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BRIDGE BUILDING

Bridge Facts
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Can you name the longest bridge in the world?

The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge

Bridge Facts
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Comparing the various bridges..

Bridge Facts (cont.)


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Can you name the longest bridge in America?

The Lake Pontchartrain Causeway Bridge (23.9 miles)


(Louisiana)

Bridge Facts (cont.)


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What is the oldest standing stone bridge in the world?

The Zhaozhou Bridge( China)

Bridge Facts (cont.)


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What is the highest suspension bridge in the world?

The Royal Gorge Bridge above the Arkansas River


Click here to cross the bridge!

Bridge Facts (cont.)


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New York City Bridges!!

Famous Bridges of New York!!

Bridge Facts (cont.)


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Different types of Bridges!!

Tower Bridge London!!


Cable and Wooden
Planck Bridge
New Zealand!!

Tsurimi Tsubasa Bridge


- Japan!!

Definition
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What is a bridge?
A structure built in order to allow people or vehicles to
cross a river or a valley etc. Bridges are structures which
carry people and vehicles across natural or man-made
obstacles.

When was the first bridge built?


Prehistoric time

Materials Used
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What materials are used in bridge construction?

Stone
Wood
Grass
Steel
Concrete

Types of Bridges
Do you know any type of bridges??
Where did you see it??
What engineering aspects did you notice??

Types of Bridges

Beam

Truss

Arch

Suspension

Modern Suspension
Cable-Stayed

Beam Bridge
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Beam bridges are the simplest and least expensive type of bridges
to build!!
A horizontal beam supported at its ends comprises the structure of a
beam bridge (span a distance of approximately 200 feet).
Highway overpasses, flyovers or walkways

Beam Bridge - (Truss Bridge)


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A truss bridge is built by connecting straight elements with the


help of pin joints (span a distance of approximately 1200 feet)

Deck truss railroad bridge that extends over the Erie Canal is
one of the many famous truss bridges.

Arch Bridge
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Arch bridges are the easiest type of bridges to recognize!!


An arch-shaped structure which has supports at both its ends.
The weight of an arch-shaped bridge is forced into the supports
at either end (span a distance of approximately 800 feet).

Suspension Bridge
Modern Suspension Bridges
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Modern Suspension bridges have an M-Shaped pattern and


are the most impressive type of bridge with their long main
span and beauty!!
A bridge falling under this category is suspended from cables.
The suspension cables are anchored at each end of the bridge
(span a distance of approximately 2000 to 7000 feet).

Suspension Bridge
Cable-Stayed Bridges
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Cable-Stayed Bridges have an A-shaped pattern and use less


cable and are the BRIDGES OF CHOICE!!
The forces Compressive and Tensile are same for both
suspension bridges (span a distance of approximately 500 to
3000 feet).

Guess the types of bridges


embedded in this one bridge!!!
The Tower Bridge in London is
three types of bridges in one.

The shore-to-tower spans

are suspension bridges


The pedestrian walkways
are truss (beam) bridges
The center span is movable
to allow tall ships to pass.

Forces acting on
Beam Bridges and Truss Bridges
Two important forces dealt by all bridges:
Compression is a force that acts to compress or shorten
the thing it is acting on.
Tension is a force that acts to expand or lengthen the
thing it is acting on.
When something pushes down on the beam, the beam bends. Its top edge
is pushed together, and its bottom edge is pulled apart.

Forces acting on
Arch Bridges
The arch is squeezed together, and this squeezing force is carried
outward along the curve to the supports at each end. The supports,
called abutments, push back on the arch and prevent the ends of the arch
from spreading apart.

Forces acting on Suspension Bridges


Modern Suspension Bridges
In all suspension bridges, the roadway hangs from massive steel cables,
which are draped over two towers and secured into solid concrete blocks,
called anchorages, on both ends of the bridge. The cars push down on the
roadway, but because the roadway is suspended, the cables transfer the
load into compression in the two towers. The two towers support most of
the bridge's weight.

Forces acting on Suspension Bridges


Cable- Stayed Bridges
Cables are anchored directly to the towers and eliminate the
need for an anchorage system. The same tensile and
compressive forces are seen in a cable-stayed bridge as they
are in a modern suspension bridge.

Exploring Activities
Designing the various load combinations and determining the
required size of the bridge.
Creating models of beam, arch and suspension bridges and
apply forces to understand how they disperse the loads.
Building a model Truss Bridge using straws and popsicle
sticks.
Exploring the Bridge building software and designing new
bridges.
Bridge Building Competition.

Bridge Challenge #1
Multi-lane bridge for commuters and tourists
A growing community needs a bridge, to connect the city and a major
highway crossing a river. They're very picky about what they want! Help
them by testing your engineering skills and match the right bridge to the
location shown in the figure below!!

Span:
2,000 feet
Crossing: River
Connects: City and major
highway

Special Notes:
"I want a one-of-a-kind bridge that will span
our beautiful river and welcome visitors from
all over the world to our thriving city. Make
sure the new bridge leaves enough room for
sailboats on the river. Please don't build a
bridge that looks like the Golden Gate Bridge
in San Francisco or the Brooklyn Bridge in
New York."
-- Mayor of Craggy Rock

Source: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/bridge/challenge/

Bridge Challenge #1
Multi-lane bridge for commuters and tourists
Beam Bridge
Suspension Bridge
Span:
2,000 feet
Crossing: River
Connects: City and major
highway

Arch Bridge

Draw Bridge
Source: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/bridge/challenge/

Bridge Challenge #1
Multi-lane bridge for commuters and tourists

Draw Bridge

Span:
2,000 feet
Crossing: River
Connects: City and major
highway

But, there is a problem - the residents of Craggy Rock spoke out


against the new drawbridge. "It's ugly," one angry resident said,
"and there's always traffic on the bridge. They open it for boats, but
what about us? We have to get to work, too!"
Source: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/bridge/challenge/

Bridge Challenge #1
Multi-lane bridge for commuters and tourists
The mayor is begging you to build a new bridge. The local steelworkers
are on strike, so she advises you to build a bridge with as little steel as
possible.
Cable-stayed Bridge

Cantilever Bridge
Span:
2,000 feet
Crossing: River
Connects: City and major
highway

Combination Arch
& Beam Bridge

Source: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/bridge/challenge/

Bridge Challenge #1
Multi-lane bridge for commuters and tourists
Cable-stayed Bridge

Span:
2,000 feet
Crossing: River
Connects: City and major
highway

These have become one of the most popular bridge types in recent years.
The roadway hangs from cables like a suspension bridge, forming a
unique "A" shape. The mayor is happy because the bridge is made
mostly of concrete, a relatively cheap material. The residents are thrilled
because ships can pass beneath the bridge without causing traffic jams!
Source: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/bridge/challenge/

Bridge Challenge #2
A bridge for rollerbladers and bikers
A growing community needs a bridge, to connect the bike paths in East and
West Craggy Rock. They're very picky about what they want! Help them by
testing your engineering skills and match the right bridge to the location
shown in the figure below!!
Special Notes:

Span:
100 feet
Crossing: Stream
Connects: Two bike paths

"We're tired of getting bumped off the road by


angry drivers! We want a simple bridge -- one
that will connect the bike paths in East and
West Craggy Rock over the city stream. We
don't have much money, so we're not asking for
much. We just want to get to work every day
without risking our lives!"
-- Craggy Rock Bike-n-Blade Coalition

Source: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/bridge/challenge/

Bridge Challenge #2
A bridge for rollerbladers and bikers
Beam Bridge
Suspension Bridge
Span:
100 feet
Crossing: Stream
Connects: Two bike paths

Arch Bridge

Draw Bridge
Source: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/bridge/challenge/

Bridge Challenge #2
A bridge for rollerbladers and bikers

Beam Bridge

Span:
100 feet
Crossing: Stream
Connects: Two bike paths

This is an excellent spot for a beam bridge!! Beam bridges typically


span up to 250 feet, and they're also the cheapest and easiest bridges to
build.
Congrats -- you've just made a lot of
rollerbladers and bikers very happy!
Source: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/bridge/challenge/

Bridge Challenge #2
A bridge for rollerbladers and bikers
However, there is a problem.

Span:
100 feet
Crossing: Stream
Connects: Two bike paths

Beam Bridge

When it rains, the city stream rises. A really strong storm could cause
flash floods, turning the stream into a raging river. Piles of rocks and
a wall of gooey mud could push on the piers of the concrete beam
bridge and cause it to topple. Luckily, you can fix it before that
happens!

Source: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/bridge/challenge/

Bridge Challenge #2
A bridge for rollerbladers and bikers
How will you build a new, flood-proof bridge?
Build deeper piers

Span:
100 feet
Crossing: Stream
Connects: Two bike paths

Build higher deck

Use stronger
material
Source: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/bridge/challenge/

Bridge Challenge #2
A bridge for rollerbladers and bikers
Deeper piers
Great Idea!!

Span:
100 feet
Crossing: Stream
Connects: Two bike paths

One of the best ways to strengthen a bridge in a flood zone is to


set the piers deeper into the ground. The deeper the piers are
lodged into the ground, the harder it is to knock them over. The
next time floodwaters pound on the piers of your new bridge, it
probably won't budge!
Source: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/bridge/challenge/

Bridge Challenge #3
A highway bridge across a busy shipping port
A growing community needs a bridge, to connect the two halves of the city
across the harbor entrance. They're very picky about what they want! Help
them by testing your engineering skills and match the right bridge to the
location shown in the figure below!!

Span:
5000feet
Crossing: Ocean bay
Connects: Island and mainland

Special Notes:
"Our records indicate that more than 500 ships
pass through Craggy Rock Harbor each day.
Please build a bridge that does not block the
flow of water traffic. We do not want angry
sailors or congestion of any kind in our harbor.
Thank you."
-- The United States Coast Guard

Source: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/bridge/challenge/

Bridge Challenge #3
A highway bridge across a busy shipping port
Beam Bridge
Suspension Bridge
Span:
5000feet
Crossing: Ocean bay
Connects: Island and mainland

Arch Bridge

Draw Bridge
Source: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/bridge/challenge/

Bridge Challenge #3
A highway bridge across a busy shipping port

Suspension Bridge

Span:
5000feet
Crossing: Ocean bay
Connects: Island and mainland

This is an ideal location for a suspension bridge. Suspension bridges,


like the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge in Japan, can span great distances and
still leave room for passing ships and boats. The U.S. Coast Guard is
thrilled with your selection!
Source: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/bridge/challenge/

Bridge Challenge #3
A highway bridge across a busy shipping port
However, there is a problem.

Suspension Bridge

Span:
5000feet
Crossing: Ocean bay
Connects: Island and mainland

Your new bridge is moving up and down a lot in the wind! This isn't a
big problem under normal conditions, but what if a hurricane were to
blow through town? It could cause the bridge to move too much, or
even twist so violently that it would snap in half!

Bridge Challenge #3
A highway bridge across a busy shipping port
How can you strengthen the bridge to resist strong winds?
Stiffen the deck
with an open
TRUSS?

Span:
5000feet
Crossing: Ocean bay
Connects: Island and mainland

Stiffen the deck


with a solid steel
GIRDER?
Make the bridge
NARROWER?

Source: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/bridge/challenge/

Bridge Challenge #3
A highway bridge across a busy shipping port
Open Truss
Great Idea!!

Span:
5000feet
Crossing: Ocean bay
Connects: Island and mainland

This is a great solution! By adding an open truss beneath the deck of


the bridge, you've designed a structure that is less likely to move up
and down a lot on a gusty day, because the wind will blow right
through it! Since the Tacoma Narrows Bridge disaster in 1940, many
major suspension bridges have been built with a stiffening truss.

Source: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/bridge/challenge/

Conclusion
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Based on the above activities different types of bridges can be


built.

Different types of structures and materials can be experimented


with in order to increase the strength of the bridge.

Efficiency of the bridge can also be calculated.