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UNIT 3

HVDC Converter

Unit-03/Lecture-01

Components of EHV D.C. System

Components of EHV D.C. System [RGPV/ Dec 2008/ 7]

The conversion from AC to DC and vice versa is done in HVDC converter stations by using

three phase bridge converters. A converter has two types of circuits:

1. Main Circuits through which high power flows. The main circuit comprises of converter

transformers, thyristor valves, bus bar, series reactor etc.

2. Control and Protection circuit for firing or blocking the valve in desired sequence,

monitoring, etc.

The main circuit of converters in HVDC terminal stations are made-up of series connected

thyristor valves. The converter valves are connected between converter transformer and

DC switchyard. Each thyristor valve is made up of several thyristor connected in series.

Individual thyristor rating is about 1.5 kV, 600 to 4000 A. The configuration of rectifier and

inverter is identical.

The triggering pulse to thyristor gates are delayed by angle called the delay angle, w.r.t.

the instant of natural commutation i.e. the instant when the phase voltage across

subsequently conducting valve exceeds that across the preceding value. The delay angle is

varied by means of control circuit which gives the triggering pulse to the gates of the

thyristor in each arm of the bridge in a definite sequence. With delay angle less than 90 o,

the converter acts in the rectifier mode and with delay angle between 90o and 180o the

converter works as a inverter.

S.NO

RGPV QUESTIONS

Q.1 Draw a schematic diagram of HVDC System

identifying its main components. Explain about

each components.

Year

Dec 2008

Marks

20

UNIT 3/ LECTURE 02

Rectifier used in HVDC System

Three Phase Fully Controlled Rectifier in HVDC System [RGPV/ Dec 2008, Dec 2007/ 10]

The three phase fully controlled bridge converter has been probably the most widely used

power electronic converter in the medium to high power applications. Three phase circuits are

preferable when large power is involved. The controlled rectifier can provide controllable

output dc voltage in a single unit instead of a three phase autotransformer and a diode bridge

rectifier. The controlled rectifier is obtained by replacing the diodes of the uncontrolled rectifier

with thyristors. Control over the output dc voltage is obtained by controlling the conduction

interval of each thyristor. This method is known as phase control and converters are also called

phase controlled converters. Since thyristors can block voltage in both directions it is possible

to reverse the polarity of the output dc voltage and hence feed power back to the ac supply

from the dc side. Under such condition the converter is said to be operating in the inverting

mode. The thyristors in the converter circuit are commutated with the help of the supply

voltage in the rectifying mode of operation and are known as Line commutated converter. The

same circuit while operating in the inverter mode requires load side counter emf. For

commutation and are referred to as the Load commutated inverter.

In phase controlled rectifiers though the output voltage can be varied continuously the load

harmonic voltage increases considerably as the average value goes down. Of course the

magnitude of harmonic voltage is lower in three phase converter compared to the single phase

circuit. Since the frequency of the harmonic voltage is higher smaller load inductance leads to

continuous conduction. Input current wave shape become rectangular and contain 5th and

higher order odd harmonics. The displacement angle of the input current increases with firing

angle. The frequency of the harmonic voltage and current can be increased by increasing the

pulse number of the converter which can be achieved by series and parallel connection of basic

6 pulse converters. The control circuit become considerably complicated and the use of coupling

transformer and / or interphase reactors become mandatory.

With the introduction of high power IGBTs the three phase bridge converter has all but been

replaced by dc link voltage source converters in the medium to moderately high power range.

However in very high power application (such as HV dc transmission system, cycloconverter

drives, load commutated inverter synchronous motor drives, static scherbius drives etc.) the

Operating principle of 3 phase fully controlled bridge converter

A three phase fully controlled converter is obtained by replacing all the six diodes of an

uncontrolled converter by six thyristors as shown in Fig. 15

Figure 14

For any current to flow in the load at least one device from the top group (T1, T3, T5) and one

from the bottom group (T2, T4, T6) must conduct. It can be argued as in the case of an

uncontrolled converter only one device from these two groups will conduct.

Then from symmetry consideration it can be argued that each thyristor conducts for 120 of the

input cycle. Now the thyristors are fired in the sequence T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T1

with 60 interval between each firing. Therefore thyristors on the same phase leg are fired at an

interval of 180 and hence cannot conduct simultaneously. This leaves only six possible

conduction mode for the converter in the continuous conduction mode of operation. These are

T1T2, T2T3, T3T4, T4T5, T5T6, T6T1. Each conduction mode is of 60 duration and appears in the

sequence mentioned. The conduction table of Fig. 15 (b) shows voltage across different devices

and the dc output voltage for each conduction interval. The phasor diagram of the line voltages

appear in Fig. 15 (c). Each of these line voltages can be associated with the firing of a thyristor

with the help of the conduction table-1. For example the thyristor T1 is fired at the end of T5T6

conduction interval. During this period the voltage across T1 was vac. Therefore T1 is fired

angle after the positive going zero crossing of vac. Similar observation can be made about other

thyristors. The phasor diagram of Fig. 15 (c) also confirms that all the thyristors are fired in the

correct sequence with 60 interval between each firing.

Fig. 16 shows the waveforms of different variables (shown in Fig. 15 (a)). To arrive at the

waveforms it is necessary to draw the conduction diagram which shows the interval of

conduction for each thyristor and can be drawn with the help of the phasor diagram of fig. 15

(c). If the converter firing angle is each thyristor is fired angle after the positive going zero

crossing of the line voltage with which its firing is associated. Once the conduction diagram is

drawn all other voltage waveforms can be drawn from the line voltage waveforms and from the

conduction table of fig. 15 (b). Similarly line currents can be drawn from the output current and

the conduction diagram. It is clear from the waveforms that output voltage and current

waveforms are periodic over one sixth of the input cycle. Therefore this converter is also called

the six pulse converter. The input current on the other hand contains only odds harmonics of

the input frequency other than the triplex (3rd, 9th etc.) harmonics. The next section will

analyze the operation of this converter in more details.

a

From Fig. 16 it can be observed that i itself has a ripple at a frequency six times the input

0

frequency. The closed from expression of i , as will be seen later is somewhat complicated.

0

a

average value I . This approximation will be valid provided the ripple on i is small, i.e, the load is

0

highly inductive. The modified input current waveform will then be i which can be expressed in

a

a1

From figure 16

Distortion factor

The closed form expression for i in the interval

0

in this interval

0

To find out the condition for continuous conduction it is noted that in the limiting case of

continuous conduction.

0

discontinuous conduction is rare in these conversions and will not be discussed any further.

S.NO

Q.1

Q.2

RGPV QUESTIONS

Year

Justify the suitability of 3-phase full bridge converter for Dec 2008

HVDC application.

Explain with current and voltage waveforms and deduce Dec 2007

relationship for output voltage and current considering

the commutation angle.

Marks

10

10

10

UNIT 3/ LECTURE 03

Inverter used in HVDC System

Analysis of the converter in the inverting mode.

In all the analysis presented so far it has been assumed that < 90. It follows from equation 16

that the output dc voltage will be positive in this case and power will be flowing from the three

phase ac side to the dc side. This is the rectifier mode of operation of the converter. However if

is made larger than 90 the direction of power flow through the converter will reverse

provided there exists a power source in the dc side of suitable polarity. The converter in that

case is said to be operating in the inverter mode. It has been explained in connection with single

phase converters that the polarity of EMF source on the dc side [Fig. 15(a)] would have to be

reversed for inverter mode of operator. Fig. 17 shows the circuit connection and wave forms in

the inverting mode of operation where the load current has been assumed to be continuous

and ripple free.

11

Analysis of the converter in the inverting mode is similar to its rectifier mode of operation. The

same expressions hold for the dc and harmonic compounds in the output voltage and current.

The input supply current Fourier series is also identical to Equation 13.8. In particular

For values of in the range 90 < < 180 it is observed from Fig. 13.3(b) that the average dc

voltage is negative and the displacement angle of the fundamental component of the input ac

line current is equal to > 90. Therefore, power in the ac side flows from the converter to the

source.

It is observed form Fig. 13.3(b) that an outgoing thyristor (thyristor T6 in Fig. 13.3(b)) after

commutation is impressed with a negative voltage of duration = . For successful

commutation of the outgoing thyristor it is essential that this interval is larger than the turn off

12

tq, tq is the thyristor turn off time

Therefore - tq or -tq.

This imposes an upper limit on the value of . In practice this upper value of is further

reduced due to commutation overlap.

13

UNIT 3/ LECTURE 04

Harmonics Generation in the Converter

Harmonic Generation in the Converter [RGPV/ Dec 2007, Dec 2008/10]

There are different types of loads that generate harmonics in power systems.

The linear time-invariant loads are designed such a way so that the sinusoidal voltage

results in a sinusoidal flow of current. These loads have constant steady-state impedances

during the applied sinusoidal voltage. When the voltage is increased, the current increases in

direct proportion. The transformers and rotation machines are the examples of this kind of

loads when operated in normal condition.

In nonlinear load, the applied sinusoidal voltage does not result in a sinusoidal flow of

current. These loads are not constant impedances during the entire cycle of the applied

sinusoidal voltage. For example, wind and solar power generation, switching mode power

supplies, computers, copy machines and television sets.

In utility distribution feeders and industrial plant power systems, the main tendency is

for the harmonic currents to flow from the harmonic producing load to the power system

source. This is shown in Figure 17. The impedance of the power system is normally the lowest

impedance seen by the harmonic currents. That means the bulk of the current flows in to the

source. The source of harmonics can be located by using this general tendency of the harmonic

current flow. The power quality meters can be used to measure the harmonic currents in each

branch starting at the beginning of the circuit and trace the harmonics to the source.

14

The power factor correction capacitors can alter this flow pattern. For example, adding

a capacitor to this circuit as shown in the following circuit may draw a large amount of harmonic

current into that portion of the circuit as shown in figure 18.

Figure 17 Power factor capacitors can alter the direction of flow of the harmonic component

of the current.

S.NO

RGPV QUESTIONS

Q.1 What are the causes of harmonics in HVDC

system.

Q.2 Write a short note on Causes of harmonics in

HVDC Converter.

Year

Dec 2007

Marks

10

Dev 2008

05

15

UNIT 3/ LECTURE 05

Adverse Effect of Harmonics in the Converter

Effect of Harmonics [RGPV/ June 2008, June 2010, Dec 2010, June 2007, Dec 2009/ 10]

Harmonics practically effect to every equipment in the power system. The effect of voltage

distortion is divided in three major categories, the thermal stress, the dielectric stress and load

disruptions.

Heating effects: Harmonic current flowing in the circuits cause heating effects in the

conductors. Especially eddy current losses are proportional to the square of the frequency.

Some harmonics, notably the 5th, are negative sequence or backward rotating and tease can

increase losses by inducing even higher frequency currents in machine rotors.

Interference: Harmonics can cause interference to communications systems, protections

systems and signaling circuits due to electromagnetic induction or to the flow of the ground

currents.

Resonance: Harmonics generated in one part of circuit may increase the resonance effects in

another part of the circuit. Some resonance can be dangerous if the magnification is large

because of high circuit Q-factor or low damping.

Even harmonics: Even harmonics may cause asymmetrical magnification and can lead to

saturation.

Some more adverse effects of harmonics listed as follows:

- Malfunction in electronics devices and computer equipments

- Errors in measurements

- Overheating and over stressing of insulations

- Lamp flicker when harmonic pulses involved.

- Sometimes machine vibrates

16

Harmonics Analysis

The first step in solving harmonic related problem is to perform an analysis to determine

the specific needs of power system. The analysis then applied to study of resonant conditions

and harmonic filter design. The in-depth study is involved because of the interaction between

harmonics producing source and power system, the limitations of modeling equipments in the

power system and need to check for the accuracy.

S.NO

RGPV QUESTIONS

Q.1 Discuss the problems associated with the

harmonics introduced by the HVDC Converters.

Q.2

harmonics in HVDC System.`

Year

June 2008

June 2010

Dec 2010

June 2007

Dec 2009

Marks

10

10

17

UNIT 3/ LECTURE 06

Harmonics Mitigation and Filters

Harmonics Mitigation and Filters [RGPV / Dec 2010, Dec 2009, Dec 2007, June 2010, Dec

2004/ 10]

The harmonics is becoming a bigger concern now a day with the increase nonlinear load

in the power system. There are multiple ways to control the harmonics as follow:

- Find the nonlinear load and reduce the harmonic current

- Add filter to remove the harmonic current or block the harmonic current from

entering

to the system

- Modify the system frequency response to avoid harmful interaction with harmonic current.

Passive filters

Nonlinear load produces harmonic currents that can travel to other part of the power

systems and eventually goes back to the source. As we review that harmonics current can

damage power systems many ways. One of the ways to block this unwanted characteristic of

the system is to block it by using filters.

There are two types of filters, active and passive filter. The interest of this project is to

design a single tuned notch filter since it is sufficient for the application and importantly it is

inexpensive. Figure 19 shows configuration of the filter, equivalent circuit of the filter and the

frequency response of the filter. This filter has two advantages, it suppresses the harmonics and

increases power factor. This filter is tuned slightly lower than the harmonic to be filtered to

provide a safely margin in case there is some change in the system parameters that may raise

the notch frequency.

18

Figure 19 Creating a fifth-harmonic notch filter and its affect on the system response

S.NO

RGPV QUESTIONS

Q.1 Write a short note on tuned power filter.

Q.2 Explain different types of AC filters giving their

configuration and impedance characteristics.

Q.3 Explain the remedial measures of harmonics.

Q.4 Explain DC filters, mentioning the criteria by

which the effectiveness of the DC filters can be

judged.

Year

Dec 2004

June 2010

Marks

10

10

Dec 2010

Dec 2007

Dec 2009

10

10

19

UNIT 3/ LECTURE 07

HVDC Characteristics

HVDC Characteristics.

An important factor when considering multiple inverters operating into a common AC system is

the static characteristics of each inverter. These characteristics (normally plotted as DC current

Versus DC voltage) represent the converters dynamic response to transient behaviour in the AC

system. They can be considered as the cerebral cortex of the HVDC controller as, in the same

way as if you touch something hot you will undoubtedly move your hand rapidly without higher

brain functions being involved, the HVDC converter static characteristics define the way in

which the converter will respond without involving higher level control functions.

The selection of static characteristics will influence, to some extent, the susceptibility of a HVDC

converter to a commutation failure. As an example, the static characteristics can be configured

to maintain the DC voltage at a constant value for small reductions in the AC system voltage, As

shown in Figure 20. This will help to mitigate the increase in DC current flowing from the stored

energy of the DC conductor into the inverter as a consequence of an AC system dip. However,

when considering multiinfeed HVDC converters the static characteristics can have a significant

impact on the converters ability following a commutation failure.

20

Vd

Rectifier

Inverter

Id

Constant DC

Voltage

range

Consider only one inverter feeding into an AC system. The speed of recovery of the inverter

following a commutation failure can be optimised against the inertia and performance of the AC

system synchronous machines in order to optimise the system stability. However, when two or

more inverters are attempting to recover into the same AC system they can interact such that

subsequent commutation failures on one or more of the inverters is invoked; potentially leading

to an instability in the AC power system. It may, therefore, be more appropriate to actually slow

down the recovery of one converter with respect to another so that the total power flow into

the receiving AC system is achieved more stably and hence quicker. Figure 21 shows two

different scheme static characteristics.

From Figure 21 it can be seen that in Scheme 1 Area A is much smaller than Area B of Scheme 2,

hence the recovery charging current and the speed in which the converter angles respond will

be different so, for physically identical schemes, Scheme 2 will recover faster than Scheme 1.

Moreover, in Figure 2 an approximate constant reactive power absorption (constant Q) line is

plotted. It can be seen that for Scheme 1 the recovery characteristic takes the converter

operating point to the right of the constant Q line and hence the converter will absorb more

reactive power during recovery, leading to an AC voltage dip which could cause a commutation

21

failure in neighbouring inverters. Now consider Scheme 2; its recovery characteristic passes to

the left of the constant Q curve and hence will always absorb less reactive power during

recovery, consequently leading to an AC overvoltage and therefore less likely to initiate a

commutation failure in nearby inverters.

Scheme 2

Scheme 1

Vd

Vd

Rectifier

Rectifier

Constant Q

Constant Q

Inverter

Area A

Inverter

Area B

Id

Id

FIGURE 21 Static Characteristics of two HVDC schemes which will have different recovery

times and different reactive power absorption from the AC system during recovery

Whilst it may not be practical to have all HVDC schemes causing an AC system overvoltage

following an AC system disturbance which resulted in a commutation failure there maybe some

system benefits to having a combination of different characteristics in a multi in feed system. It

is therefore suggested that, whenever possible, the static characteristics of any existing HVDC

schemes are established and modelled as accurately as possible in order to obtain the most

realistic representation of the expected dynamic behaviour of the HVDC schemes.

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