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OF AC MACHINES

GENERAL INFORMATIONS

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION AND

ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS

Introduction

Transducers

DC Drives

Arbitrary Reference Frame Theory

PM Machines

(0.5 ECTS)

(0.5 ECTS)

( 2 ECTS)

Dynamic Modelling

Vector Control

Induction Machines

( 3 ECTS)

Dynamic Modelling

Scalar Control

Vector Control

Pagina 2

TEXTBOOKS

students)

References

P. C. Krause, O. Wasynczuk, S. D. Sudhoff - ANALYSYS

OF ELECTRIC MACHINERY - Ed. IEEE Press

P. Pillay et alii - PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN OF

PERMANENT MAGNET AC MOTOR DRIVES - IEEE

Industry Applications Society Tutorial Course, 1991

D. W. Novotny, T. A. Lipo - VECTOR CONTROL AND

DYNAMICS OF AC DRIVES - Ed. Oxford Science

Publications

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 1

Pagina 3

EXAM

The exam will consist in a colloquium on the topics

covered by during the lessons

EXPLANATIONS

Students are welcome to come and ask for

explanations any time they need it.

Pagina 4

OF AC MACHINES

INTRODUCTION

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION AND

ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS

ELECTRIC DRIVE

ELECTRIC DRIVE: a system that allows to obtain

a controlled electromechanical energy conversion

process

Pagina 6

Electric Machine

Power Electronics Converter

Transducers

Control Logic & Hardware

Others:

Mechanical coupling

Filters

Etc.

Pagina 7

Machining

Turning

Surface milling

Drilling

Robotics

Electric propulsion

Trains

Cars

Airplanes, ships

Information Technology

Home appliances

Lifts, cranes, etc

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 1

Pagina 8

Mechanical requirements

Torque, speed, position

Motion profiles

Static and dynamic performances (steady state error,

regulation bandwidth)

Environmental requirements

Risks related to explosion, aggressive enviroments

Safety (Electric protection and grounding, EMC)

Grid connection

Life cycle

Installation, operation, dismissing costs

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 1

Pagina 9

OF AC MACHINES

TRANSDUCERS

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION AND

ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS

DEFINITIONS

TRANSDUCER: a device that allows to convert a

physical quantity into another physical quantity

(generally, an electrical quantity), which is suitable

for measurement

SENSOR: a device that informs us that a physical

quantity has reached a specified value

quantities that allows continuous measurement, while a

sensor does not provide any information until the physical

quantity has reached a specified value

Physical quantities measured in an electric drive:

Electrical, mechanical, thermal variables

Pagina 11

PERFORMANCES OF A TRANSDUCER

input. It is usually expressed in %.

Dead band: measures the maximum input variation that is not

reflected in the output.

Drift: measures the variation in the output that is not caused by

a variation in the input.

Aging: measures the effect of time on the output.

Linearity: measures how constant is the ratio between input

and output. It is usually expressed in %.

Repetitivity: measures the closeness among different

measurements, maintaining the same input and conditions.

Resolution: measures the minimum change in the input that is

reflected in the output.

Sensitivity: measures the ratio between the change in the

output and the corresponding change in the input (gain)

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 1

Pagina 12

ERROR OF A TRANSDUCER

same probability both in increase and decrease the measured

value.

Affects PRECISION

Systematic error: deviation between the measured and the

actual value.

Affects ACCURACY

Pagina 13

QUANTIZATION EFFECT

A/D conversion, necessary

to express a measurement in

digital format.

It affects the resolution.

It is determined by the No. of

bit of the A/D converter

Example:

8 bit: 1/256 of full scale

10 bit: 1/1024 of full scale

12 bit: 1/4096 of full scale

Pagina 14

the sampling of an analog

signal, in order to perform

the A/D conversion.

In order to avoid aliasing, the

sampling frequency needs to

be at least twice the

maximum frequency of the

input signal. (Shannon

Theorem)

Pagina 15

DYMAMIC PERFORMANCES

in the output.

Can be determined by the Bode diagrams

Usually, in datasheets, only the bandwidth (BW) is reported.

Pagina 16

to compose a digital number

N bit, N annuli, N photodiodes/transistors, 2N sectors

Resolution: 2N (integer numbers between 0 and 2N-1)

Pagina 17

binary code, used to avoid

position errors.

With Gray code, only one bit

changes from one position to

another

Pagina 18

POSITION TRANSDUCERS:

INCREMENTAL ENCODER

A: n impulses per revolution

(usually 2N)

B: same as A, but in

quadrature

Z (or NM): one pulse per

revolution. Used to

establish an absolute

position

The (digital) position

information is created

inside a counter

Pagina 19

POSITION TRANSDUCERS:

INCREMENTAL ENCODER

Pagina 20

POSITION TRANSDUCERS:

INCREMENTAL ENCODER

commutation logic.

It can be limited with more complex logic

However, it is reset at the next Z pulse

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 1

Pagina 21

Pagina 22

Pagina 23

The two quadrature stator windings flux linkages vary with rotor

position

Vin = A sin(t)

Vout1 = A K1 sin() sin (t)

Vout2 = A K2 cos() sin (t)

information, since it goes to infinity. Whenever it is possible, it is

better to avoid it!

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 1

Hyp: K1 = K2 .

Pagina 24

Cross-product with cos() and sin()

V2 = A K cos() sin() sin (t)

DV = V1 - V2 = A K sin (t) [sin() cos() - cos() sin()]

= A K sin (t) [sin()]

determine the variable that stores the position information and

it is locked to follow the original angle .

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 1

Pagina 25

Pagina 26

POSITION TRANSDUCERS:

SINUSOIDAL ENCODER

A resolver allows 212

A sinusoidal encoder can reach a resolution of 210 + 212 = 222

222 = 4194304

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 1

Pagina 27

No load: V = Eg = Kg n

No load voltage is

proportional to speed

If we measure the voltage:

V = (Kg n) RL / (RA + RL)

Speed is measured as an analog signal

Not used any more in digital drives

Pagina 28

INCREMENTAL RATIO

T: Observation window

: Measured position variation

: Calculated speed

Resolution problems at very low speeds

Increasing the observation window increases resolution but

decreases the bandwidth of the measured signal

Example:

Encoder 1024 ppr, T=1ms

Minimum measurable speed:

1 pulse / 1 ms = (2/1024) / 1 ms = 6.13 rad/s = 58.6 rpm

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 1

Pagina 29

SPEED OBSERVER Open loop

(TL)^

(T)^

(1/J)

( )^

( )^

It is the best way to measure speed because it has at the same

time good accuracy, resolution and bandwidth

Pagina 30

SPEED OBSERVER Closed loop

It is the best way to measure speed because it has at the same

time good accuracy, resolution and bandwidth

Pagina 31

SPEED OBSERVER Closed loop with load estimation

It is the best way to measure speed because it has at the same

time good accuracy, resolution and bandwidth

Pagina 32

SPEED OBSERVER Digital implementation

It is the best way to measure speed because it has at the same

time good accuracy, resolution and bandwidth

Pagina 33

vsh = Rsh i

Parasitic inductance. Need for anti-inductive resistors for high

frequency measurements

Thermal effect. Need for materials with low temperature

coefficient (constantan, manganin)

It is not possible to achieve electrical isolation of the measured

signal

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 1

Pagina 34

Open loop

vH

RH

I B

d

B

vH

Ix

Ix B vH

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 1

I cos t.

Pagina 35

Closed loop

If B=0,

then also the m.m.f. is zero:

N x I x N 2i 2 0

B=0

i2

Ix

Ix i2

B 0, I cos t.

Pagina 36

Datasheet

Pagina 37

Datasheet

Pagina 38

VOLTAGE TRANSDUCERS

HALL EFFECT

VOLTAGE PARTITIONER

i1

Vx

Vx

HALL

CURRENT

SENSOR

Vmeas

Parasitic inductance

No electrical isolation

i2

Vmeas

High bandwidth

Quite complex and costly

Electrical isolation

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 1

Pagina 39

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