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Submitted by: Nazish Aslam (enter ur roll no here)
Submitted to: (ur teacher name)
Program (your degree program here)
Your university name here
LETTER OF AUTHORIZATION
The report titled, “Stress”, is prepared and submitted by “Nazish Aslam”, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the course of on “stress” defining its effect on human health. Communication Skills. And she was authorized by “Mr. Rauf Akhtar” to complete this report
First of all, I would like to thank Almighty Allah for giving me the strength to cope up with the challenges and skills to complete this report in time. I would also like to show my gratitude to my supervisor Mr. Rauf Akhtar who helped throughout the report by guiding me and giving me time out of his busy schedule. I am also thankful to my friends and my cousin, without their support the report could not be completed. I hope that this work of mine will definitely touch the heart of my respected teacher, once again my sincere thanks to all the people involved in my research study directly or indirectly.
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
1. Model of stress 2. Table shows potential impacts and some results of stress 3. Diagram “How stress destroying the human system”
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Stress is something that can occur from any event or feeling that makes you frustrated, angry or anxious, it’s not necessary that something stressful for you must also be stressful for others. Stress is a part of daily routine. Low level of stress is good for an individual as it increases and motivates an individual to be more productive. In respect to this high level of stress is dangerous, high level of stress cal lead to several mental and physical problems. Stress can be defined as the physiological and emotional responses that occur when one perceive an imbalance between their work demands and their competence and/or resources to meet these demands. Importantly, stress responses occur when the imbalance is such that the worker perceives they are not coping in situations where it is important to them that they cope. Stress can produce various unwanted, costly and unbearable consequences which can affect an individual and an organization. In organizational settings stress is now becoming a major contributor of problems either physical or performance related. Consequences of occupational stress either on individual level or organizational level it is real cost. To some extent, stress is an inevitable feature of life and work and, as such, is neither intrinsically bad nor necessarily destructive. However, the difference exists between being ‘under pressure’ at work and being subjected to the kind of constant stress that is potentially spoiling physical and psychological well-being.
A lot of research has been conducted into stress over the last hundred years. Some of the theories behind it are now settled and accepted; others are still being researched and debated. During this time, there seems to have been something approaching open warfare between competing theories and definitions: Views have been passionately held and aggressively defended. What complicates this is that intuitively we all feel that we know what stress is, as it is something we have all experienced. A definition should therefore be obvious…except that it is not.
Hans Selye was one of the founding fathers of stress research. His view in 1956 was that “ Stress is not necessarily something bad – it all depends on how you take it. The stress of exhilarating, creative successful work is beneficial, while that of failure, humiliation or infection is detrimental.” Selye believed that the biochemical effects of stress would be experienced irrespective of whether the situation was positive or negative. Since then, a great deal of further research has been conducted, and ideas have moved on. Stress is now viewed as a "bad thing", with a range of harmful biochemical and long-term effects.
These effects have rarely been observed in positive situations. The most commonly accepted definition of stress (mainly attributed to Richard S Lazarus) is that Stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a person perceive that “demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize.” In short, it's what we feel when we think we've lost control of events.
This is the main definition used by this section of Mind Tools, although we also recognize that there is an intertwined instinctive stress response to unexpected events. The stress response inside us is therefore part instinct and part to do with the way we think. The types of stress are as follows Mechanical • Stress (physics), the average amount of force exerted per unit area. • Yield stress, the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically. • Compressive stress, the stress applied to materials resulting in their compaction. Biological • Stress (biological), physiological or psychological stress; some types include: • Chronic stress, persistent stress which can lead to illness and mental disorder
• • Music • Accent (music). • Stress (band), an early '80s melodic rock band from San Diego. • Stress (punk band), an early '80s punk rock band from Athens. • Stress (Neo-Psychedelic band), from the late 1980's. • Stress, a song by the French band Justice on their debut album Eustress, functioning Workplace stress, stress caused by employment positive stress that can lead to improved long-term
Other • Stress (game), card game • Stress (linguistics), phonological use of prominence in language
TYPES OF STRESS
Stress (physics), the average amount of force exerted per unit area. Stress is a measure of the average amount of force exerted per unit area. It is a measure of the intensity of the total internal forces acting within a body across imaginary internal surfaces, as a reaction to external applied forces and body forces. It was introduced into the theory of elasticity by Cauchy around 1822.
Chronic Stress Chronic stress is stress that lasts a long time or occurs
frequently. Chronic stress is potentially damaging.
Symptoms of chronic stress can be: • Upset stomach • Headache • Backache • Insomnia • Anxiety • Depression • Anger In the most severe cases it can lead to panic attacks or a panic disorder.
Methods to control chronic stress
There are a variety of methods to control chronic stress including
• • • • • •
Exercise, Healthy diet, Stress management, Relaxation techniques, Adequate rest, and Relaxing hobbies.
Lack Of Magnesium Causes Stress
Ensuring a healthy diet containing magnesium may help control or eliminate stress, in those individuals with lower levels of magnesium or those who have a magnesium deficiency. Chronic stress can also lead to a magnesium deficiency, which can be a factor in continued chronic stress, and a whole
host of other negative medical conditions caused by a magnesium deficiency. It has been discovered that there is a huge upsurge in the number of people who suffer from this condition. A very large number of these new cases suffer from insomnia. In a review of the scientific literature on the relationship between stress and disease, the authors found that stress plays a role in triggering or worsening depression and cardiovascular disease and in speeding the progression of HIV/AIDS.
Compressive stress is the stress applied to materials resulting in their compaction (decrease of volume). When a material is subjected to compressive stress, then this material is under compression. Usually, compressive stress applied to bars, columns, etc. leads to shortening. Loading a structural element or a specimen will increase the compressive stress until the reach of compressive strength. According to the properties of the material, failure will occur as yield for materials with ductile behavior (most metals, some soils and plastics) or as rupture for brittle behavior (geometries, cast iron, glass, etc). In long, slender structural elements -such as columns or truss bars – an increase of compressive force F leads to structural failure due to buckling at lower stress than the compressive strength. Compressive stress has stress units (force per unit area), usually with negative values to indicate the compaction. However in geotechnical engineering, compressive stress is represented with positive values.
Stress in Biological terms
Stress in a biological term is refers to the consequences of the failure of a human or animal body to respond appropriately to emotional or physical threats to the organism, whether actual or imagined. It includes a state of alarm and adrenaline production, short-term resistance as a coping mechanism, and exhaustion. It refers to the inability of a human or animal body to respond. Common stress symptoms include • • Irritability Muscular tension Inability to concentrate A variety of physical reactions (such as headaches and accelerated heart rate.) The term "stress" was first used by the endocrinologist Hans Selye in the 1930s to identify physiological responses in laboratory animals. He later broadened and popularized the concept to include the perceptions and responses of humans trying to adapt to the challenges of everyday life. In Selye's terminology, "stress" refers to the reaction of the organism, and "stressor" to the perceived threat. Stress in certain circumstances may be experienced positively. Eustress, for example, can be an adaptive response prompting the activation of internal resources to meet challenges and achieve goals. The term is commonly used by laypersons in a metaphorical rather than literal or biological sense, as a catch-all for any perceived difficulties in life. It also became a euphemism, a way of referring to problems and eliciting sympathy without being explicitly confessional, just "stressed out". It covers a huge range of phenomena from mild irritation to the kind of severe problems that might result in a real breakdown of health. In popular usage almost any event or situation between these extremes could be described as stressful.
Stress refers to the strain from the conflict between our external environment and us, leading to emotional and physical pressure. In our fast paced world, it is impossible to live without stress, whether you are a student or a working adult. There is both positive and negative stress, depending on each individual’s unique perception of the tension between the two forces. Not all stress is bad. For example, positive stress, also known as Eustress, can help an individual to function at optimal effectiveness and efficiency. Hence, it is evident that some form of positive stress can add more color and vibrancy to our lives. The presence of a deadline, for example, can push us to make the most of our time and produce greater efficiency. It is important to keep this in mind, as stress management refers to using stress to our advantage, and not on eradicating the presence of stress in our lives. On the other hand, negative stress can result in mental and physical strain. The individual will experience symptoms such as tensions, headaches, irritability and in extreme cases, heart palpitations. Hence, whilst some stress may be seen as a motivating force, it is important to manage stress levels so that it does not have an adverse impact on your health and relationships. Part of managing your stress levels include learning about how stress can affect you emotionally and physically, as well as how to identify if you are performing at your optimal stress level (OSL) or if you are experiencing negative stress. This knowledge will help you to identify when you need to take a break, or perhaps seek professional help. It is also your first step towards developing techniques to managing your stress levels. MODERN STRESS
Modern day stresses can take the form of monetary needs, or emotional frictions. Competition at work and an increased workload can also cause greater levels of stress.
How do you identify if you are suffering from excessive stress? Psychological symptoms Psychological symptoms commonly experienced include • • • insomnia, headaches and an inability to focus.
Physical symptoms Physical symptoms take the form of • Heart palpitations • Breathlessness
• Excessive sweating and
CAUSES OF STRESS
What causes stress? “There are many different causes of stress, and that causes stress is also known as a stressor” Common lifestyle stressors include
1. performance 2. threat
3. bereavement stressors
Performance stressors are triggered when an individual is placed in a
situation where he feels a need to excel. This could be during performance appraisals, lunch with the boss, or giving a speech.
Threat stressors are usually when the current situation poses a
dangerous threat, such as an economic downturn, or from an accident Lastly,
Bereavement stressors occur when there is a sense of loss such as the
death of a loved one, or a prized possession. Thus, there are various stressors, and even more varied methods and techniques of dealing with stress and turning it to our advantages. In order to do so, we must learn to tell when we have crossed the line from positive to negative stress.
• • Increased work load Competition at work
• • Emotional friction Negative re-enforcement groups
Good stress v/s Bad stress
Stress has often been misunderstood to be negative, with few people acknowledging the importance and usefulness of positive stress. In our everyday lives, stress is everywhere and definitely unavoidable; hence our emphasis should be on differentiating between what is good stress, and what is bad. This will help us to learn to cope with negative stress, and harness the power of positive stress to help us achieve more.
Here’s how we differentiate between Positive and negative Stress?
CATEGORIES OF STRESS
There are 4 main categories of stress • • • • Eustress Distress Hyper stress Hypo stress
Negative stress can cause many physical and psychological problems, whilst positive stress can be very helpful for us. Here’s how we differentiate between them.
“This is a positive form of stress, which prepares your mind and body for the imminent challenges that it has perceived.”
Eustress is a natural physical reaction by your body which increases blood flow to your muscles, resulting in a higher heart rate. Athletes before a competition or perhaps a manager before a major presentation would do well with eustress, allowing them to derive the inspiration and strength that is needed.
“ We are familiar with this word, and know that it is a negative form of stress.This occurs when the mind and body is unable to cope with changes, and usually occurs when there are deviations from the norm.” They can be categorized into acute stress and chronic stress. Acute stress is intense, but does not last for long. On the other hand, chronic stress persists over a long period of time. Trigger events for distress can be a change in job scope or routine that the person is unable to handle or cope with.
“This is another form of negative stress that occurs when the individual is unable to cope with the workload.” Example It include highly stressful jobs, which require longer working hours than the individual can handle. If you suspect that you are suffering from hyper stress, you are likely to have sudden emotional breakdowns over insignificant issues, the proverbial straws that broke the camel’s back. It is important for you to recognize that your body needs a break, or you may end up with severe and chronic physical and psychological reactions.
Hypo stress “Hypo stress occurs when a person has nothing to do with his time and feels constantly bored and unmotivated.” This is due to an insufficient amount of stress; hence some stress is inevitable and helpful to us. Companies should avoid having workers who experience hypo stress as this will cause productivity and mindfulness to fall. If the job scope is boring and repetitive, it would be a good idea to implement some form of job rotation so that there is always something new to learn. The types of stress are named as eustress and distress. Distress is the most commonly referred to type of stress, having negative implications, whereas eustress is a positive form of stress, usually related to desirable events in person's life. Both can be equally taxing on the body, and are cumulative in nature, depending on a person's way of adapting to a change that has caused it.
Why do we get stressed?
There are four main reasons why people get stressed. 1. One is purely physical changes in our bodies through adolescence, the aging process, being ill, etc. can cause people to feel stressed. 2. Another cause of stress can be our reaction to our environment. A particularly noisy or polluted environment, for example, can lead to stress.
3. Other causes of stress can be found in the demands people make of
us. For example, being required to meet deadlines, give presentations or organize an important family get-together can put a lot of stess on some people. Also in this category we find challenges such as financial difficulties, marital problems and the loss of a close friend or relative, all of which can cause immense stress. 4. Another reason why people get stressed is that their thought patterns enable stress to take hold. What some people may regard as a challenge others may perceive as a serious problem. Hence they will feel stressed about it, their brains triggering a stress response in their bodies which will produce stress symptoms.
It seems that the main thing which triggers stress is change. Any changes in our lives (be they bad or good) can cause a person to feel stressed and lead to related physical symptoms.
A MODEL OF STRESS
Potential Sources of Stress
• Environmental Factors
o o o Economic uncertainties of the business cycle Political uncertainties of political systems Technological uncertainties of technical innovations
o o o Task demands related to the job Role demands of functioning in an organization Interpersonal demands created by other employees
o o o Family and personal relationships Economic problems from exceeding earning capacity Personality problems arising from basic disposition
Consequences of Stress
Unwanted feelings and behaviors – such as • •
• job frustration lower inspiration low employee self-esteem less organizational dedication lowered overall quality of work life absenteeism turnover intention to leave the job
• • • •
• • • • •
lower productivity decreased quantity and quality of work inability to make sound decisions more theft sabotage and work stoppage occupational burnout alienation increased smoking and alcohol intake
Physiological diseases (poor physical health)
– This might include
• • • •
Increased Blood pressure and pulse rate cardiovascular diseases high cholesterol high blood sugar insomnia, headaches infections skin problems suppressed immune system injuries Fatigue.
Psychological diseases (poor emotional (mental) health) • emotional distress
• anxiousness • passiveness/forcefulness • boredom • lose of self-confidence and self-esteem
• lose of attentiveness • feelings of futility • impulsiveness and disregarding of social norms and values • dissatisfaction with job and live •
losing of contact with reality • emotional fatigue
The Joys That Life Can Bring What we have discussed so far is that stress is a fact of life, and given all the good that it can do, a necessary part of life. Too much stress, however, can lead to our undoing and robs us of the joys that life can bring. Instead of interesting challenges that allow for growth and actualization of self, a life burdened with continuous stress can be a living hell. You, however, hold the key to the potential prisons of life’s experience. As mentioned, stress is not something that is done to us, but more so, what we do to ourselves. A life without some stress is either monotonous or death itself. When you find that you cannot control or eliminate stress, “go with the flow.” When necessary, be like a blade of grass that bends in a strong wind and survives. Not like an old oak that is uprooted and dies because it stubbornly fights against the force of the wind. We all have a stake in how we fare in handling the potential stressors in our life. The organization has a huge stake in its human resources, the workers who generate the bottom line. Although a potential prime generator of stress for workers, companies can also serve as significant support systems for employees and, in turn, be appreciated all the more for providing the support. This support will return itself a thousand fold in the form of more dynamic, resilient, committed, caring, and productive work force. Just as Corporate America sees the logic of preventive equipment maintenance, it can apply these same principles and practices in the form of preventive employee maintenance. Just as it understands how overworked and poorly maintained equipment can fail and be expensive to replace, it should readily understand how many of the person-environment discrepancies discussed earlier can also lead to employee failure and expensive replacement costs. Organizations should, therefore, evaluate their operations for unhealthy stress generators and, where necessary, get their houses in order. This is a legitimate business concern, as important to the corporation’s survival as determining its business objectives and product lines. Families should also understand the significant roles they can play in the emotional, physical and
psychological health of its members and should constantly look for ways to enhance “support-giving” to family members. We as individuals should understand, however, that the workplace is not necessarily the problem. We are also part of the equation and, therefore, an important and necessary part of the solution. We have to take responsibility for our lives because in the end it is our lives that are affected by unhealthy stress. We should not be tempted to use the common excuse to look outside ourselves to find the fault, but look within to find the strength and the answers. We must become more aware of our feelings, both physical and emotional, and safeguard ourselves against the destructive potential of unsolved stress. It is the fortunate person that honestly knows when he or she is off balance, and can bring into play an inventory of effective stabilizing mechanisms and strategies to resolve problems. Remember, you determine your fate, and if it’s any comfort to you, there are not more saber-toothed tigers to threaten our survival, only emotional shadows that look like them.
STRESS MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Outlined below are some stress management and “go with the flow” techniques, attitudes and behaviors that you, co-workers, and family members can use to achieve and maintain happier, heal their and more productive lives: • Develop an appropriate attitude concerning stress. Stress does not have to lead to “distress.” When managed appropriately, stress can be that burst of energy and creativity that allows you to perform at your peak. • Don’t sweat the small stuff. When looked at clearly, the majority of life’s challenges are small stuff. • Develop a positive and loving attitude about yourself. Become one of your best friends. • Take responsibility for your life and be the prime determinant of what happens in your life. Increase your internal locus of control and discontinue deterministic, fatalistic, or magical thinking. • Develop self-control and learn to modulate your responses (physical, emotional, and psychological) to potential stressful situations. Why give all when some will do? The challenges of life do not all require an all or none reaction, some effort in the middle zone might do just fine. • Determine your priorities and values. • When you cannot say,” NO”, try, “NOT NOW.”
• Develop a positive attitude about challenges and change demand situations in your work, home, social and community environments as opportunities for growth. • Increase your awareness of yourself—physical, emotional and spiritual. • Develop mutually beneficial support systems within the various “significant environments” that you function in. Remember that no one should be an island unto them self, and that a functioning support system is probably our most important means for stress management. • Put Love in your life. Love in your family, friends, co-workers, career, community, and, most importantly, yourself. • Structure stress interactions — avoid stress clustering. Pick the size, number and timing of your battles! • Minimize unpredictability in your life. Plan, today, to take action against ambiguous roles, role conflict, and overload-under load situations. Maximize your person-environment fit! • When confronting a potential stressor, perform stress analysis. The situation may not be that bad. Give yourself time to think before you enter a stressful situation because you might not be able to do so while in the thick of the problem. • Learn to be comfortable with the decisions you make. Take the burden of always having to be absolutely right and perfect off your back. When you make a mistake, live with it and learn from it. Remember, genius is a storehouse of mistakes. • Practice focusing on the present and not on the dim past or unknown future. The past has taken care of itself and we have time on our side to deal with the future.
• “Hot Reactor” Take some time out to smell the roses. • Develop mental discipline and apply yourself to the task at hand. • Develop effective time-management skills. • Don’t rely on drugs as a strategy to deal with life. Drugs lead to blurring of reality, decrease your ability to use prior knowledge to help solve current problems, and decrease your ability to grow from the experiences of life. • Avoid negative re-enforcement groups and “stress-guard” yourself against stress carriers. • Bridge the relationship gap. Get to know your co-workers, family members and renew friendships with people in your community. • Be honest and forthright, but diplomatic, in your interactions with others. Let others know your true feelings, desires and aspirations. You have a right to be yourself. • Don’t bottle up your anger because the container could be your heart. • Have an open mind when dealing with others. Learn to listen. • Do something that will enhance your organizational, family, social and community stature. Develop yourself! • Take time out to relax and enjoy the world and people around you. Give yourself a treat everyday! • Learn relaxation techniques such as • meditation,
progressive muscle relaxation, Deep breathing, etc. Listen to music or read that book you have been putting off until your next vacation.
• Take all of your allotted vacation time. You deserve and need it. • Develop an appropriate work concept. Remember that our work roles have a great deal to do with our sense of self, goals and purpose. Performing satisfying work is a very healthy thing for all of us to do. • Develop realistic goals for yourself, and take the necessary steps to accomplish them. • Resolve any differences between what you want and what you need. A large gap in these areas can lead to a continued state of dissatisfaction and frustration. • Develop good health habits. Get appropriate amounts of sleep, eat a balanced diet and incorporate regular exercise into your life. Establish a meaningful relationship with your doctor. • Do not use stress as an excuse to fail but a stimulus to grow.
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