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Applied Statistics & Research Methods

Assignment 1

Submitted to: Dr. Anand Prakash

Submitted by: Imad ul Arfin

Roll no. AP14308 ACM28 Section IV




Principal Objective: Use of High Volume flyash in concrete (Upto 100% replacement of
Secondary Objective: Properties of fresh and hardened flyash concrete.
KEYWORDS: Flyash, Physical & Chemical properties of concrete, Compressive Strength,
Fresh & Hardened properties of concrete,
For a variety of reasons, the concrete construction industry is not sustainable. First, it
consumes huge quantities of virgin materials. Second, the principal binder in concrete is
Portland cement, the production of which is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions
that are implicated in global warming and climate change. Third, many concrete structures
suffer from lack of durability which has an adverse effect on the resource productivity of the
industry. Because the high-volume fly ash concrete system addresses all three sustainability
issues, its adoption will enable the concrete construction industry to become more
sustainable. The use of high volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete fits in very well with
sustainable development. High volume fly ash concrete mixtures contain lower quantities of
cement and higher volume of fly ash (up to 60%). The use of fly ash in concrete at
proportions ranging from 35 to 60 % of total cementitious binder has been studied
extensively over the last twenty years and the properties of blended concrete are well
documented. The replacement of fly ash as a cementitious component in concrete
depends upon several factors. The design strength and workability of the concrete, water
demand and relative cost of fly ash compared to cement. From the literature it is
generally found that fly ash content in the cementitious material varies from 30-80%
for low strength (20 MPa) to high strength (100MPa).

The research papers referred discussed the following issues and properties of flyash of

Physical and chemical properties of flyash

Reactivity of flyash

Effect of flyash on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete

Effect of flyash on concrete mix proportion

Physical and chemical properties of fly ash play an important role in imparting it the
pozzolanic reactivity and in its interaction with cement mortar and concrete. Ninety-five
percent of the inorganic matter contained in coal is made up of clay or shale, pyrite and
calcite minerals. Lignite coals contain the most calcite and bituminous coals the least. Subbituminous coals fall in between. The alkalis and trace minerals account for the rest of the
minerals. Some of the minerals melt during burning and decompose whereas others simply
slag. As already described, coarser particles which cannot be carried by the flue gases fall to
the bottom and are collected as bottom ash, they account for about 15-20 percent of the
total ash. Davis et al (1937) recognized the reactivity of fly ash with calcium and alkalihydroxides in portland cement paste, and there with the ability of fly ash to act as a
preventive measure against deleterious alkali-aggregate reactions.
The principal product of the reactions of fly ash with alkali and calcium hydroxide in
concrete is essentially the same as that of the hydration of portland cement (calciumsilicate-hydrate [C-S-H]). The morphology of the Class F fly ash reaction product is suggested
to be more gel-like and denser than that from portland cement Odom 1983). The reaction of
fly ash depends largely upon breakdown and dissolution of the glassy structure by the
hydroxide ions and heat mobilized during the early hydration of the portland cement
fraction of the mix. The reaction of the fly ash continues to consume calcium hydroxide to
form additional C-S-H as long as calcium hydroxide is present in the pore liquid of the
cement paste.
Flyash is used in concrete for reasons including economics, improvements and reduction in
temperature rise in fresh concrete, workability, and contribution to durability and strength
in hardened concrete. Flyash makes efficient use of the products of hydration of portland
(1) solutions of calcium and alkali hydroxide which exist in the pore structure of the cement
paste, and
(2) the heat generated by hydration of portland cement, an important factor in initiating the
reaction of fly ash. Fly ash can be introduced into concrete in one of the following ways:
a) A blended cement containing fly ash (Portland pozzolana cement) may be used in
place of portland cement.

b) ii) Fly ash may be used as partial replacement of fine -aggregate or of cement in mix
c) iii) Flyash may be introduced as an additional component (mineral admixture) at the
concrete mixing plant.













(2006) (2007)












I]: High Volume flyash Concrete
J]: Study of fresh and hardened properties of flyash concrete
K]: Use of flyash concrete in roads
L]: Light weight concrete
M]: Prevention of corrosion in flyash concrete
N]: Study on the physical & chemical properties of flyash

Identifying gap Areas

1. It is found from studying the research papers that the researchers have extensively studied
the flyash replacement of cement in the manufacture of concrete.
2. The researchers have studied the Physical & Chemical properties of flyash in detail and
have classified it into Class C and F, and have concluded that class C possesses
cementituous properties and can be used in the manufacture of concrete
3. They have also studied the properties of fresh and hardened properties of concrete.
4. It is found that the area of manufacture of light weight concrete using flyash and clay
aggregates and manufacture of corrosion resistant flyash concrete has not been popular

among researchers in the past decade thus it there arises a need to conduct good quality
research in these areas. The questionnaire required for the above purpose is as below.