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SPIE DSS 2013

Intrusion Detection on Oil Pipeline Right of


Way using Monogenic Signal Representation
Binu M Nair, Varun Santhaseelan,
Chen Cui and Vijayan K Asari

Objectives

To detect intrusions on the Energy Pipeline ROW.

To prevent any damage to underground energy pipelines due to heavy weight


of vehicles

To detect and classify various types of construction machinery on ROW


To validate algorithms on each of database New Era, ATE, GeoEye, American
Aerospace
To cross-validate the algorithm between the databases

New Era Dataset


Excavator

Backhoe

Skid Steer

Trencher

MiniExcavator

ATE Dataset
Excavator

Backhoe

Problem Statement

To establish a novel object detection algorithm which satisfies different


challenges (Real life problems)

Low and overly exposed illumination; cast shadows

Different viewpoint, scale and orientation

Varying resolution, motion blur

GTX-680 1532
cores

Purpose:

Generalize the algorithm parameters for all the datasets

Developed with the mindset for implementation on GPUs and multi-core


processor.

Have a deployable real-time system which works on the fly

Low
Illumination

High
Illumination

Cast
Shadows

Motion Blur

Different
Scale

Different
Viewpoint

Different
Orientation

Characteristics of Local Phase Domain


Analysis is done local phase domain to tackle the issue of non-uniform
illumination.

This local phase will characterize a construction equipment from the


surrounding background(trees, buildings etc..)
It is illumination invariant
Not affected by over exposure to lighting, very low illumination conditions
Brings out the edges/corners of the machine

Backhoe Flight 8

Local Phase

Backhoe Flight 6

Local Phase

Constraints of Local Phase Domain


Rotation/Scale variant
requires a preliminary stage to get a shortlist of possible object regions of
suitable scale and orientation

View point variant


a global descriptor feature set which is partially invariant to viewpoint
changes ( global histogram of the local phase values in a region)

Motion blurring and varying resolution


Using multi-resolution image representation to extract local phase
New Era Dataset
ATE Dataset

METHODOLOGY

Overview
Template
Selection

Local Phase based


Template Matching

Orientation
Selection and
Cluster Voting

Detection using
Histogram of
Oriented Phase

Selection of training image in local phase for each type of construction


vehicle to be detected.
Follows a 3 stage approach
Local Phase based Template Matching
Multiple Orientations and Scale

Selection of Orientation and Cluster Voting


Using Histogram Matching and Hierarchical Clustering based on Euclidean Distance.
Voting Score for each cluster

Final Detection by cluster selection and oriented histogram matching


Selection of groups of detections and comparison using local orientation and phase.

Training
Generation of Log-Gabor filters for local phase computation.
Computation of local phase of template using the Log-Gabor filters to
create frequency scale-space representation.
Will account for some amount of resolution changes.

Extension to multiple template sizes (scale)


Will account for objects with different sizes
Template Selection

Local
Phase

Local
Phase

Local Phase based Template Matching

Multi-Scale Multi-Orientation Matching of test image with template in


local phase domain

Matching of template at multiple rotations of image using normalized cross


correlation.

Select the most optimal match at each orientation using a global histogram

matching technique at each rotation of image.

Template
Matching

Test Image

Search Region

Matching at different
Orientation

Orientation Selection and Cluster Voting

Selection of the correct orientation within a search region

Compute local phase matching for every scale and frequency band to get a
set of detections for the single selected orientation.

Hierarchical clustering to find groups of detection points within a search


region.

Apply Voting Mechanism

Each detection in a group/cluster will be assigned a vote based on the Earth


movers distance between template and region. (Green highest vote)

Select
Orientation

Multi-Scale MultiOrientation Matching

Voting
Scheme

Single Orientation MultiScale Detections

Voting

Detection using HOP

Automatic selection of cluster groups in whole image with minimum


number of votes.

Compute Histogram of Oriented Phase (HOP) for each detection.

Compare HOP descriptor with that of template and compute number of


HOP hits for selected cluster groups.

Retain the cluster groups with minimum number of HOP hits.


Zoomed
in View

HOP Matching

Selected Cluster Group

Final Detection

Zoomed in View of Final


Detection

DATASET ILLUSTRATION
AND RESULTS

Image From New Era Dataset

Image from GeoEye Dataset

Image from AAAI dataset

Statistics ( New Era Dataset)


Equipment/Stages

Stage1

Stage 2

Stage 3

False positives

1(2)

2(3)

3(4)

4(5)

5(6)

6(7)

7(8)

Backhoe (Flight)

Total False Positives

True Detection Rate


False Detection Rate

100.00%

85.71%

85.71%
5.88%

Statistics ( Geo Eye)


Equipment/Stages

Stage1

Stage 2

Stage 3

False positives

ATV

Total False Positives

True Detection Rate


False Detection Rate

15

100%

88.9%

88.9%
30.61%

Statistics ( AAAI dataset)


Equipment/Stages

Stage1

Stage 2

Stage 3

False positives

1(1)

2(1)

3(1)

4(1)

5(1)

6(2)

7(2)

8(2)

9(3)

10(3)

11(3)

Backhoe (Flight No)

Total False Positives

True Detection Rate


False Detection Rate

12

0.91%

0.73%

0.64%
0.15%

Reason for Non-detection


Overexposed lighting on the equipment which washes out the
features on the object required for detection.
Possible solution:- Non-linear enhancement of the region of
interest and super-resolution of region to get back the features.

Flight 1
Backhoe
(Training Set)
Flight 3 Backhoe in successive frames

FUTURE WORK

Removal of Sensor Noise


Noise due to the sensor properties
Will contain artifacts which can interfere with object pattern.

Gaussian
Filtering(Specific
Parameters)

Multi-Resolution Image Space Representation

Use a multi-resolution image space representation for computing local phase.

Previous
Method

New
Method

Kernel-based Local Phase Density Estimation

Instead of computing histogram of phase, we use a Gaussian Kernel to estimate


actual local phase density.

Histogram of Phase Descriptor for Backhoe

Kernel-based Local Phase Density Estimation


Advantage: Improves the detection as we care comparing true density
distributions

Local Phase Density computed using Kernel.


(Left : no binning, Right: Binned version)

Thank You
Questions?