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Hazardous Area Classification

Fundamentals & Cases


ATEX congres
Mei 2014, Dordrecht, Nederland

EX
Erik van de Kuilen

Shell Global Solutions Inc.

Agenda
Fundamentals
Ignition Source Control
Standards & Practices
Area Classification: the Concept
Area Classification: a Multistep Process

Cases
Hot Surfaces
Management of Change Gasgroup & Temperature class
Negligible Extent
Abnormal Operating Conditions - Temporary Zone 1
Management of Change Release dispersion
Heat Exchanger Leakage
Ventilation

Q&A

Ignition Source Control.

or Not (?)

Hot
Surface

Ignition Source Control


Ignition Source Control is part of Process Safety Management
Ignition Source Control

Loss of
Containment

Proper Ignition Source Control reduces explosion risk 10-100x

Ignition Source Control


Ignition Source Control:

Ignition Sources
(EN 1127)

Hot surfaces

No smoking areas

Flames & hot gases

Traffic and vehicle control

Mechanical sparks

Hazardous Area Classification

Electrical apparatus

Stray currents

Static electricity

Lightning

Radio waves

High Frequency EM
waves

10

Ionizing radiation

11

Ultrasonics

12

Adiabatic compression

13

Exothermic reactions

Permit to Work system (hot work)

Static Electricity control


Etc.
Essentially covering all 13 ignition
sources (ref. EN 1127)
Hazardous Area Classification is only
a part of Ignition Source Control

Hazardous Area Classification: Stds & Practices


Area Classification is typically following industry stds & practices:
USA / North America:
API RP 500 Recommended Practice for Classification of Locations for Electrical
Installation at Petroleum Facilities Classified as Class I, Division 1 and Division 2.
North Americas and locations that have ANSI/NEMA designs

API RP 505 Recommended Practice for Classification of Locations for Electrical


Installations at Petroleum Facilities Classified as Class 1, Zone 0, Zone 1, and
Zone 2 North America and locations that have ANSI/NEMA designs

Europe (ATEX 137 since 2003) + rest of the world:


EU: IEC 60079-10 Classification of Hazardous Areas
UK: IP-15 Energy Institute (previously Institute of Petroleum) Model Code
of Safe Practice, Part 15, 3rd edition, July 2005. United Kingdom
Country local regulations, standards & practices

Hazardous Area Classification: the Concept


Hazardous Area Classification principle:
1.Determine

likelihood and dimension of a flammable atmosphere


(zone) around certain leak and/or exposure points (LFL boundary)

2.Manage

(design, maintain, operate) or eliminate ignition sources


within the zone

LFL

UFL
LFL

Hazardous Area Classification: the Concept


Hazardous Area Classification scope:
Flammable fluids (Hydrocarbons, H2, CO, NH3, )
Small release sources:
Flanges, pump seals, vents, drains
No catastrophic equipment failure
(Semi)permanent ignition sources*:
Equipment hot surfaces
Roads / plant vehicles
Machinery motors
Instrumentation
*Open flame equipment is typically excluded from Area Classification

and located outside the classified area

Hazardous Area Classification: A Multistep Process


1: Determine flammability properties for each fluid and/or
equipment item (in particular LFL, UFL, flashpoint, AIT)

Hydrocarbon
Auto Ignition
Temperature
(AIT)

Hazardous Area Classification: A Multistep Process


2: Determine Zone for all equipment items

a: Zone type (likelihood of flammable atmosphere):


Release Grade

Equipment
(example)

Zone
(ventilated)

Zone
(confined/
nonventilated)

Continuous (>1000
Inside tank
0
0
b: Zone extension (dimensions of flammable atmosphere):
hr/yr)
Primary (10 - 1000
hr/yr)

Sample
connection, pits

1/0

Secondary (< 10
hr/yr)

Flange, pump
seal

10

Hazardous Area Classification: A Multistep Process


2: Determine Zone for all equipment items

b: Zone extension (dimensions of flammable atmosphere):

IP 15: Direct Example Approach

IP 15: Point Source Approach

11

Hazardous Area Classification: A Multistep Process


3: Determine fluid ignition parameters (ref. Literature)
a: the Gasgroup for the released fluid*
b: the Temperature Class for the released fluid
Fluid (typical)

Gas
group

Alkanes

II A

Ethylene, EO, CO

II B

Hydrogen

II C

Released
fluid

Ignition
Energy
(mIE)

Gasgroup

Auto Ignition
Temperature
(AIT) (deg C)

T
class

Methane

0.28

I /II A

525

T1

Ethane

0.24

II A

510

T1

Propane

0.25

II A

460

T1

Hexane

0.24

II A

230

T3

Ethylene

0.07

II B

425

T2

Hydrogen

0.01

II C

560

T1

T
class

Temperature
(deg C)

450

300

200

135

Benzene

0.2

II A

498

T1

100

0.06

II B

429

T2

85

Ethylene
Oxide

12

* Also apparatus group or explosion group; a parameter related to the sensitivity for ignition

Hazardous Area Classification: A Multistep Process


4: Complete the Hazardous Area Classification Design Basis
and develop the drawings.

13

Hazardous Area Classification: A Multistep Process

///// Zone 2
14

Hazardous Area Classification: A Multistep Process

Hazardous Area Classification: A Multistep Process


5: Implement and/or verify in the field:
(incl. selected explosion protection: ia, ib, d, e, n,...)

equipment nameplates
hot surfaces
roads & vehicles

6: Risk assess and/or modify any


deviations from the required area
classification

NAME PLATE:
Universal Supplies Ltd,
CE 0999
Trans type 100
II G
EEX ib IIC T4
40 C < Ta < 70 C
ACB 00 ATEX 9999
Apparatus parameters
Serial No. 991234

(Ignition Hazard Analysis)

7: Document !
(Area Classification Design Basis,
Explosion Protection Document)
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16

Hazardous Area Classification Some Cases


1. Hot Surfaces
2. Management of Change Gasgroup & Temperature class
3. Negligible Extent
4. Abnormal Operating Conditions - Temporary Zone 1 operation
5. Management of Change Release dispersion
6. Heat Exchanger Leakage
7. Ventilation

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Hot Surfaces
Hot equipment surfaces can be an ignition source, if the surface
temperature exceeds the Auto Ignition Temperature (AIT) of the
released fluid:
Operating temperature > Gasoline AIT

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Hot Surfaces
Risk Considerations (Ignition Hazard Analysis):
What is the actual Heating Medium line surface temperature? Is the line
insulated or could it be ? Is the insulation gas tight? Are there any flanges?
Will the Gasoline indeed reach the Heating Medium line and heat up to AIT?
Could any Gasoline leak points perhaps be eliminated or relocated?
Could the Heating Medium line be rerouted/shielded off?

API RP 2216-03:
Ignition Risk of Hydrocarbon Liquids and Vapors by Hot Surfaces in Open Air:
ignition of hydrocarbons by a hot surface should not be assumed unless the
surface temperature is approximately 360 F (182C) above the accepted
minimum ignition temperature of the hydrocarbon involved.

Consider ignition due to hot surface*:


Zone 0 & Zone 1: fluid AIT
Zone 2: fluid AIT + 180 C.
* EN1127
indicates 80% of AIT for Zone 0 and 1 and AIT for
Zone 2
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Hot Surfaces
A new insulated Steam line (Operating Temperature > 300 C) into
an existing pipe track (conservatively) classified as Zone 1 with
New steam line
fluids AITs < 250 C:
Existing pipe track
Zone 1

Alternative: installing a new 2 km pipe rack

Risk Considerations (Ignition Hazard Analysis):


API 2216 not applicable for Zone 1 (only for well ventilated systems)
What is the Steam line surface temperature? What about flanges?
Where are the Hydrocarbon leak sources? Close to Steam line hot points?
Could the Steam line be shielded/segregated from the Hydrocarbon lines?
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Management of Change Gasgroup and T Class


Installing new equipment in
existing facility
New IIC-T2 equipment / zone
(max surface temp. 300 C)

New IIA-T2 equipment / zone


(max surface temp. 300 C)

Existing / Replaced IIA-T3


Equipment / zone
(max surface temp. 200 C)

T2 equipment
in T3 zone
IIA equipment in
IIC zone

New IIA-T2 equipment / zone


(max surface temp. 300 C)

Existing IIA-T3 and


IIC-T3 Equipment /
zone (max surface
temp. 200 C)

Zone with Negligible Extent (NE)


During facility decommissioning
residual Hydrocarbons at low/no
pressure may retain inside and
dictate need for Area
Classification .
EN 60079-10-1 has introduced
the concept of Zone with
Negligible Extend (NE).
Zone 2 NE is accepted by the UK
Health and Safety Executive
(HSE) and does not require
control of ignition sources within
it.
Approach is being considered for Good High
de-commissioning of platforms in Ventilation
North Sea:
required

Normal outside
conditions

Abnormal Operating Conditions (Drilling WHCP)


Platform Well Head Control Panel (WHCP)
cabinet (ca. 3 m3) is located in Zone 2 and
internally classified Zone 1. Zone 2 is
based on normal production.
During HAZOP it was found that for 3-6
months every 3-4 yrs, the platform is also
used to drill new wells.
This would require 3 m radius Zone 1
conditions extending over the WHCP.
Relocate/renew the cabinet for Zone 0 ?

Alternative? During Zone 1 operation:


Provide gas detection in/near the cabinet to indicate
increased gas concentration inside/outside the cabinet.
Install ventilation on the cabinet to maintain Zone 1 inside

Management of Change Standards & Dispersion


New filter unit for FCC product
Distance from proposed location to
nearby road: 7.5 m
Zone radius/distance to road
according local standard: 15 m

This would require closure or


major rerouting of main access
road to Control Room and Unit.
Physical Effect Modeling:
Dispersion analysis shows max release
size 4.5 m from filter unit leak points
Supported by IP 15 Area Classification
point source method

IP 15 Point Source

Heat Exchanger Leakage (Cooling Water Return)


Leaking Heat Exchanger(s)
resulting in Hydrocarbon in open
Cooling Water Returns and may
be ignited
(CW Return not classified).
To reduce the risk:
Zone 1/2 for the CW Return?
Install gas / Hydrocarbon
detection in CW Return +
Close off the road in case of gas
detection to prevent ignition by
passing vehicle
A similar case:

Heat Exchanger Leakage (Cooling Water Return)


New designs would have closed CW return lines, classified
CW towers and Hydrocarbon vent in the return line:
Hydrocarbon Vent Line

CW tower fire

CW Return Line

Ref. API 505

Ventilation (Winterizing)
During winter, some plants are sheltered to prevent freezing
problems. This could impact the natural ventilation and the Zoning.

Ventilation (Winterizing)
Design and locate the screens such that (natural) ventilation is still
adequate:
50% LEL for secondary grade release
25% LEL for continuous & primary grade release

Winterizing screens

(ref. IEC 60079-10 ventilation calcs)

Open area
for
ventilation

Zone 2 facility

If not adequate, then need to consider artificial ventilation and/or


gas detection

Q&A