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PROTOCOLO DE LA PRUEBA

DOCUMENTACION

ISO 8178 RECIPROCATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES - EXHAUST


EMISSION MEASUREMENT - PART 4: TEST CYCLES FOR DIFFERENT ENGINE
APPLICATIONS
Specifies the test cycles for the measurement and the evaluation of gaseous and
particulate exhaust emissions from reciprocating internal combustion engines coupled
to a dynamometer. With some restrictions the test can also be used for measurements
at site. Applies to engines for mobile, transportable and stationary use, excluding
engines for motor vehicles primarily designed for road traffic.
3. Definitions:
Test Cycle: A sequence of engine test modes each with defined speed, torque and
weighting factor Wf (except cycle B universal without weighting factors), where the
weighting factors only apply if the test results are expressed in g/Kwh.
Preconditioning of the engine: warming up of the engine at the rated power used in
the test cycle to stabilize the engine parameters according to the recommendations
of the manufacturer.
Note 1: A preconditioning phase should also protect the actual measurement
against the influence of deposits in the exhaust system from a former test.
There is also a period of stabilization in the test modes which has been included to
minimize point to point influences.

Mode: An engine operating point characterized by a speed and a torque (or an


output).
Mode length: The time between leaving the speed and/or torque of the previous
mode or the preconditioning phase and the beginning of the following mode it
includes the time during which speed and/or torque is changed and the stabilization
at the beginning of each mode.
Rated Speed: speed at which, according to the statement of the engine
manufacturer, the rated power is delivered.
Intermediate Speed: Speed at which that declared by manufacturer, taking into
account the requirements given in clause 6.
Brake power: The observed power measured at the crankshaft or its equivalent, the
engine being equipped only with the standard auxiliaries necessary for this
operation on the test bed(see 5.3 and table B of ISO 8178-1:1996).
5. Torque

5.2
For the test cycle E3 the power figures are percentage values of the maximum
rated power at the rated speed as this cycle is based on a theoretical propeller
characteristic curve for vessels driven by heavy duty engines without limitation
of length.

Para el ciclo de prueba E3 la potencia figura como valor en porcentaje de la


mxima potencia tasada de la velocidad nominal (rated Speed) calculada
cuando este ciclo est basado en una curva de caracterstica de hlice
terica para buques conducidos por motores de trabajo pesado sin
limitaciones de longitud.

For the test cycle E4, the torque figures are percentage values of the torque at
rated power. This cycle is based on the theoretical propeller characteristic curve
representing typical pleasure craft spark ignited engine operation.
For the test cycle E5 the power figures are percentage values of the maximum
rated power at the rated speed as this cycle is based on a theoretical propeller
characteristic curve for vessels of less than 24m in length driven by diesel
engines.
Note other propeller characteristic curve exists.

6. The intermediate speed shall be declared maximum torque speed if it occurs


between 60% and 75% of rated speed.

If the declared maximum torque speed is less than 60 % of rated speed,


then the intermediate speed shall be 60 % of the rated speed.

If the declared maximum torque speed is greater than 75 % of the rated


speed then the intermediate speed shall be 75 % of rated speed.

For engines to be tested on cycle G1, the intermediate speed shall be 85 %


of the maximum rated speed.

8. Modes and weighting factors for test cycles


8.1Generals.
8.1.1 Apart from the test modes of cycles E3, E4 and E5 which are calculated from
propeller curves, the test modes of the other cycles can be combined into a universal
cycle (B) without weighting factors. From emissions data for each of the modes of cycle
B, emission values for each of the other cycles may be calculated using the appropriate
weighting factor.
To evaluate the particulate emission from the universal cycle (B) it is necessary to
measure the particulate mass emission of each test mode at stabilized engine
operation. The time needed for stabilization of the engine depends on engine size and
ambient conditions.
8.1.2 Requirements

Each test shall be performed in the given sequence of the test modes for a particular
test cycle or in the sequence of test modes in cycle B if two or more cycles have been
combined.
The minimum test mode length is 10 min which is the standard, except for test cycles G
(see 8.7.2). If necessary the mode length may be extended to collect sufficient
particulate sample mass or to achieve stabilization with large engines.
The mode length shall be recorded and reported.
The gaseous exhaust emission concentration values shall be measured and recorded
for the last 3 min of the mode, except for the test cycles G (see 8.7.2).

Weighting factors (for test cycles based on the propeller curve)

PN= Engine rated power in kW; nN= engine rated speed

8.2 Test cycle type B UNIVERSAL

This test should be used only as a basis for calculation of emission for the other cycles.
8.2.1 Test modes and weighting factor
8.2.2 Performing the test
The test shall be performed in ascending order of mode numbers of cycle B.
8.2.3 Criteria for the application of this test
This test should be used only as a basis for calculation of emissions for the other test
cycles.
Test cycle type C Off road vehicles and industrial equipment
C1- Off road vehicles, diesel-powered off road industrial equipment
C2- Off road vehicles, spark ignition-powered off road industrial equipment >20Kw
Applications
Industrial drilling, compressor, etc.

Construction equipment including Wheel loader, bulldozers, crawler tractorloaders, truck type loaders.
Agricultural equipment, rotary tillers.
Forestry equipment.
Self-propelled agricultural equipment.
Road maintenance equipment.
Snow-plough equipment.
Airport supporting equipment.

Test cycle type D Constant speed


D1- Power plants
D2- Generating sets with intermittent load
Applications
D1- Power plants, irrigation pumps.
D2- Gas compressors, generating sets with intermittent load including
generating sets on board ships and trains (not for propulsion), refrigerating units,
welding sets.
o Turf-care, chippers, snow removal equipment, sweepers.
Test cycle type E Marine applications
E3- Marine vessels
Test cycle type F Rail engines
8.7 Test cycle type G Utility, lawn and garden typically < 20Kw
G1-Non hand-held intermediate speed applications.
G2-Non hand-held rated speed applications.
G3-Hand-held speed applications.
8.7.1 Test modes and weighting factors.
8.7.2 Performing the test.
The test cycles G1, G2 or G3 shall be performed in ascending order of mode number of
the cycle in question.

The provisions of 8.1.2 shall be taken into account.


For spark ignited engines when only gaseous emissions are measured, each mode time
shall be 3 min. The gaseous exhaust emission concentration values shall be measured
and recorded for the last 2 min of the respective test mode.

For spark ignited engines the gaseous emissions shall only be measured in one of the
specific cycles G1, G2 or G3 it is not permitted to calculate the emission results from
the test cycle type B.
8.7.3 Criteria for the application of these tests.
8.7.3.1 Choosing an appropiate test cycle.
If the primary end use of an engine model is known then the test cycle may be chosen
based on the examples given in 8.7.3.2. If the primary end use of an engine model is

uncertain then the appropiate test cycle should be chosen based upon the engine
specification. Both compression ignition and spark ignition engines may be tested in
any of the three cycles, whichever is most appropiate.
Note 8. Diesel engines of any rate power intended for applications listed in other test
cycles may be tested according to that cycle.
8.7.3.2 Applications
Cycle G1:
Front or rear engines riding lawn mowers;
Golf carts;
Lawn sweepers;
Pedestrian-controlled rotary or cylinder lawn mowers;
Snow-removal equipment;
Waste disposers;
Cycle G2:
Portable generators, pumps, welders and air compressors;
May also include lawn and garden equipment, which operate at engine rated speed;
Cycle G3:
Blowers;
Chain saws;
Hedge trimmers;
Portable saw mills;
Rotary tillers;
Sprayers;
String trimmers;
Vacuum equipment.

TEST MODES AND WEIGHTING FACTORS


Mode number
(Cycle B)

Mode number No.


(Cycle C1 )

Engine Speed

Rated Speed

10

11

Intermediate Speed

Idle
Speed

Load %

100

75

50

10

100

75

50

Weighting factor

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.01

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.15

Mode number No.


(Cycle C2 )

Engine Speed

Rated Speed

Intermediate Speed

Load %

100

75

50

25

10

Weighting factor

0.05

0.25

0.3

0.3

0.1

Mode number No.


(Cycle E3 )
Engine Speed

100

91

80

63

Idle
Speed

Load %

100

75

50

25

Weighting factor

0.2

0.5

0.15

0.15

Mode number No.


(Cycle D1 )

Engine Speed

Rated Speed

Load %

100

75

50

Weighting factor
Mode number No.
(Cycle D2 )

0.3

0.5

0.2

Engine Speed

Idle
Speed

Intermediate Speed

Idle
Speed

Rated Speed

Load %

100

75

50

25

10

Weighting factor
Mode number No.
(Cycle G1 )

0.05

0.25

0.3

0.3

0.1
1

Engine Speed

Intermediate Speed

Rated Speed

6
Idle
Speed

Intermediate Speed

Load %

100

75

50

25

10

Weighting factor
Mode number No.
(Cycle G2 )

0.09

0.2

0.29

0.3

0.07

0.05

Engine Speed

Rated Speed

Intermediate Speed

Idle
Speed

Load %

100

75

50

25

10

Weighting factor
Mode number
No. (Cycle G3 )

0.09

0.2

0.29

0.3

0.07

0.05

Engine Speed

2
Rated Speed

Intermediate Speed

Idle
Speed

Load %

100

Weighting factor

0.9

0.1

ISO 8178-1:2006- RECIPROCATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES EXHAUST EMISSION MEASUREMENT - PART 1: TEST-BED MEASUREMENT OF
GASEOUS AND PARTICULATE EXHAUST EMISSIONS.
ISO 8178-1:2006 specifies the measurement and evaluation methods for gaseous and
particulate exhaust emissions from reciprocating internal combustion (RIC) engines
under steady-state conditions on a test bed, necessary for determining one weighted
value for each exhaust gas pollutant. Various combinations of engine load and speed
reflect different engine applications (see ISO 8178-4).
ISO 8178-1:2006 is applicable to RIC engines for mobile, transportable and stationary
use, excluding engines for motor vehicles primarily designed for road use. ISO 81781:2006 may be applied to engines used, for example, for earth-moving machines,
generating sets and for other applications.

In limited instances, the engine can be tested on the test bed in accordance with ISO
8178-2, the field test document. This can only occur with the agreement of the parties
involved. It should be recognised that data obtained under these circumstances may
not agree completely with previous or future data obtained under the auspices of ISO
8178-1:2006. Therefore, it is recommended that this option be exercised only with
engines built in very limited quantities such as very large marine or generating set
engines.
For engines used in machinery covered by additional requirements (e.g. occupational
health and safety regulations, regulations for power plants), additional test conditions
and special evaluation methods may apply.
Where it is not possible to use a test bed or where information is required on the actual
emissions produced by an in-service engine, the site test procedures and calculation
methods specified in ISO 8178-2 are appropriate.
5. Test conditions
5.1 General requirements
All volumes and volumetric flow rates shall be related to 273 K (0c) and 101.3 Kpa.
5.2Engine test conditions
5.2.1 Test condition parameter
The absolute temperature Ta of the engine intake air expressed in Kelvin and the dry
atmospheric pressure P, expressed in Kpa, shall be measured and the parameters fa
shall be determined according to the following provisions:
Ps (Kpa) Ta (K)

Aspiration natural and mechanically pressure charged compression ignition


engines:

Turbocharged compression ignition engines with or without cooling of the


intake air:

Formula (1) and (2) are identical with the exhaust emission legislation from ECE
, EEC and EPA.

For naturally aspirated and pressure charged spark ignition engines the
parameter a, shall be determined according to the following

And shall be between 0.93 and 1.07.

Test validity
For test to be recognized as valid, the parameter fa should be such that
0.98fa1.02.
If for evident technical reasons, it is not possible to comply with this
requirement, fa shall be between 0.93 and 1.07 in this case the particulate
emission, PT, shall be corrected according to 14.1.2; fa correction of the
gaseous emission shall not be applied.

5.2.2 Test condition


5.2.3 Engines with charge air cooling
The temperature of the cooling medium and the temperature of the charge air shall be
recorded.
The cooling system shall be set with the engine operating at the reference speed and
load.
5.3 Power
The bask of specific emissions measurements is uncorrected brake power. Certain
auxiliaries necessary only for the operation of the machine and which may be mounted
on the engine should be removed for the test.
The following incomplete list is given as an example:
Air compressor for brakes.
Power steering compressor
Air conditioning compressor.
Pump for hydraulic actuators.
For further details see 3.8 and annex B ISO 8178-1. Where auxiliaries have not
removed, the power absorbed by them at the test speeds shall be determined in order
to calculate the dynamometer setting in accordance with 11.5
5.3 Power ISO 8178-2
In case where a direct measurement of torque is not possible, the power output
shall be calculated based on other available data. The method of calculation and
estimation shall be agreed between parties involved.
The appropriate engine power output as measured with provisions existing at
site shall be recorded for each operating condition.
5.4 Engine air inlet system
The engine air inlet system shall be equipped with an air inlet system presenting an air
inlet restriction within +/- 10% of the upper limit specified by the manufacturer for a
clean air filter for the engine operating conditions giving maximum air flow for
respective engine applications.
5.5 Engine exhaust system
The engine exhaust system shall be equipped with an exhaust system presenting an
exhaust back pressure within +/- 10% of the upper limit specified by the manufacturer

for the engine operating conditions giving by the manufacturer for the engine operating
conditions giving maximum declared power for respective engine applications.
5.6 Cooling system
An engine cooling system with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine at normal
operating temperatures prescribed by the manufacturer shall be used. This provision
shall apply to units which have to be detached in order to measure the power, such as
with a blower where the blower (cooling) fan has to be disassembled to get access to
the crankshaft.
5.7 Lubricating oil
Lubricating oil that meets the engine manufacturer's specifications for a particular
engine and intended usage shall be used. Manufacturers must use engine lubricants
representative of commercially available engine lubricants.
6 Test fuels
7. Measurement equipment and data to be measured. (See clause 15 and 16)
7.1 Dynamometer specification
The accuracy of the measuring equipment must be such that the maximum tolerances
of the given in 7.3 are not exceeded.
7.2 Exhaust gas flow
7.3 Accuracy
The calibration of all measuring instruments shall be traceable to national and
international standards and comply with the requirements given in tables 2 and 3.

Table 2. Permissible deviation of instruments for engine related parameters


calibration
No item
Permissibledeviation
interval
Basedonanengine's
Basedonanengine's
maximumvalues)
months

maximumvalues)

81781
81782

1 Enginespeed
+/2%
+/2%
+/2%
3
2 Torque
+/2%
+/5%
+/2%
3
not
3 Power
+/2%
+/5%
+/3%
applicable
Fuel
Diesel4%
4 consumptions
+/2%
residual6%
+/3%
6
Specificfuel
not
not
5 consumption
applicable notapplicable +/3%
applicable
6 Airconsumption +/2%
+/5%
+/3%
6
7 Exhaustgasflow +/4%
+/5%
+/5%
6
Table 3. Permissible deviation of instruments for other essential parameters
No

item

Permissibledeviation
absolute
1)

calibrationinterval
months

1
2
3
4
5
6

Coolanttemperature
Lubricatingoiltemp
exhaustgaspressure
inletmanifolddepression
exhaustgastemperature
airinlettemperature

11

atmosphericpressure
intakeairhumidity
(relative)
fueltemperature
dilutiontunnel
temperature
dilutionairhumidity
(relative)

12

dilutedexhaustgasflow

8
9
10

+/2K
+/2K
+/5%max
+/5%max
+/15K
+/2K
+/0,5%of
reading

+/2K
+/2K
+/5%max
+/5%max
+/15K
+/2K
+/0,5%of
reading

3
3
3
3
3
3

+/3%
+/2K

notapplicable
notapplicable

1
3

+/1,5K

notapplicable

+/3%
+/2%of
reading

notapplicable

1
24(partialflow)
(fullflow)2)

notapplicable

1) According to iso 3046-3.


2) Full flow systems. The cvs positive displacements pump or critical flow venture shall
be calibrated following initial installation, major maintenance or as necessary when
indicated by the cvs system verification described in ISO 8178-1:1996 11.4.
7.3.2 Estimated repeatability and accuracy of the test results. ISO 8178-2.
At site measurements are typically less precise and accurate than measurements
on the test bed us to environmental and operational impacts. Repeatability and
accuracy also depend on the measuring units. e.g. volume concentration (ppm),
mass concentration (g/m3) or brake specific emission(g/Kwh). From the
accuracy as specified in ISO 8178-1: 7.4.1.1 and 9.2 and in table of this part of
8178, the overall accuracy and repeatability of the measurement results are
calculated and are given in table 3.
Table 3-Accuracy and repeatability of measuring values.
Component
Units Accuracy
Repeatability
ppm
+/- 5% of reading
+/- 1% of reading
g/m3 +/- 7%
+/- 5,1%
Gaseous emissions
g/Kwh +/- 9%
+/- 7,4%
g/m3 +/- 6,5%
+/- 6,5%
Particulate emissions g/Kwh +/- 8,5%
+/- 8,5%

7.4 Determination of the gaseous components ISO 8178-1.


The analytical measuring equipment and the methods are described in ISO 81781:1996 7.4: For at site measurements the non-methane hydrocarbon analysis
according to ISO 8178-1:1996, 7.4.3.5 is not applicable in most cases as this method
needs laboratory equipment (e.g. gas chromatographic equipment).
For the measurement of non-methane hydrocarbons the hydrocarbon cutter method,
ISO 8178-1:1996 7.4.3.5 should preferably be applied.
7.4.1 General analyser specifications

7.4.1.1 Measurements error


The total measurement error including the cross sensitivity to other gases shall not
exceed +/- 5% of reading or +/- 3.5% of full scale, whichever is smaller. For
concentrations of less than 100ppm the measurements error shall not exceed +/4ppm.
7.4.1.2 Repeatability.
Defined as 2.5 times the standard deviation of 10 repetitive responses to a given
calibration or span gas, must be no greater than +/- i% of full scale concentration for
each range used above 155ppm (or ppmC) or +/-2% of each ranged used below
155ppm (or ppmC).
7.4.2 Gas drying.
7.4.3 Analysers.
Describe the measurements principles to be used. A detailed description of the
measurement system is given in clause 15.
7.5 Particulate determination.
8 Calibrate of the analytical instruments.
8.1 Introduction.
8.2 Calibration gases.
8.3 Operating procedure for analysers and sampling system.
8.4 Leakage test.
8.5 Calibration procedure.
8.6 Verification of the calibration.
8.7 Efficiency test of the NOx converter.
8.8 Adjustment of the FID
8.9 Interference effects with CO, CO2, NOx and O2 analyzers.
8.10 Calibration intervals.
9. Calibration of the particulate measuring system.
9.1 General.
9.2 Flow measurement.
9.3 Checking the dilution ratio.
9.4 Checking the partial flow conditions.
9.5 Calibration intervals.
10. Running conditions (test cycles).
This item is dealt with in iso 8178-4.
10.1 Test cycles.
10.2 Preparation of the engine.
Prior to setting the engine, including an auxiliary equipment and the exhaust system,
shall be conditioned according to the engine manufacturers and /or users
recommendations in order to achieve repeatable measurements results. This operation
is important for engines with long exhaust stacks and engines with silencers in place,
as well as infrequently and lightly loaded engines.
11. Test run
11.1 Preparation of the sampling filters
11.2 Installation of the measuring equipment

The instrumentation and sample probes shall be installed as required. When using a
full flow dilution system for exhaust gas dilution (see iso 8178-11996 fig. 19) the tail
pipe shall be connected to the system.
11.3 Starting the dilution system and engine.
The dilution system and the engine shall be started and warmed up until all
temperatures and pressures have stabilized at full load and rated speed (for
stabilization criteria see iso 304-3: 1989, 4.2).
11.4 Adjustment of the dilution ratio.
The total dilution ratio shall not be less than four. For CO2 or NOx concentration
controlled systems, the CO2 or NOx content of the dilution air must be measured at the
beginning and at the end of each test. The pre- and post-test background CO2 or NOx
concentration measurements of the dilution air must be within 100 ppm or 5 ppm of
each other, respectively.
When using a dilute exhaust gas analysis system, the relevant background
concentrations shall be determined by sampling dilution air into a sampling bag over
the complete test sequence.
Continuous (non-bag) background concentration may be taken at the minimum of three
points, at the beginning, at the end, and a point near the middle of the cycle and
averaged. At the manufacturer's request background measurements may be omitted.
11.5 Determination of the test points.
The settings of inlet restriction and exhaust backpressure shall be adjusted to the
manufacturer's upper limits, in accordance with sections 5.4and 5.5.
The maximum torque values at the specified test speeds shall be determined by
experimentation in order to calculate the torque values for the specified test modes. For
engines which are not designed to operate over a speed range on a full load torque
curve, the maximum torque at the test speeds shall be declared by the manufacturer.
The engine setting for each test mode shall be calculated using the formula:

Where
S-is the dynamometer setting [kW].
PM-is the maximum observed or declared power at the test speed under the test
conditions (specified by the manufacturer) [kW].
Paux- is the declared total power absorbed by any auxiliary fitted for the test and not
required by annex B [kW].
L-is the percent torque specified for the test mode.
11.6 Checking the analisers
The emission analysers shall be set at zero and spanned.
11.7 Test Cycle

The test cycles are defined in iso 8178-4. This take into account the variation in engine
size and application.
11.7.1 Test sequence 8178-2
The engine shall be operated in each mode in the appropriate test cycle if iso 8178-4 or
agreed measuring points described in 10.1. If measuring points different from those
given in iso 8178-4 are used and a minimum of 10min is necessary for each point.
Longer time may be required for the reasons of stabilization and sufficient collection of
particulates.
During each mode of the test cycle after the initial change period the specified speed
shall be held to within +/-1% of rated speed or +/- 3min whichever is greater except for
low idle which shall be within the tolerances declared by the manufacturer.
The specified torque shall be held so that the average over the period during which the
measurements are being taken is within +/-2% of the maximum torque at the test
speed. If it is not possible to maintain speed and torque within the above limits, the
limits shall be agreed between parties involved, prior to test. If in practice tolerances
cannot be held during a mode of a cycle the application of a mean value is not
excluded.
The fuel temperature shall be in accordance with iso 8178-5.
11.7.2 Analyser response
The output of the analysers shall be recorded on a strip chart recorder or measured
with an equivalent data acquisition system for the test cycle with the exhaust gas
flowing through the analysers at least during the last 3min of each mode. If bag
sampling is applied for the diluted CO and CO2 measurement (see iso 8178-1 7.4.4), a
sample shall be bagged during the last 3min of each mode, and the bag sample
analysed and recorded.
11.7.3 Particulate sampling
Can be done either with the single filter method or the multiple filter method see 8178-1
7.5.
Since the results of the methods may differ slightly, the method used must be declared
with the results.
For the single filter method the modal weighting factor specified in the test cycle
procedure shall be taken into account during sample by adjusting sample flow rate
and/or sample time accordingly.
Sampling must be conducted as late as possible within each mode. The sampling time
per mode shall be at least 20s for the single filter method and at least 60s for the
multiple filter method. For additional information on the test mode duration see iso
8178-4. For systems without by-pass capability, the sampling time per mode must be at
least 60s for single and multiple filter methods.
11.7.4 Engine conditions

The engine speed and load, intake air temperature, exhaust back pressure, fuel flow
and air or exhaust gas flow shall be recorded within the final 80% at each mode once
the engine has been stabilized. The values can be averaged over the considered time.
If the measurements of the exhaust gas flow or the measurements of combustion air
and fuel consumption is not possible, they can be calculated using the total carbon and
oxygen balance method (see iso 8178-1 7.2.3). Any additional data required for
calculation shall be recorded (see clause 12).
11.8 Re-checking the analisers (8178-2).
The zero and span settings of the emission analysers shall be checked and
adjustment, as required, at least the end of the test. The test shall be considered
satisfactory if the adjustment necessary after the test does not exceed the accuracy of
the analysers specified in 7.3.1.
11.9 Test report
Test report should contain the data given in iso 8178-6.
12. Data evaluation for gaseous and particulate emissions
12.1 Gaseous emissions
For the evaluation of gaseous emissions, the average chart reading of the last 60s of
each mode shall be determined and the average concentrations of HC, CO, CO2, O2,
NMHC (NMC method), NH3 and CH3OH (FID method) during each mode shall be
determined from the average chart readings and the corresponding calibration data,
the average chart readings and the corresponding calibration data.
The average chart readings and the corresponding calibration data The average CO
and CO2 concentration in the sampling bag, if used, shall be determined from the bag
readings and the corresponding calibration data.
Annex B (normative)
Equipment and auxiliaries to be installed for the test to determine engine power (see
also 5.3 and 11.5).

(a) The complete inlet system shall be fitted as provided for the intended application:
Where there is a risk of an appreciable effect on the engine power;

In the case of naturally aspirated spark ignition engines;


When the manufacturer requests that this should be done.
In other cases, an equivalent system may be used and a check should be made to
ascertain that the intake pressure does not differ by more than 100 Pa from the upper
limit specified by the manufacturer for a clean air filter.
b) The complete exhaust system shall be fitted as provided for the intended application:
Where there is a risk of an appreciable effect on the engine power;
In the case of naturally aspirated spark ignition engines;
When the manufacturer requests that this should be done.
In other cases, an equivalent system may be installed provided the pressure measured
does not differ by more than 1 000 Pa from the upper limit specified by the
manufacturer.
(c) If an exhaust brake is incorporated in the engine, the throttle valve shall be fixed in
the fully open position.
(d) The fuel feed pressure may be adjusted, if necessary, to reproduce the pressure
existing in the particular engine application (particularly when a .fuel return. system is
used).
(e) The air intake valve is the control valve for the pneumatic governor of the injection
pump. The governor or the fuel injection equipment may contain other devices which
may affect the amount of injected fuel.
(f) The cooling-liquid circulation shall be operated by the engine water pump only.
Cooling of the liquid may be produced by an external circuit, such that the pressure
loss of this circuit and the pressure at the pump inlet remain substantially the same as
those of the engine cooling system.
(g) The thermostat may be fixed in the fully open position.
(h) When the cooling fan or blower is fitted for the test, the power absorbed shall be
added to the results, except for cooling fans of air cooled engines directly fitted on the
crankshaft. The fan or blower power shall be determined at the speeds used for the
test either by calculation from standard characteristics or by practical tests.
(i) Minimum power of the generator: the electrical power of the generator shall be
limited to that necessary for operation of accessories which are indispensable for
engine operation. If the connection of a battery is necessary, a fully charged battery in
good condition shall be used.
(j) Charge air-cooled engines shall be tested with charge air cooling, whether liquid- or
air-cooled, but if the manufacturer prefers, a test bench system may replace the air
cooler. In either case, the measurement of power at each speed shall be made with the
maximum pressure drop and the minimum temperature drop of the engine air across
the charge air cooler on the test bench system as specified by the manufacturer.
(k) These may include, for example, exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR)-system, catalytic
converter, thermal reactor, secondary air-supply system and fuel evaporation
protecting system.
(l) The power for electrical or other starting systems shall be provided from the test
bed.
ISO 8178-6:2000 RECIPROCATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES -EXHAUST EMISSION MEASUREMENT -- PART 6: REPORT OF MEASURING
RESULTS AND TEST

This part of ISO 8178 specifies as a standard data format for reporting the
measurement results of exhaust emissions from RIC engines for mobile, transportable
and stationary use, excluding engines for motor vehicles primarily designed for road
use. This part of ISO 8178 may be applied to engines used e.g. earth-moving
machines, generating sets and for other applications. This part of ISO 8178 applies to
measurement in the laboratory and at site.
For engines used in machinery covered by additional requirements, (e.g. occupational
health and safety regulations, dust regulations for power plants) additional test
conditions and special evaluation methods may apply.
5. Emissions test report
5.1 Introduction.
The recommended test report consist of eleven data sheets (see annex A) that contain
all the information pertinent to a test run in a very compact way. The test report is a
single document that can be filled easily for later review of the test results by
authorities, customers and engines manufacturers. It incorporates the final test results
and the information needed to trace the final results to the values originally measured
as well as the information on the test engine, the test cell equipment and the test fuels.
The report format is applicable to all test cycles and fuels.
ANNEX A (NORMATIVE) TABLE FOR EMISSIONS TEST REPORT.
Table A1 iso 8178 Emissions test report-General information.
Engine
Manufacturer

Application(a)

Cycle
Nox
HC
CO
SO2
PT
smokecycle
PEAK(Sp)(d)
LUG(SL)(d)
STEADYSTATES(Ss)
(d)

Unit
g/Kwh(b)
g/Kwh(b)
g/Kwh(b)
g/Kwh(b)
g/Kwh(b)

m1(c)
m1(c)

TESTIDENTIFICATION
TESTINGCOMPANY:

Emissionstestresults

DATE/TIME:
TESTSITE/BENCH:
TESTNUMBER:

Type(model)
Family

RatedPower
RatedSpeed
SerialNumber
Customer

finalinstallation

m1(c)

DATEOFREPORT:

PLACEOFTEST:

(a)Ifapplicableorifknow.
(b)Unitsotherthang/Kwhtobeindicated.
(c)Unitsotherthanm1tobeindicated.
(d)Tobeindicatedinaccordancewiththerequirementsoftheapplicablesmokecycle.

Table A2 iso 8178 Emissions test report-Test engine information.


Manufacturer

Enginetype(model)

Familyidentification

Serialnumber

Ratedspeed
min1
Ratedpower
Kw
Intermediatespeed
min1
maximumtorqueatintermediatespeed
Nm
Lowidlespeed
min1
highidlespeed
min1
Staticinjection/ignitiontiming
BTCD(beforetopdeadcentre)
Injection/ignitiontimingcontrol
NoYes
Bore
mm
Stroke
mm
Displacementpercylinder
cm3
Cylindernumberandconfiguration

auxiliaries(seeiso81781annexB)

maximuminletdepression
Kpa
maximumexhaustbackpressure
Kpa
intercoolersetpoint(a)
K
coolingmediumtemperaturespecification
K
fueltemperaturespecification
K
Lubricationoil.

(a)Ifapplicable.

Table A3 iso 8178 Emissions test report-Engine family information.


Note. If applicable, see iso 8178-7: 1996, clause 5.
Manufacturer
Familyidentification
combustioncycle
coolingmedium
Individualcylinderdisplacement
Cylindernumberandconfiguration
methodofairaspiration
fueltype
Combustionchambertype
Valveandportingconfiguration
Sizeandnumber
Cylinderhead
Cylinderwall
Crankcase
Fuelsystemtype
Miscellaneousfeatures
Exhaustgasrecirculation
Waterinjection/emulsion
Airinjection
Chargecoolingsystem
Exhaustaftertreatment
Dualfuel
Ignitiontype

cm3

NoYes
NoYes
NoYes
NoYes
NoYes
NoYes
NoYes

Table A4 iso 8178 Emissions test report-Engine group information.


Note. If applicable, see iso 8178-8.
Manufacturer
Groupinformation
Borediameter
mm
Stroke
mm
Methodofpressurecharging

Chargeaircoolingsystem

Maximumdeclaredpowerpercylinderatmaximumdeclared
speed
Kw
Injectiontimingrange
BTCD(Beforetopdead

centre)
Fueldeliveryrange

mg/injection

Table A5 iso 8178. Emissions test report-Ambient and engine test data.
Engine______________Testsite___________
Ratedspeed___________min1Testnumber___________
Intermediatespeed___________min1Testcycle___________
Comments____________________________________________________




xWfe
Mode
(a)
Timeatbeginningofeachmode

Ambientdata

BarometricpressureKpa

Intakeairhumidityg/Kg

Atmosphericfactor

Enginedata

Speedmin1

Auxiliarypower(b)Kw

DynosettingKw

PowerKw

Specificfuelconsumptiong/Kwh

Fuelflow(d)

Airflow(d)

Exhaustflow(d)

ExhausttemperatureK

FueltemperatureK

CoolanttemperatureK

TemperatureintercooledairK

LubricatingtemperatureK

InletdepressionKpa

ExhaustbackpressureKpa

(a)Ifapplicable.

(b)Ifapplicable;calculatedvaluetobeusedaccordingtoiso81781:1996,5,3.

Otherkindofpowerthanmechanical(electrical,thermal,total)tobeindicated;uncorrected.
(d)Unitstobeindicated.