burgers Vectors
Laser Scanning Microscopy
Specimen Preparation for TEM
Dislocation Movement in Body-Centered-Cubic Metals
Crack Arrest
Flow Strength Versus Cohesive Strength
Griffith's Theory of Fracture Mechanics
Fracture Mechanics Testing of Ductile Metals
Developing an Analytic Procedure for Elastic-Plastic
Fracture Mechanics
Improving the Value of the Charpy Impact Test
The Larson-Miller Parameter
Quantifying the Severity of Exposure to Neutron Irradiation
Thermoelectric Effects as Related to Metallurgy
Lead as an Immiscible Alloy in Iron and Steel
Application of the Lever Law to Solidification of Metals
The Gibbs Phase Rule
Hume-Rothery's Classification of Elements
Correlation Between Electron Configuration and Crystal Structure
Coherency of Atoms in Precipitation Hardening
Rationale for Letter Designations in the Iron-Iron Carbide
Phase Diagram
Effects of Manganese Sulfide Inclusions in Steel
Nitrogen Retention in Steel
Manufacture of Fine-Grain Steel Using an Aluminum Additive
Continuous Casting of Thin Steel Strip
The AISI System for Generic Designation of Sheet Steels
lonization
Initiating a Welding Arc
Effects of Weld Pool Circulation on Penetration Depth in GTAW
Hot Cracking Susceptibility in Submerged Arc Welds
Problems in Spot Welding Zinc-Coated Steel

15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.

No.

4
18
32
35
57
90
96
109
162
164
174
189
202
206
227
247
252
271
297
302
310
313
317
324
332
343
351
377
404
423
452
455
486
507
529

Technical Briefs
Brief

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Page

No.

Title

36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.

Preventing Arcing in Electron Beam Welding


Friction Welding in Undersea Applications
Effects of Alloying Elements in Steel on Oxygen Cutting
Controlling HAZ Cooling Rate via Arc Energy Output
Development of the SMAW Electrode
Safeguards for Handling Low-Hydrogen SMAW Electrodes
The Wall Neutrality Number
Assessing Basicity of SAW Fluxes
Solidification Structures in Steel Fusion Welds
The Solidification Mechanics of Weld Surface Patterns
Austenite: The Mother of Microstructures
Pearlitic Microstructures
Martensitic Microstructures
Bainitic Microstructures
Acicular Ferrite in Weld Microstructures

No.

557
599
637
678
727
736
747
753
792
797
806
817
840
845
885

XX

Welding Metallurgy

Tables
Table
No.

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15
3.16
3.17
3.18
3.19
4.1

Title

Elementary Particles
lonization Potential of Gases and Vapors
Diameters of Atoms
The Elements
Features of the Seven Crystal Systems
Densities of Some Pure Metals and Their Change
Crystal Structures of Some Pure Metals
Crystal Structures of Some Pure Metals Capable of
Allotropic Transformation
Relationships Between ASTM Grain Size Numbers
Comparison of Methods for Localized Analysis of Surfaces
The Properties of Metals
Typical Elastic Constants for Various Materials at Room Temperature
Influence of Crystallographic Orientation on Elastic Modulus
at Room Temperature
Strain Rates Common to Various Exposures, Services,
and Mechanical Tests
Temperature Conversion Scales and Fixed Points of Interest
Notched - Bar Impact Values for Metals Tested at Low Temperatures
Effect of Cold Work on Mechanical Properties of
Low-Carbon Steel Sheet
Thermal Neutron Cross Section for Iron and Other Elements
Found in Steel
Density and Strength-Weight Ratio of Metals, Alloys and Nonmetals
Specific Heat of Some Metals and Nonmetals
Thermal Conductivity of Metals, Alloys, and Nonmetals
Melting Points or Ranges of Metals, Alloys, and Nonmetals
Melting Point, Latent Heat of Fusion, Boiling Point and Heat of
Vaporization of Metals
Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion for Some Metals,
Alloys, and Nonmetals
Electron Thermionic Work Functions of Metals and Nonmetals
Electrical Properties of Metals, Alloys and Nonmetals
Forms of Corrosion and Instigative Conditions
Galvanic Series, and Electromotive Force Values for Metals
Commonly Used Materials and Environments in Which Failure by StressCorrosion Cracking Has Been Experienced in Industry or in Tests
Elements Used for Alloying Irons and Steels, and Their Influence on
Crystalline Structure of the Alloy

Page
No.

20
37
39
42
56
66
75
76
99
122
134
140
141
173
218
221
249
251
259
260
262
263
265
267
268
270
275
278
287
319

Tables
Table
No.

4.2
4.3
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
5.14
6.1
6.2
6.3
7.1
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
9.1
9.2
9.3

Title

xxi
Page
No.

Changes in Pure Iron During Cooling and Temperatures of Occurrence...321


Interstitial-Free I-F Steel
358
Comparison of Rimmed, Capped, Semikilled and Killed Steels
379
Gas Content of Alloy Steel Ingots
380
Typical Gas Contents of Alloy Steel Ingots Melted by Four Electric
Furnace Processes
394
Common Terms for Hot-Rolled Mill Products
405
Classification and Usage of Carbon Steels
411
SAE-ASTM Unified Numbering System
417
AISI-SAE System for Designation of Carbon and Alloy Steels
419
AISI-SAE System for Characterization of Carbon and Alloy Steels
420
AISI and SAE Systems for Classification of High-Strength Carbon
and Low Alloy Steel Sheet
421
ASTM Annual Book of Standards -1993 Edition
422
API Specifications Governing Materials
425
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
427
ASME B31; Code for Pressure Piping
428
AWS Codes, Specifications and Standards
429
Characteristics of Argon and Helium Gases When Shielding
theGTAW Process
483
Typical Chemical Compositions of Weld Metal Deposited by
Flux Cored Arc Welding Electrodes
504
Thickness and Weight of Zinc Coatings on Steel
528
Temper Colors Formed on Iron and Carbon Steel
676
Degree of Vacuum Used to Protect Metal During Various Processes
719
Materials Used in Coverings on Steel Electrodes for SMAW
Arc Welding Process
726
Recovery of Elements From Coverings of Electrodes Deposited
by SMAW Process
729
Typical Covering Formulas for Steel SMAW Electrodes
732
Typical Flux Core Formulas for Steel FCAW Electrodes
740
IIW Classification of Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding of Steel
754
Typical Flux Compositions for Submerged Arc Welding of Steel
755
Typical Flux for Electroslag Welding of Steel
766
Gases Used in Shielding Welding Arcs
767
Controlled Atmospheres Used in Furnace Brazing Carbon and
Low-Alloy Steels
'.
782
Influence of Alloying Elements in Steel on Martensite Formation
837
Microstructures Found in Steel Weld Metal
858
Microstructures Found in Cast and Wrought Steels; Including their
Weld Heat-Affected Zones
877