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DYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND CONTROL

OF AC MACHINES
GENERAL INFORMATIONS

ERASMUS MUNDUS MASTER COURSE on


SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION AND
ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS

OUTLINE OF THE COURSE

Introduction
Transducers
DC Drives
Arbitrary Reference Frame Theory
PM Machines

(0.5 ECTS)
(0.5 ECTS)
( 2 ECTS)

Dynamic Modelling
Vector Control

Induction Machines

( 3 ECTS)

Dynamic Modelling
Scalar Control
Vector Control

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TEXTBOOKS

Notes from the lessons (to be taken directly by the


students)
References
P. C. Krause, O. Wasynczuk, S. D. Sudhoff - ANALYSYS
OF ELECTRIC MACHINERY - Ed. IEEE Press
P. Pillay et alii - PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN OF
PERMANENT MAGNET AC MOTOR DRIVES - IEEE
Industry Applications Society Tutorial Course, 1991
D. W. Novotny, T. A. Lipo - VECTOR CONTROL AND
DYNAMICS OF AC DRIVES - Ed. Oxford Science
Publications
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EXAM
The exam will consist in a colloquium on the topics
covered by during the lessons

EXPLANATIONS
Students are welcome to come and ask for
explanations any time they need it.

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DYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND CONTROL


OF AC MACHINES
INTRODUCTION

ERASMUS MUNDUS MASTER COURSE on


SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION AND
ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS

ELECTRIC DRIVE
ELECTRIC DRIVE: a system that allows to obtain
a controlled electromechanical energy conversion
process

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COMPONENTS OF AN ELECTRIC DRIVE

Electric Machine
Power Electronics Converter
Transducers
Control Logic & Hardware
Others:
Mechanical coupling
Filters
Etc.

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APPLICATIONS OF ELECTRIC DRIVES


Machining
Turning
Surface milling
Drilling

Robotics
Electric propulsion
Trains
Cars
Airplanes, ships

Information Technology
Home appliances
Lifts, cranes, etc
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SPECIFICATIONS OF ELECTRIC DRIVES


Mechanical requirements
Torque, speed, position
Motion profiles
Static and dynamic performances (steady state error,
regulation bandwidth)

Environmental requirements

Drive protection against enviromental agents (IP grading)


Risks related to explosion, aggressive enviroments
Safety (Electric protection and grounding, EMC)
Grid connection

Life cycle
Installation, operation, dismissing costs
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DYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND CONTROL


OF AC MACHINES
TRANSDUCERS

ERASMUS MUNDUS MASTER COURSE on


SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION AND
ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS

DEFINITIONS
TRANSDUCER: a device that allows to convert a
physical quantity into another physical quantity
(generally, an electrical quantity), which is suitable
for measurement
SENSOR: a device that informs us that a physical
quantity has reached a specified value

The transducer introduces a proportionality between physical


quantities that allows continuous measurement, while a
sensor does not provide any information until the physical
quantity has reached a specified value
Physical quantities measured in an electric drive:
Electrical, mechanical, thermal variables

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PERFORMANCES OF A TRANSDUCER

Accuracy: measures how faithfully the output reproduces the


input. It is usually expressed in %.
Dead band: measures the maximum input variation that is not
reflected in the output.
Drift: measures the variation in the output that is not caused by
a variation in the input.
Aging: measures the effect of time on the output.
Linearity: measures how constant is the ratio between input
and output. It is usually expressed in %.
Repetitivity: measures the closeness among different
measurements, maintaining the same input and conditions.
Resolution: measures the minimum change in the input that is
reflected in the output.
Sensitivity: measures the ratio between the change in the
output and the corresponding change in the input (gain)
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ERROR OF A TRANSDUCER

Random error: measurement error that can affect with the


same probability both in increase and decrease the measured
value.
Affects PRECISION
Systematic error: deviation between the measured and the
actual value.
Affects ACCURACY

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QUANTIZATION EFFECT

Is the effect introduced by an


A/D conversion, necessary
to express a measurement in
digital format.
It affects the resolution.
It is determined by the No. of
bit of the A/D converter
Example:
8 bit: 1/256 of full scale
10 bit: 1/1024 of full scale
12 bit: 1/4096 of full scale

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SAMPLING EFFECT (ALIASING)

Is the effect introduced by


the sampling of an analog
signal, in order to perform
the A/D conversion.
In order to avoid aliasing, the
sampling frequency needs to
be at least twice the
maximum frequency of the
input signal. (Shannon
Theorem)

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DYMAMIC PERFORMANCES

They measure how the input frequency determines a variation


in the output.
Can be determined by the Bode diagrams
Usually, in datasheets, only the bandwidth (BW) is reported.

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POSITION TRANSDUCERS: ABSOLUTE ENCODER

Disk with splits. Photodiodes and phototransistors at both ends,


to compose a digital number
N bit, N annuli, N photodiodes/transistors, 2N sectors
Resolution: 2N (integer numbers between 0 and 2N-1)

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POSITION TRANSDUCERS: ABSOLUTE ENCODER

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 1

Gray code, instead of natural


binary code, used to avoid
position errors.
With Gray code, only one bit
changes from one position to
another

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POSITION TRANSDUCERS:
INCREMENTAL ENCODER

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 1

Three signals (A, B, Z)


A: n impulses per revolution
(usually 2N)
B: same as A, but in
quadrature
Z (or NM): one pulse per
revolution. Used to
establish an absolute
position
The (digital) position
information is created
inside a counter

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POSITION TRANSDUCERS:
INCREMENTAL ENCODER

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POSITION TRANSDUCERS:
INCREMENTAL ENCODER

There is a small delay (position error) introduced by this


commutation logic.
It can be limited with more complex logic
However, it is reset at the next Z pulse
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ABSOLUTE Vs. INCREMENTAL ACCURACY

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POSITION TRANSDUCERS: RESOLVER

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POSITION TRANSDUCERS: RESOLVER

A sinusoidal excitation (few kHz) is provided to the rotor.


The two quadrature stator windings flux linkages vary with rotor
position

Vin = A sin(t)
Vout1 = A K1 sin() sin (t)
Vout2 = A K2 cos() sin (t)

Vout1 / Vout2 = tan()

The tangent function is very tricky to be treated as a digital


information, since it goes to infinity. Whenever it is possible, it is
better to avoid it!
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 1

Hyp: K1 = K2 .

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POSITION TRANSDUCERS: RESOLVER

Let be the variable that stores the position information


Cross-product with cos() and sin()

V1 = A K sin() cos() sin (t)


V2 = A K cos() sin() sin (t)
DV = V1 - V2 = A K sin (t) [sin() cos() - cos() sin()]
= A K sin (t) [sin()]

If we assume that initially then sin() ()

Now, we can construct a Phase Locked Loop (PLL) to


determine the variable that stores the position information and
it is locked to follow the original angle .
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POSITION TRANSDUCERS: RESOLVER

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POSITION TRANSDUCERS:
SINUSOIDAL ENCODER

An incremental encoder easily allows a resolution of 210


A resolver allows 212
A sinusoidal encoder can reach a resolution of 210 + 212 = 222
222 = 4194304
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SPEED TRANSDUCERS: TACHO

No load: V = Eg = Kg n
No load voltage is
proportional to speed
If we measure the voltage:
V = (Kg n) RL / (RA + RL)

It is essentially a DC generator with PM excitation


Speed is measured as an analog signal
Not used any more in digital drives

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DERIVING SPEED FROM DIGITAL POSITION


INCREMENTAL RATIO

T: Observation window
: Measured position variation
: Calculated speed

It is a measure of the average speed


Resolution problems at very low speeds
Increasing the observation window increases resolution but
decreases the bandwidth of the measured signal
Example:
Encoder 1024 ppr, T=1ms
Minimum measurable speed:
1 pulse / 1 ms = (2/1024) / 1 ms = 6.13 rad/s = 58.6 rpm
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DERIVING SPEED FROM DIGITAL POSITION


SPEED OBSERVER Open loop

(TL)^
(T)^
(1/J)

( )^

( )^

Derives from the mechanical model


It is the best way to measure speed because it has at the same
time good accuracy, resolution and bandwidth

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DERIVING SPEED FROM DIGITAL POSITION


SPEED OBSERVER Closed loop

Derives from the mechanical model


It is the best way to measure speed because it has at the same
time good accuracy, resolution and bandwidth

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DERIVING SPEED FROM DIGITAL POSITION


SPEED OBSERVER Closed loop with load estimation

Derives from the mechanical model


It is the best way to measure speed because it has at the same
time good accuracy, resolution and bandwidth

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DERIVING SPEED FROM DIGITAL POSITION


SPEED OBSERVER Digital implementation

Derives from the mechanical model


It is the best way to measure speed because it has at the same
time good accuracy, resolution and bandwidth

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CURRENT TRANSDUCERS: SHUNT

vsh = Rsh i

Simple and low cost


Parasitic inductance. Need for anti-inductive resistors for high
frequency measurements
Thermal effect. Need for materials with low temperature
coefficient (constantan, manganin)
It is not possible to achieve electrical isolation of the measured
signal
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CURRENT TRANSDUCERS: HALL EFFECT


Open loop

vH

RH
I B
d

B
vH
Ix
Ix B vH
Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 1

I cos t.
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CURRENT TRANSDUCERS: HALL EFFECT


Closed loop
If B=0,
then also the m.m.f. is zero:

N x I x N 2i 2 0

B=0

i2

Ix
Ix i2

B 0, I cos t.

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CURRENT TRANSDUCERS: HALL EFFECT


Datasheet

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CURRENT TRANSDUCERS: HALL EFFECT


Datasheet

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VOLTAGE TRANSDUCERS
HALL EFFECT

VOLTAGE PARTITIONER

i1
Vx

Vx

HALL
CURRENT
SENSOR

Vmeas

Simple and low cost


Parasitic inductance
No electrical isolation

i2

Vmeas

High bandwidth
Quite complex and costly
Electrical isolation

Voltage transducers are NOT used in commercial drives


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