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MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING

PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF DC ELECTRIC TRACTION MOTORS USING


A NOVEL SWITCHING TECHNIQUE

S.M.FERDOUS

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING


ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY (IUT)
GAZIPUR-1704, BANGLADESH
OCTOBER, 2012

CERTIFICATION OF APPROVAL
The thesis titled Performance Improvement of DC Electric Traction Motors using
a Novel Switching Technique submitted by S.M.Ferdous, student no. 092606 of
Academic Year 2009-2010 has been found as satisfactory and accepted as partial
fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of Masters of Science in Electrical and
Electronic Engineering on 01 October, 2012.
Board of Examiners

1.

2.

3.

4.

..
Dr. Md. Ashraful Hoque
Professor
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering.
Islamic University of Technology (IUT)
Board Bazar, Gazipur-1704, Bangladesh.

................
Dr. Md. Shahid Ullah
Professor and Head
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering.
Islamic University of Technology (IUT)
Board Bazar, Gazipur-1704, Bangladesh

................
Dr. Md. Ruhul Amin
Professor
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering.
Islamic University of Technology (IUT)
Board Bazar, Gazipur-1704, Bangladesh

................
Dr. Muhammad Fayyaz Khan
Professor
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering.
United International University (UIU),
Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

II

Chairman
(Supervisor)

Member
(Ex-Officio)

Member

Member
(External)

DECLARATION OF CANDIDATE

It is hereby declared that this thesis or any part of it has not been submitted elsewhere for
the award of any Degree.

..................
Dr. Md. Ashraful Hoque
Supervisor and Professor
Department of Electrical and Electronic
Engineering.
Islamic University of Technology (IUT)
Board Bazar, Gazipur-1704, Bangladesh.

.
S.M.Ferdous
Student No. 092606
Academic Year 2009-2010

III

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES...................................................................................................VII
LIST OF TABLES.......................................................................................................X
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .......................................................................................XI
ABSTRACT ..............................................................................................................XII

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 ELECTRIC TRACTION
1.1.1 ELECTRIC TRACTION DRIVE
1.1.2 ADVANTAGES OF ELECTRIC DRIVE
1.1.3 DISADVANTAGES OF ELECTRIC DRIVE
1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS FOR TRACTION
APPLICATION
1.3 GENERAL FEATURES OF TRACTION MOTORS
1.3.1 MECHANICAL FEATURES
1.3.2 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
1.4 MOTORS USED FOR ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR EV
AND HEV DESIGN
1.5 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND PURPOSE OF THE WORK
1.6 OUTLINE OF METHODOLOGY
1.7 THESIS ORGANIZATION

1
1
3
3

5
7
8
9
12
15
20

CHAPTER 2. MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF COMPOUND MOTOR


2.1 DC COMPOUND MOTOR
2.2 ANALYSIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A COMPOUND
MOTOR FOR TRACTION
2.3 SPECIFCATION AND DESIGN OF THE MOTOR
2.4 MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF THE MOTOR
2.5 LINEARIZED TRANSFER FUNCTION AND ITS BLOCK
DIAGRAM REPRESENTATION
2.6 CALCULATION OF OUTPUT PARAMETERS

IV

21
22
24
27
29
32

CHAPTER 3. DYNAMICS OF TRACTION LOAD AND MODELLING OF


ELECTRIC VEHICLE
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 TRACTIVE EFFORT
3.2.1 ROLLING RESISTANCE FORCE
3.2.2 AERODYNAMIC DRAG
3.2.3 HILL CLIMBING FORCE
3.2.4 ACCELERATION FORCE
3.2.5 TOTAL TRACTIVE EFFORT
3.3 MODELLING VEHICLE ACCELERATION
3.3.1 ACCELERATION PERFORMANCE PARAMETER
3.3.2 MOTOR TORQUE MODELLING
3.3.3 TRACTION LOAD MODELLING
3.4 MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF PERFORMANCE
PARAMETERS
3.5 MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF PERFORMANCE
PARAMETERS USING WINDING CHANGE OVER
TECHNIQUE
3.6 SUMMERY

33
33
34
35
36
37
40
41
43
44
47
50

51
54

CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF CONVERTER AND CONTROLLER FOR ELECTRIC


VEHICLE PROPULSION
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5

INTRODUCTION
CONVERTER DESIGN
OPERATION OF CLASS C DC-DC CONVERTER
SIMULATION OF THE CONVERTER
SUMMERY

55
55
56
57
65

CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION OF THE OVERALL SYSTEM


5.1
5.2
5.3

INTRODUCTION
SYSTEM SIMULATION IN SIMULINK
SUMMERY

66
66
71

CHAPTER 6. CONCLUSION
6.1 SUMMERY
6.2 SUGGESTION FOR FUTURE WORK
6.3 CONCLUDING REMARKS

72
73
73

REFERENCES

75

APPENDIX -A

78

APPENDIX -B

79

VI

LIST OF FIGURES
FIG.1.1
FIG.1.2
FIG 1.3

FIG.1.4
FIG.1.5
FIG.1.6
FIG.1.7
FIG.1.8
FIG.1.9

FIG.1.10

Traction Characteristic of an Electrical Motor


A Typical Characteristic of a Vehicle (Traction Load)
Acceleration and Final Speed (Balancing Speed) of electric
vehicle. The point of balancing speed is the operating speed of the
motor which determines the final speed of the vehicle
Tractive effort and power versus vehicle speed with different
speed
Tractive power versus speed ratio, X
Tractive effort along with Motor Power, base speed and final
speed
Different Torque-Speed Characteristics of a DC Machine of same
power rating (175W) with three separate configuration.
Power and Torque profile of a DC machine for three different
configurations
Torque and speed profile of a DC machine for three different
configurations to show the possibility of achieving a higher
starting torque and higher final vehicle speed if change over in
configuration takes place.

4
5
8
12
15
20
22
24

25

Torque and Power profile of the motor as a function of speed due


to change in its configurations by the feature of winding change
over

28

FIG.2.1

Compound Motor Connected in Long Shunt Configuration

30

FIG.2.2

Non-linear block diagram representation of the compound motor

33

FIG.2.3

Non-linear block diagram representation of the compound motor,


assuming field current is constant

34

FIG.2.4

Linearized Block diagram of the compound motor

35

FIG.2.5

Linearized Block diagram of the compound motor assuming field


current is constant

40

FIG.3.1

The forces acting on a vehicle moving along a slope

41

FIG.3.2

Arrangement for connecting a motor to a drive wheel using a belt


system with step up gear mechanism to increase the amount of
torque

45

VII

FIG.3.3

The simplified diagram of the designed system of connecting the


motor with the driving axle of the vehicle with a geared
mechanism.

48

FIG.3.4

The initial acceleration and final velocity of the vehicle

49

FIG.3.5

The torque-velocity curve of the motor and vehicle respectively

50

FIG.3.6

The torque profile of the load as seen from the motor shaft

51

FIG.3.7

Axle Torque of the vehicle with respect to its speed. It is exactly in


the same nature of the motor-vehicle speed curve of Fig. (3.5).

52

FIG.3.8
FIG.3.9

Axle torque profile though out the entire time of run of the vehicle
Armature Current vs Vehicle Speed

53

FIG.3.10

Armature current of the motor with respect to time. The current


taken by the motor is very small during steady-state operation.
Simulated Speed and acceleration characteristic of the vehicle with
the feature of winding change over facility.

55

FIG.3.11
FIG.3.12

Comparative analysis showing the differences in terms of final


speed between the two types of motor

54

56
57

FIG.3.14

Torque speed characteristic of the motor with winding change


over facility. The sharp rise in torque is due to sudden change in
current consumed by the armature due to disconnecting the series
field.
Current profile of the motor during its entire period of operation

FIG.4.1

Block Diagram Representation of the Motor Controller

60

FIG.4.2

Class C DC-DC converter

62

FIG.4.3

Simulation of Class C DC-DC converter in forward motoring


mode in LTSpice

64

FIG.4.4

Output current, voltage and PWM signal of the converter

66

FIG.4.5

Motor current without hysteresis current controller

67

FIG.4.6

Limitation on starting current by the control action of hysteresis


controller

68

FIG.4.7

Output voltage of the converter at a Duty cycle of 90%.

69

FIG.4.8

Simulated Boost Converter during Regenerative braking

70

FIG.3.13

VIII

58
59

FIG.4.9

Output Voltage and Current of the Boost converter during Braking

FIG.4.10

Generation of Reference signal to vary the duty cycle of the


71

converter
FIG.4.11
FIG.4.12

FIG.5.1

70

Boost Converter Input Power due to the kinetic energy stored in


the vehicle
Boost Converter Output Power. The amount of energy which is
equal to the area under the curve, is feed back to the source

72
72

Simulation of the entire electromechanical system using


SIMULINK

73

FIG.5.2

Speed of the vehicle with winding change over technique

74

FIG.5.3
FIG.5.4

Motor Current vs Time


Motor Torque Vs Time

74

FIG.5.5

Motor Power Vs Time

75

FIG.5.6

Speed of the vehicle operated with Series Motor

76

FIG.5.7

Current vs Time for the series motor

76

FIG.5.8

Power Vs Time for the Series Motor

76

75

IX

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1: ENERGY STORAGE CAPABILITY OF DIFFERENT TYPES
OF FUELS
Table 1.2: TYPICAL TORQUE DENSITY VALUE OF DIFFERENT
MOTOR TYPES.

8
12

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to first acknowledge my supervisor, Dr. Md. Ashraful Hoque, for his
support and advice throughout my graduate program. His power electronics courses and
his dedication to his students gave me the best experience during the program. I would also
like to express my sincere appreciation to my other thesis committees, Dr. Md. Shahid
Ullah and Prof. Dr. Md. Ruhul Amin for review of this thesis in detail and their important
feedback.
I would like to thank my colleagues and friends, Mr. Ahmed Mortuza Saleque and
Mr. Ahmed Al Mansur for their effective ideas and feedbacks are incorporated in this
thesis. Also, thanks to lab assistants, technicians for their support and willingness to help
me out during various stages of my thesis.
Finally, I take the opportunity to express my greatest admiration for my parents
who constantly motivated and encouraged me to keep working towards this goal. I also
thank all my other family members for all the support given during difficult times.

S.M.Ferdous

XI

ABSTRACT
A motor capable of operating in a wide constant power range would suit most for any kind
of traction application. At the same time it must be capable of producing sufficient amount
of torque to meet up the initial starting load demand and acceleration characteristics. In
this thesis a novel concept of controlling a DC motor is proposed where a DC compound
motor is being used for a traction purpose with a provision of winding switch over
technique which will enable the motor to operate in three common forms- Compound,
Series and Shunt configurations respectively. These three separate and independent
configurations will enable the motor to operate in such a way that, it would suit most to
match the Torque-Speed characteristics or the load profile of any conventional traction
load. A detail investigation of the motor as well as the load characterization with the
proposed method has been presented in the paper in terms of torque, speed and power
consumption. A 2 Quadrant Class C DC-DC converter is designed as the main component
of the motor controller which will help the motor to operate at variable speed during motor
mode operation where as using the same converter regeneration is also possible during
braking. Several controller circuits are developed for the purpose such as winding change
over controller, speed sensor, PWM signal generator with variable duty cycle, Hysteresis
current controller for current limiting purpose and magnetic contactors for forward and
reverse motion of the motor. Mathematical model of the DC Compound motor is
developed which is highly non-linear in nature and its characteristics. Hence the system is
linearized and transfer function with associated block diagram is obtained. Both
MATLAB codes and SIMULINK were used to analyze and represent the system. The
response curve for Speed, Torque, Current and Power were obtained. The converter is
simulated using LTSpice for various duty cycles to observe the adaptability and
compliance of it when integrated with the system for variable speed operation. Significant
improvements in vehicle performance were observed such as higher staring torque, rapid
acceleration with smaller acceleration time and the most important achievement is to attain
a higher final vehicle speed which is not possible to obtain using any other types of motor
with such power ratings. This point simply implies the fact that, this novel switching
technique maximizes and utilizes the full capacity of the motor which is capable of
operating at high torque and low speed during starting where as at low torque and high
speed at rated condition. But obviously, for a higher speed operation the load torque
demand and the power consumption will be more. That means a higher speed operation
along with improved vehicle performance will be achieved at the expense of larger energy
consumption. The results suggest that, though conventional DC motors are no more being
used for modern traction purpose, but yet it may be proven as an eligible candidate for
automotive traction once again using this new technique as the results showed
considerable performance improvement.

XII

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1

ELECTRIC TRACTION

The act of drawing or the state of being drawn i.e. the propulsion of vehicle is called
the Traction and the system of traction involving the use of electricity is called
Electric Traction System. There are various systems of traction prevailing in the
world such as steam engine drive, internal combustion engine drive, diesel electric
drive, battery electric drive, straight electric drive and the most recent trend of hybrid
electric drive. These systems of traction may be classified broadly into two main
groups namely(i) The traction systems which do not involve the use of electricity at any
stage and called non-electric traction system such as steam engine drive, internal
combustion engine drive etc.
(ii) The traction systems which involve the use of electricity at some stage or
the other and called electric traction system such as diesel electric drive, straight
electric drive, battery driven drive etc.
System of electric traction can further be divided into two main groups(i) The group consisting of vehicles which receive power from a distribution
network fed at suitable points from either a central power station or substations
suitably spaced such as tramways, trolley bus, electric railways etc.
(ii) The group consisting of self contained locomotives such as diesel electric
trains, ships, petrol electric trucks and Lorries, battery driven road vehicles.

1.1.1

ELECTRIC TRACTION DRIVES

Electric drives are more reliable, flexible and suitable for traction purpose rather than
conventional engine driven vehicle. But storage of electrical energy is the main
obstruction in this technology as batteries stores a much less amount of energy
compare to the energy stored in fuels. Therefore the mileage of an electric vehicle is
1

much less than conventional vehicle. The problem can be solved by increasing the
capacity of the batteries, which is not a good solution considering the both technical
and economical viability. One possible solution can be obtained by reducing the
power consumption of the traction motor. To reduce the power rating of the motor
with a given vehicle performance and energy storage, the motor is required to have a
long constant power range to meet the load torque and demand [1]
The ideal characteristic of an electric motor drive for traction application are high
torque at low speed region for fault acceleration, hill climbing and obstacle
negotiation and low torque at high speed for normal driving. To minimize the power
of the motor as well as the energy storage power rating as a given vehicle
performance, the motor drive is required to have long constant power rage
application [1]. The essential requirements for electric traction are

Traction equipment should be robust and sturdy enough to withstand


continuous vibrations, dust and humid environment.

Power to weight ratio of the traction motor should be high so that it occupies
less space.

High tractive effort at starting,

It should be possible to overload the motor for a short period.

Ability of traction motors to apply regenerative braking during descent.

Coefficient of adhesion should be high.

The traction motors must be capable of withstanding voltage fluctuations and


interruptions of power supply.

The motors should be amenable to simple speed control methods.

It is widely agreed that vehicles electrification will lead to revolutionary


improvements on vehicle performance, energy resource conservation and pollutant
emissions. Now a days research and development of vehicle electrification are
widely proceeding in civilian vehicle, military vehicle, construction vehicle, rail
vehicle farm vehicle etc. As the key component, electric motor drive and energy
storage system play the most vital role for developing good performance electric
drive train and rapid mass transport vehicles. Proper characteristics, optimal
parametric design and smart configuration and combination can yield in a compact,
reliable, high efficiency drive system.

1.1.2

ADVANTAGES OF ELECTRIC DRIVES FOR TRACTION

As it has no smoke, electric traction is most suited for the underground


transportation system. At the same time, it is proven to be the most
environment friendly form of transportation system. A better safety margin
can be expected from this kind of system.

Due to high starting torque developed, it is possible to achieve high


acceleration rates 1.5 to 2.5 kmphps (i.e. 0-50 kmph in 10-12 Sec).

Electric drives for traction purpose are available in wide range of torque,
speed and power. Electric motors have high efficiency, low losses and
considerable amount of overloading capacity. They are adaptable to almost
any operating condition.

Electric drives can be used operate in all four quadrants of speed torque plane
which is very suitable for forward and backward movements of the vehicle as
well as braking.

Better flexibility in operation and less maintenance (about 50% less compare
to engine driven system) [6].

Saving in energy is another attractive feature for electric traction as almost


30-40% of energy can be saved by the unique distinctive feature of
regenerative braking.

1.1.3. DISADVANTAGES OF ELECTRIC TRACTION


The main disadvantage of any EV is the lack of ability to store sufficient amount of
energy to run the vehicle. Other than Main line urban and sub-urban locomotive
traction system where the drive receives its power from main line, any battery/fuel
cell operated EVs hold a very small amount of energy to run the motor as well as the
vehicle compare to any engine driven vehicle. This one single disadvantage is so
severe that, despite all the attractive features, the EVs are still lagging behind with
respect to engine driven vehicles for commercial and practical application. It is due
to the fact that, the energy density of any fuel is far greater than any electrical energy

storage system such as battery or recently developed fuel-cells. The following Table
1.1 can visualize a clear idea on this subject.
TABLE 1.1: ENERGY STORAGE CAPABILITY OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF FUELS AND
ELECTROCHEMICAL/ELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS [6]

Sl.
No.

Name of the Fuel

Energy contain

Energy Contain

(Wh/kg)

(Wh/Litre)

Gasoline

12300

9348

Natural gas

9350

7480

Methanol

6200

4904

Kerosene

5300

4500

Coal

8200

Battery (Lead-Acid)

35

Typical rechargeable Battery

40-100

Electrochemical Capacitor

5-15

Flywheel

15

10

Spring

0.1-.0.3

11

Solar Thermal

900 Wh/day

12

Solar PV

500 Wh/day

The other limitations are

Small capacity of the battery and the necessity of frequent charging. the
charging time is more or less very long.

Speed range/mileage is limited.

Limited battery life. Needs to be replaced after 3-4 years at a regular interval.

Regular maintenance is required.

Batteries are costly and their frequent and regular replacement may not be
proven economically viable and cost effective.

Hazardous and harmful chemicals are present in batteries. Proper dumping


and recycling of these chemicals must be done properly. Otherwise severe
environmental pollution can be caused which is harmful for any living
organism.

1.2

CHARACTERIZATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS FOR TRACTION


APPLICATION

Ideal profile of torque speed characterization of EV is divided into two parts i.e. the
constant torque region and the constant power region. The vehicle performance is
completely determined by the profile of tractive effect verses vehicle speed. For a
power source with a given power rating, the profile of tractive effort versus vehicle
speed should be constant power in the speed range that is the tractive effect drops
hyperbolically with the increase of the vehicle speed as shown in Figure 1.1.

Figure 1.1. Traction Characteristic of an Electrical Motor. [1]


The detailed design of EV and HEV in [5]. The electric motor in its normal mode of
operation can provide constant rated torque up to its base speed. At this speed the
motor reaches its maximum power limit. The operation beyond the base speed up to
the maximum speed is limited to this constant power region (Fig.1). The range of
constant power operation depends primarily on the particular motor types and its
control strategy. However, some electric motors deviate from the constant power
operation, beyond certain speed and enter the natural mode before reaching the
maximum speed. The maximum available torque in the natural mode of operation
decreases inversely with the square of the speed. Although machine torque in the
natural mode decreases inversely with the square of the speed, for some extremely
high speed motors the natural mode of operation is an appreciable part of its torque
speed profile. Inclusion of this natural mode for such motors may result in a
reduction of the total power requirement [2]. However power electronic controls
5

allow the motor to operate at any point in the torque-speed plane. It is the profile of
this envelops which determines the drive selection criteria and design.
A typical traction load characteristic curve is shown in Figure 1.2.

Figure 1.2. A Typical Characteristic of a Vehicle (Traction Load)


By analyzing the characteristics of a traction load or a vehicle as shown in Fig.2 one
can conclude that, the required torque or tractive effort decreases with increase in
vehicle speed but again increases after a certain value where the resistance forces
acting upon the vehicle become more dominant at high speed. The detail traction
load characteristics will be analyzed and modeled in the upcoming chapters.
The overall characteristic curve of the traction motor along with traction load is
shown in Figure 1.3 to explain the acceleration and operating point (load matching)
of both the drive and the load.

Figure 1.3. Acceleration and Final Speed (Balancing Speed) of electric vehicle. The
point of balancing speed is the operating speed of the motor which determines the
final speed of the vehicle. [12]
1.3

GENERAL FEATURES OF TRACTION MOTORS

The primary requirements of electric motors used for traction purpose are1.3.1

MECHANICAL FEATURES
A traction motor must be robust and capable to withstand continuous
vibrations since service conditions are extremely severe.

The weight of a traction motor should be minimum in order to increase the


payload capacity of the vehicle. This is achieved by using high speed motors,
upper limit being fixed by excessive centrifugal stresses.

The traction motor is located underneath a motor coach. The space


underneath a motor is limited by the size of driving wheels and the track
gauge. The traction motor, therefore, must be small in overall dimensions
specially in its overall diameter.

The traction motor must be totally enclosed type, particularly when mounted
beneath the locomotive or the motor coach, to provide protection against
ingress of dirt, dust, water and mud etc.

For magnetic circuit of traction motor cast iron, which cannot suitable
continuous vibration, is not suitable. Use of cast steel or fabricated steel,
which gives more mechanical strength, is made in place of cast iron. Those
parts of the motor, which are not highly stressed, must be made of pressed or
fabricated steel plates and light alloys.

1.3.2

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS

High starting torque. A traction motor must be capable of developing high


starting torque, specially when the train is to be accelerated at a reasonably
high rates such as in case of urban and sub-urban services.

Simple speed control The traction motor must be amenable to simple speed
control as the an electric train or vehicle have to be started and stopped very
often.

Self relieving property The speed-torque characteristic of the motor should be


such that the speed may fall with the increase in load. The motors having such
characteristics are self protective against excessive overloading as power
output of a motor is proportional to the product of torque-speed.

Possibility of Dynamic and Regenerative braking The traction motor should


be amenable to easy and simple methods of dynamic and regenerative braking
along with mechanical braking.

Overload capacity Traction motors should be capable of taking excessive


loads as it is subjected to very arduous and heavy duties.

Parallel running In traction work, usually more than one motor (two or four
motors per car) are required. Traction motors, therefore, should be of such
speed-torque and current-torque characteristics that, when they are operated
in parallel and mechanically coupled, they share the loads almost equally.

No such motors meet the all the requirements mentioned above. Most suitable
motors for DC traction systems are series and compound motors whereas for ac
traction systems single phase series and three phase induction motors are
employed.

1.4 MOTORS USED FOR ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR EV AND


HEV DESIGN

An electric propulsion system is comprised of three main elements: power electronic


converter, motor and its controller. Traditionally, DC motors drives have the proper
characteristics for traction application, and were popularly used couple of decades
ago. They offer the provision of extended speed range operation through field
weakening under the constant power operating region. However, DC motor drives
have bulky construction, low efficiency, need of maintenance and low reliability,
mainly due to the presence of mechanical commutator and brush. With the coming
era of power electronics and advanced microprocessor control technology, other
advanced motor drives are mature to replace DC motor drive in traction application.
At present permanent magnet brushless DC motors (BLDC), Induction motors and
Switch Reluctance motors are considered to be the most potential candidates for the
vehicle propulsion application.
For traction application, the torque density is the most important criterion of the
electric motors, which reflects the volume and weight of machines at given demand.
Table 1.2 lists the typical torque density values for different motor types. [1].

TABLE 1.2: TYPICAL TORQUE DENSITY VALUES FOR DIFFERENT MOTOR TYPES [1]

Permanent Magnet

T/Volume envelop
(N-m/m3)
28860

T/Cu mass
N-m/kg-Cu
28.7-48

Induction motor

4170

6.6

Switch Reluctance

6780

6.1

Machine Type

Table 1.2 shows that the PM machines provide the highest torque density and
therefore will potentially have the lowest weight for given torque and power rating.
However, the fixed flux limits its extended speed range as the feature of field
weakening like brushed DC motors are not available. The induction motor and switch
reluctance motor have the similar torque densities.

It is obvious that, in case of DC machines with separate field winding would


certainly exhibit more torque density than PM motors. But at the same time, due to
its bulky constructional features (as it is fitted with commutator, brush assembly and
field winding), it will be heavier than PMDC motor. Most of the PMDC motors have
the brushless commutation technique using electronic circuitry. If the same brushless
commutation technique is introduced in the conventional DC motors fitted with
separate field winding, it may have been proven to be the best option for electric
traction system. But due to the presence of field winding (which is not present in case
of PMDC motor) the weight and size of this type of DC motor would be more
compare to PMDC motor; even if it has brushless commutation technique.
More Detail operating characteristics of several types of motors employed for electric
traction are discussed in brief in the following.

A. Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor Drive


As mentioned above, since the magnetic field is excited by high-energy
permanent magnets (PMs), the overall weight and volume can be significantly
reduced for given output torque, resulting in higher torque density. Because of
the absence of rotor winding and rotor copper losses, their efficiency is
inherently higher than that of induction motors.
However, This motor inherently has a short constant power range due to its
rather limited field weakening capability, resulting from the presence of the PM
field, which can only be weakened through production of a stator field
component, which opposes the rotor magnetic field.
Recently, the use of additional field windings to extend the speed range of
PM brushless DC motors has been developed [7]. The key is to control the
field current such a way that the air-gap field provided by PMs can be weakened
during high-speed constant-power operation. Due to the presence of both PMs
and the field windings, these motors are so-called PM hybrid motors. The PM
hybrid motor can achieve a speed ratio of around 4. The optimal efficiency
profiles of a PM hybrid motor drive are shown in Fig. 9[7, 8].
However, the PM hybrid motors have the drawback of relative complex
structure. The speed ratio is still not enough to meet the vehicle performance

10

requirement, especially to off-road vehicle. Thus a multi-gear transmission is


required.

B. Induction Motor (IM) Drive


Field orientation control (FOC) of induction motor can decouple its torque control
from filed control. This allows the motor to behave in the same manner as a
separately excited DC motor. Extended speed range operation with constant power
beyond base speed is accomplished by flux weakening. However, the presence of
breakdown torque limits its extended constant power operation. At the critical
speed, the breakdown torque is reached. Any attempt to operate the machine at
the maximum current beyond this speed will stall the machine.
Nevertheless, a properly design induction motor, e.g. spindle motor, with field
orientation control can achieve field weakened range of about 3-5 times its base
speed [9]. This approach, however, results in an increased breakdown torque,
and thereby resulting in over sizing of the motor. A special winding changeover
technique of a field orientation controlled induction motor is also reported
which

demonstrates

long

field

weakening

operation[ 10].

however, requires winding tap changing and contactors.

This approach,

A contactless control

scheme for extending the speed range of a four-pole induction motor was presented
in [9]. This scheme uses two inverters, each of half the rated power rating that, in
theory, can extend the constant power
Operating range to 4 times the base speed, for a motor, that would otherwise be
limited to 2 times the base speed. It may be mentioned here that the torque control in
induction motor is achieved through PWM control of the current. in order to retain
the current control capability in the extended speed constant power range, the
motor is required to enter the field weakening range before reaching the base
speed, so that it has adequate voltage margin to control the current[l2]. This would,
however, oversize the motor slightly. Current regulation with synchronous current
regulator [I31 may be preferred choice. It can regulate current with lower voltage
margin. The availability of a long field weakened range, obviously, makes the
induction very suitable for vehicle application.

11

C. Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) Drive


Switched reluctance motor (SRM) is gaining much interest as a candidate of
electric propulsion for electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV)
because of its simple and rugged construction, simple control ability of extremely
high speed operation and hazard free operation. These prominent advantages are
more attractive for traction application than other kinds of machines

SRM can inherently operate with extremely long constant power range. The serial
design and simulation results, performed in the SRM research group at Texas
A&M University, show that the speed ratio can reach up to 6-8 times. This long
constant power range makes SRM highly favorable for vehicle traction application.

1.5 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND PURPOSE OF THE WORK

Electric motor driven small vehicles (Auto-Rickshaws) namely Easy bike or Polly
bike are extensively used in Bangladesh all over the country. They are three
wheeled vehicles providing the purpose of transportation. Although the vehicles are
not designed in Bangladesh and not even been tested to suit the environment of
Bangladesh, a detail study is needed to be carried out in this field as it seems to be an
emerging practice throughout the whole country.

Electric drives are more reliable, flexible and suitable for traction purpose rather than
conventional engine driven vehicles. But storage of electrical energy is the main
obstruction in this technology as batteries stores a much less amount of energy
compare to the energy stored in fuels. Therefore the mileage of an electric vehicle is
much less than conventional vehicle. The problem can be solved by increasing the
capacity of the batteries, which is not a good solution considering the both technical
and economical viability. One possible solution can be obtained by reducing the
power consumption of the traction motor. To reduce the power rating of the motor
with a given vehicle performance and energy storage, the motor is required to have a
long constant power range to meet the load torque and demand [1]. By analyzing the
different characteristics of different types of motors, it has been found that, DC series

12

motors are the most suitable type of motor for traction. But for a reliable operation
the motor rating must be increased to such a value which would increase the total
cost of the system. On the other hand DC motors has some disadvantages like field
control method is not flexible, speed of the motor is less than other types of up to a
certain region and finally, effective regenerative braking is not possible as the motor
becomes unstable during regenerative braking.

An optimum performance can be obtained by using a compound motor, where there


should be a provision of switching between the series and shunt winding. That
means, the motor is started as series motor with shunt connection being opened to get
a high starting torque. The motor will operate in series connection for the constant
torque region. After the period of acceleration that is, in the constant power region
the motor will be added with a shunt connection and gradually as the speed is
increased the series connection will be opened. As a result a smooth operation in the
field current control region (the constant power region) can be achieved and it has
been predicted that a higher final velocity, Vf can be gained, which indicates that the
vehicle would run at a final velocity compare to the previous condition.

The objective of the thesis will be to design a control circuit to verify the theory that
has been stated above. Only a few studies have been carried out in this topic by
several researchers. To strengthen the theory, the family of curves shown in figure 2
should be closely observed [1].

Fig.1.4 : Tractive effort and power versus vehicle speed with different speed
13

Fig. 1.4 shows that with higher value of speed ratio (i.e. low base speed) the power
rating of the motor will be less. But the final speed of the vehicle will be very less
which implies that the vehicle will move with a very low speed. By observing the
Torque- Speed Characteristics of DC motors, it has been found that the speed of a
shunt motor will be much higher than the series motor within a particular region. As
the full load torque of a vehicle is much less than the starting torque the (the value of
the load torque changes hyperbolically), conversion of the motor from series to shunt
will match the load torque and the same time speed of the vehicle will be increased.
In addition to these, the final speed of the vehicle can be increased by 2-3 times
which will certainly be a great outcome from the project. Figure 1.5 shows the
relation between the power rating and speed ration of a traction motor.

Fig.1.5 : Tractive power versus speed ratio, X [1]


From figure 1.5 we can conclude the rating and size of the motor will be lowered for
high speed ratio, which will result in a lower vehicle speed. This speed can be
achieved by introducing a shunt winding with a provision of switching the field
winding from series to shunt as the motor accelerates. This will yield a high speed
performance along with improved gradeability of the vehicle.
As a whole as per several studies carried out in the field of EV and HEV design and
analysis, the ideal desirable characteristic from an electric vehicle when operated at
prolonged constant power range are

14

Longer constant power range operation of the motor effectively reduces the
motor power rating.

Reduced Power consumption.

Improved, fast and rapid acceleration.

Gradeability of the vehicle is improved.

Single and simple gear transmission.

Reduction in size and capacity of battery.

Design of the vehicle is compact, robust, highly efficient and reliable.

So, if any motor chosen and designed for the purpose of electric traction is capable of
prolonging its constant power range operation, it would suit most for the traction
application as its characteristics would exactly represent the characteristics expected
from a traction motor. A figure in terms of Power, Tractive Effort, Speed and
Traction load would provide a detail idea as shown in Figure 1.6.

Figure 1.6. . Tractive effort along with Motor Power, base speed and final speed.

1.6 OUTLINE OF METHODOLOGY

A Compound motor provided with winding change over facility should outdo the
performance of DC series motor. This will enable the motor to operate at three
different configurations Compound, Series and Shunt where later it would be
shown that, only two configurations are suffice to obtain the desirable performance,
i.e. the compound and shunt. This is due to the fact that, whatever the characteristics
desired from series configuration can very well be achieved from the compound
15

configuration. This would suit the traction characteristics more. Switching between
the windings will prolong the constant power range operation of the motor.
An experimental investigation on the Torque-speed characteristics would provide the
justification of the claim as shown in Figure 1.6.

Figure 1.7. . Different Torque-Speed Characteristics of a DC Machine of same power


rating (175W) with three separate configuration.
The torque and power characteristics of the machine due to different configurations
are shown in Figure 1.8. As seen from the figure, the compound motor would provide
the maximum amount of starting torque but it is capable to sustain that torque only
for a small base speed. For series configuration it provides smaller starting torque but
relatively higher base speed. Finally, for shunt configuration, as we all know it is a
constant speed motor that is completely different from the previous two
configurations, it would provide the largest base speed but there is a reduction in its
starting torque significantly. This switching of windings prolongs the constant power
operating range of the motor. This is due to the fact that inclusion of all the three
configurations of the DC Motor optimizes the performance and hence exhibits all
types of characteristics that can be obtained from several DC motors. In other word,
the winding change over techniques integrated all the three configurations available
16

for a self excited motor which includes all possible combination of the motor. Thus
the motor exhibit such characteristics which are highly expected for an ideal traction
motor and very much suitable for traction application.

Figure 1.8. . Power and Torque profile of a DC machine for three different
configurations

According to the traction load characteristic, it can be very easily obtained from
Figure 1.9 that, winding change over feature would enable the vehicle to operate at a
higher final velocity. The overall speed, torque and power profile due to winding
change over are given in Figure.10.

17

Figure 1.9. . Torque and speed profile of a DC machine for three different
configurations to show the possibility of achieving a higher starting torque and
higher final vehicle speed if change over in configuration takes place.

Figure 1.10. Torque and Power profile of the motor as a function of speed due to
change in its configurations by the feature of winding change over.

18

It is to be noted that, the accelerating torque for acceleration is very high due to
compound configuration where as the winding change over enables the vehicle to
attain a relatively higher speed due to change over into shunt configuration.
A controller circuit will be needed to perform the switching action between the two
separate windings. The purpose of the controller circuit would be to sense the load
condition and depending on that, perform the switching action. At constant torque
region the motor should operate at in series connection. At the end of acceleration
period (as the required tractive effort will be much less compare to the starting
condition) the switching must be taken place to increase the speed of the motor as
well as the vehicle.

1.6.1

PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT BY WINDING CHANGE OVER


TECHNIQUE IN A COMPOUND MOTOR

An Optimum performance would be obtained using a DC Compound motor


with winding change over technique

High starting Torque with Low speed

Due to winding change over a high final speed is attained with a drop in Load
Torque.

Very smooth regenerative braking is possible as the machine will be


configured as Shunt Motor during the time of regenerative braking which is
very much stable for this kind of operation.

Reduced Power rating of the motor to achieve same performance.

Single gear transmission instead of Multi gear transmission system.

Reduced sizing of the on board energy storing device or conversely mileage


of the vehicle will be increased with the storage battery of same size and
capacity.

Saving in energy is increased as the kinetic energy of the vehicle will be used
to charge the battery through regenerative braking which implies as almost
30-40% of energy can be saved by the system.

19

1.7 THESIS ORGANIZATION

Chapter 1 describes the introduction of electric traction systems, types and different
features of it. General criteria of traction motor has been discussed from where it has
been found that, a motor with constant power range operation is certainly the best
choice for traction application. Finally a brief overview of the proposed method is
discussed and its applicability for electric traction is analyzed.
Chapter 2 describes the modeling, analysis and design of the compound motor that
will be used for traction purpose. Different characteristic equations have been
developed and simulated to predict the performance of the motor. The non-linear
model of the motor is developed and finally using the linearization technique, the
model is linearized and hence transfer function of the motor is obtained.
Chapter 3 describes in detail the dynamics of a traction load and hence the modeling
of the electric vehicle is done. From initial acceleration to final speed operation of the
vehicle had been calculated, simulated and presented along with all the necessary
mathematical calculation and analysis.
Chapter 4 discusses the modeling and Simulation of 2 quadrant Class C DC-DC
converter used for motor control. The novel integration of PWM voltage and
Hysteresis current controller is discussed in detail and simulated using LTSpice. All
the necessary controller circuit required for the operation of the vehicle along with
the winding change over controller, Speed Sensing, braking, speed controller and
others are designed, discussed and analyzed.
Chapter 5 provides the complete simulation of the entire electromechanical system
using Simulink. The response of the motor along with the vehicle is determined and
optimized. Finally, the obtained result is compared with the characteristics of a
conventional DC series motor to show the superiority and effectiveness of the
proposed method compare to any conventional vehicle traction system.
Chapter 6 concludes the overall thesis with some recommendations for future work.

20

CHAPTER 2
MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF COMPOUND
MOTOR
2.1 INTRODUCTION

DC drives are widely used in application requiring adjustable speed, good speed
regulation and frequent starting, braking and reversing. In case of traction application
DC series motors are dominating long since. But in this study it will be shown that, a
compound motor can be more efficient in traction purpose if it is modified and added
with some special features. Generally compound motors are of two typesCumulative and Differential compound motor where the Differential compound
motor is seldom used. For this particular thesis work where a compound motor is
chosen for vehicle propulsion system, it is obvious that, Cumulative compound motor
will be the best choice between these two types. Comparing to DC series motor a
compound motor can exhibit a more stable operation and also provides a finite and
safe no load speed (which is not possible in case of DC series motor as its no load
operation would produce a dangerously high speed due to very low value of field
flux) that depends on the strength of the shunt field. The slope of the Speed-Torque
characteristic depends upon the strength of the series field. Cumulative compound
motors are used in those applications where a dropping characteristic is similar to
that of a series motor and at the same time a no load speed is limited within a safe
value. The best application of such motor is loads with intermittent duty cycle where
load varies from almost no-load (constant speed operation of the vehicle at steady
state) to very heavy load (during starting). In these applications a fly wheel may be
mounted on the motor shaft for load equalization. Apart from load equalization, use
of compound motor permits the use of a motor with smaller size and less power
rating.

21

A cumulative compound motor has a definite no load speed and so it does not "run away"like
series motor when load is removed.It also developed a high starting torque when load is
increased. This makes it suitable for such applications like rolling mills, shears and punching
presses. It is also a preferred motor for application of such as cranes and elevators that requires
(a) high starting torque, (2) are prone to sudden load change and (c) present a possibility of going
from no load to full load.
2.2 CHARACTERIZATION AND CONFIGURATION OF THE COMPOUND MOTOR
General characterization of the motor :
=

Field Current, =


+

R Total

where, V = Supply Voltage

(2.1)
(2.2)

EB = Back EMF
RTotal = Total Resistance of the armature circuit = Ra+Rse
Ra = Resistance of the armature
Rse = Resistance of the series winding
RF = Resistance of the field winding.

where = Total Flux = se+sh

= =

(2.3)

se = Flux produced from Series field (Wb)= K se Ia

sh = Flux produced from Shunt field (Wb)= K sh IF


22

= Angular velocity (rad/sec) =


N = R.P.M of the motor

2
60

KB = Back EMF Constant


From Eq. (2.3)
=

V Ia R T
V Ia R T
V Ia R T
=
=
KB
K B se + sh K B K sh IF + K B K se Ia

(2.4)

This Eq. (2.4) is known as Speed-Current characteristic of the motor.


Again, Torque developed by the motor is given by,
T = K T Ia

where, KT = Torque Constant

(2.5)

Now,
T = K T Ia = K T se + sh Ia = K T (K sh IF + K se Ia )Ia = K T K sh IF Ia + K T K se Ia 2

This Eq. (2.6) is known as Torque-Current Characteristic of the motor.

(2.6)

Eq. (2.6) can re-written in the form,

where, C1 = K T K sh IF and C2 = K T K se

T = C1 Ia + C2 Ia 2

(2.7)

Now, from Eq. (2.7), expression for the current can found in terms of developed torque as,

Ia =

C1 C1 2 + 4C2 T
2C2

(2.8)

23

Putting the value of Ia in Eq. (2.4),


=

C 1 C 1 2 +4C 2 T
2C 2

K B K sh IF + K B K se
=

C 1 C 1 2 +4C 2 T
2C 2

C 1 +C 1 2 +4C 2 T

K1 + K 2

RT

2C 2

RT

C 1 +C 1 2 +4C 2 T
2C 2

where, K1 = K B K sh IF and K 2 = K B K se . Here Negative sign is discarded as current cannot be


negative during motor mode operation.

By simple manipulation and rearranging, this equation can be written as,

2C2 V + C1 R T R T C1 2 + 4C2 T
2

2C2 K1 K 2 C1 + K 2 C1 + 4C2 T

(2.9)

This Eq. (2.9) is known as Torque-Speed characteristic of the motor.


2.3 SPECIFICATION AND DESIGNING OF THE MOTOR :
The motor considered for traction purpose is shown in Figure 2.1.

Figure 2.1. Compound Motor Connected in Long Shunt Configuration

24

The specification of motor is as follows :


Voltage, V = 60V, Ia(rated) = 40A , IF = 5A, Total Current, ITotal = 40+5=45A
Total armature Resistance, Rtotal = Rse+Ra = 0.15; Field Resistance, RF = 12
Rated power, P = 2500W

No load Speed of the motor, NNL = 1800 RPM


No load angular velocity, NL = 188.4 rad/sec
To overcome the maximum torque offered by the load (i.e. the vehicle itself) the motor must be
capable of developing a torque of 65Nm at rated condition. This particular value of torque will
be obtained when the traction load characteristic was analyzed (discussed in detail in chapter 3).
So, the rated torque of the motor should be 65N.m and must be developed at rated power. So, we
know,
P= Torque x Angular velocity = T
P

so, rated = T rated =


rated

2500
65

= 38.46 rad/sec

This primarily calculated value will be used to design and calculate different parameters of the
motor.Now, from Eq. (2.3)
= 38.46 =

From Eq. (2.5)

KB =

EB
KB

EB V Ia R T 60 (40 0.15)
=
=
= 1.42

38.1
T = 65 = (K T )40
KT =

65
= 1.625
40

(2.10)

(2.11)

25

Dividing Eq. (2.11) by (2.10),


K T 1.625
=
= 1.1444
1.42
KB
Rewriting Eq. (2.10) and (2.11),

K T = 1.144K B

K B se + K B sh = 1.42

K T se + K T sh = 1.625

Putting the the value of K T from Eq.(2.12)into Eq.(2.14),

1.144K B K se Ia + 1.144K B K sh IF = 1.625

Let us assume 70% of the total flux is provided by the series field and 30% of the flux are

(2.12)
(2.13)

(2.14)

(2.15)

provided by the shunt field. So, we can write,


1.144K B K sh IF = 1.625 0.3 = 0.4875
K B K sh =

Similarly,

0.4875
= 0.0852
1.1444 5

1.144K B K se Ia = 1.625 0.7 = 1.1375

Dividing Eq. (2.16) by Eq. (2.17),

K B K se =

1.1375
= 0.02485
1.1444 40

(2.16)

(2.17)

K B K sh
0.0852
=
= 3.4286
K B K se 0.02485
K sh = 3.4286K se

sh
= 3.4286 se
IF
Ia

26

sh = 3.4286

5
se = 0.4286se
40

sh = 0.4286se

Let, se = 0.01Wb = 10 mWb

(2.18)

So, sh = 0.01 0.4286 = 0.004286Wb = 4.286 mWb


Now from Eq. (2.13),

And from Eq. (2.12),

KB =

K B se + sh = 1.42

1.42
= 99.4 V/rad. Wb
0.01 + 0.004286

K T = 1.144K B = 1.144 99.4 = 113.75 N. m/A. Wb

Other constants can now be calculated as,


K sh =

sh
IF

K se =
2.3

0.004286
= 0.0008572 Wb/A
5

se 0.01
=
= 0.00025 Wb/A
Ia
40

MATHEMATICAL MODEL AND TRANSFER FUNCTION OF COMPOUND MOTOR :

From Figure 2.1 the following set of Equations can be written;


V = LT
V = LF

dia
+ Ia R T + EB
dt

diF
+ IF R F
dt

EB = K B se + sh

(2.19)
(2.20)

(2.21)
27

T = K T Ia = K T se + sh Ia
= K T K sh IF Ia + K T K se Ia 2

(2.22)

(2.23)

where, LT = La + Lse =Inductance of Armature+Inductance of Series field=Total Inductance

LF =Inductance of Field winding; R F =Resistance of Field Winding.

TL is the torque required to drive the load then, then the developed torque balance equation can
be written as;

T=J

d
+ B + TL
dt

where, J = Moment of Inertia of the Load (N.m-S 2/rad)

(2.24)

B = Viscous friction constant (N.m/rad/s)

Using Eq. (2.19) to Eq. (2.24) the electromechanical model of the motor can be obtained. But
due to the product of variable type non-linearities present in Eq. (2.23), it is not possible to
obtain a transfer function of this model. However, these equations can be linearized by
considering a small perturbation at the operating point. Before deriving the linearized transfer
fuction, let us develop a complete block diagram of the motor considering the non-linearities
which is shown in Figure 2.2.

Figure 2.2. Non-linear block diagram representation of the compound motor

28

Assuming the field current is constant, this block diagram can be further simplified into the
following based on Eq. (2.4) and Eq. (2.6).

Figure 2.3. Non-linear block diagram representation of the compound motor, assuming field
current is constant

2.4

LINEARIZED TRANSFER FUNCTION AND ITS BLOCK DIAGRAM

REPRESENTATION :
All the system parameters can be defined around their operating point as follows;
V = V0 + V;

T = T0 + T;

EB = EB0 + EB ;

Ia = Ia0 + Ia ;

TL = TL0 + TL ; = 0 +

IF = IF0 + IF ;

The following basic equations will be needed to describe and represent the electromechanical
system of compound motor along with its load.
V = LT

dia
+ Ia R T + EB
dt

EB = K B K sh IF + K B K se Ia
V = LF

diF
+ IF R F
dt

29

T = K T K sh IF Ia + K T K se Ia 2
T=J

d
+ B + TL
dt

Recognizing that, Ia0 and (Ia )2 are very small and hence tending to zero, all the above
Equations can be linearized to;

V = R T Ia + LT

d(Ia )
+ EB
dt

(2.25)

d(IF )
dt

(2.27)

EB = K B K se (Ia0 + Ia 0 ) + K B K sh (IF0 + IF 0 )
V = R F IF + LF

T = 2K T K se Ia0 Ia + K T K sh (IF0 Ia + Ia0 IF )


T = J

d()
+ B() + TL
dt

(2.26)

(2.28)

(2.29)

These five equations are sufficient to establish the block diagram of a DC Compound motor
drive as shown in Figure. 2.4.

Figure 2.4. Linearized Block diagram of the compound motor


30

A further simplification in the block diagram can be possible by rearraging the blocks as shown
in the following Figure. 2.5.

Figure 2.5. Linearized Block diagram of the compound motor assuming field current is constant

After using the block diagram simplification technique, the final linearized transfer function of
the motor is obtained as,
T(s) =
where;

C1 (SLF + R F C2 ) + C3 (SLT + R T + C4 )
(Js + B)(SLF + R F )(SLT + R T + C4 ) + C1 C5

(2.30)

C1 = (2K T K se Ia0 + K T K sh IF0 )


C2 = K B K sh 0

C3 = K T K sh Ia0
C4 = K B K se 0

C5 = (K B K se Ia0 + K B K sh IF0 )
31

which can be re-written in the generalized form as;


T(s) =
where,
b0 =

s + b0
+ a 2 s 2 + a1 s + a 0

R F C1 + R T C3 + C3 C4 C1 C2
LF C1 + LT C3

a0 =

a1 =

s3

BR F R T + BR F C4 + C1 C5
JLF LT

JR F R T + JR F C4 + BLF R T + BLF C4 + BLT R F


JLF LT
a2 =

JLF R T + JLF C4 + JR F LT + BLF LT


JLF LT

(2.31)

(2.32)
(2.33)
(2.34)
(2.35)

2.5 CALCULATION OF OUTPUT PARAMETERS :


Maximum Allowable Armature current is twice than its rated value i.e. (40x2=80A). For current
control/limiting purpose, hysteresis controller is used and as the current will switch between two
certain limits of upper and lower level of current defined by the hysteresis controller, it is a good
approximation to consider the starting current as 1.6 times the rated current. As a result the
starting torque of the motor will be around 1.5 times to its rated value. Using Eq. (2.5) the
starting torque of the machine can be calculted asTstarting = K T Ia(starting ) = 113.75 14.286 103 1.5 40 = 97.5 N. m
where, Ia(starting ) = 1.5 Ia(rated )

Maximum power consumed during starting,


Pmax (starting ) = 60 (1.5 40 + 5) = 3900W

During No load condition, NNL= 1800 rpm, NL= 188.4 rad/sec


P

rated = T rated = K
rated

P rated

T I a (rated )

2500
65

= 38.46 rad/sec; Nrated = 9.55X38.46= 367.3 rpm

32

CHAPTER 3
DYNAMICS OF TRACTION LOAD AND MODELING
OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE
3.1 INTRODUCTION

Modeling of electric vehicles will make it more convenient to predict its performance
and characteristics. The primary parameter to be modeled is vehicle performance. By
performance we mean acceleration and top speed, an area where electric vehicles
have a reputation of being very poor. It is necessary that any electric vehicle has a
performance that allows it, at the very least, to blend safely with ordinary city traffic.
Another vitally important feature of electric vehicles that we must be able to predict
is their range. This can also be mathematically modeled, and computer programs
make this quite straightforward. The mathematics we will develop will allow us to
see the effects of changing things like battery type and capacity, as well as all other
aspects of vehicle design, on range. This is an essential tool for the vehicle designer.
We will go on to show how the data produced by the simulations can also have other
uses in addition to predicting performance and range. For example we will see how
data about the motor torque and speed can be used to optimize the compromises
involved in the design of the motor and other subsystems.

3.2 TRACTIVE EFFORT

The first step in vehicle performance modeling is to produce an equation for the
tractive effort. This is the force propelling the vehicle forward, transmitted to the
ground through the drive wheels.
Let us consider a vehicle of mass m, proceeding at a velocity v, up a slope of angle
, as in Figure 3.1. The force propelling the vehicle forward, the tractive effort, has
to accomplish the following:

33

Figure 3.1: The forces acting on a vehicle moving along a slope. [6]

To overcome the rolling resistance;


To overcome the aerodynamic drag;
To provide the force needed to overcome the component of the vehicles
weight acting down the slope.
accelerate the vehicle, if the velocity is not constant.

3.2.1

ROLLING RESISTANCE FORCE

The rolling resistance is primarily due to the friction of the vehicle tyre on the road.
Friction in bearings and the gearing system also play their part. The rolling resistance
is approximately constant, and hardly depends on vehicle speed. It is proportional to
vehicle weight. The equation is:
Frr= rrmg

(3.1)

Where rr is the coefficient of rolling resistance. The main factors controlling rr are
the type of tyre and the tyre pressure. The free-wheeling performance of a vehicle
becomes much better if the tyres are pumped up to a high pressure, though the ride
may be less comfortable.
The value of rr can reasonably readily be found by pulling a vehicle at a steady very
low speed, and measuring the force required. Typical values of rr are 0.015 for a
34

radial ply tyre, down to about 0.005 for tyres developed especially for electric
vehicles.

3.2.2

AERODYNAMIC DRAG

This part of the force is due to the friction of the vehicle body moving through the
air. It is a function of the frontal area, shape, protrusions such as side mirrors, ducts
and air passages, spoilers, and many other factors. The formula for this component is:
Fad = 0.5CdAv2

(3.2)

Where is the density of the air, A is the frontal area, and v is the velocity. Cd is a
constant called the drag coefficient.
The drag coefficient Cd can be reduced by good vehicle design. A typical value for a
saloon car is 0.3, but some electric vehicle designs have achieved values as low as
0.19. There is greater opportunity for reducing Cd in electric vehicle design because
there is more flexibility in the location of the major components, and there is less
need for cooling air ducting and under-vehicle pipe work. However, some vehicles,
such as motorcycles and buses will inevitably have much larger values, and Cd varies
around 0.7 are more typical in such cases.
The density of air does of course vary with temperature, altitude and humidity.
However a value of 1.25 kg.m3 is a reasonable value to use in most cases. Provided
that SI units are used (m for A, m.s1for v) then the value of Fad will be given in
2

Newton.

3.2.3

HILL CLIMBING FORCE

The force needed to drive the vehicle up a slope is the most straight forward to find.
It is simply the component of the vehicle weight that acts along the slope. By simple
resolution of forces we see that:
Fhc= mg sin ()

(3.3)

35

3.2.4

ACCELERATION FORCE

If the velocity of the vehicle is changing, then clearly a force will need to be applied
in addition to the forces shown in Figure 3.1. This force will provide the linear
acceleration of the vehicle, and is given by the well-known equation derived from
Newtons second law,
Fla= ma

(3.4)

However, for a more accurate picture of the force needed to accelerate the vehicle we
should also

consider the force needed to make the rotating parts turn faster. In other

words, we need to consider rotational acceleration as well as linear acceleration. The


main issue here is the electric motor, not necessarily because of its particularly high
moment of inertia, but because of its higher angular speeds.

Figure 3.2: Arrangement for connecting a motor to a drive wheel using a belt system
with step up gear mechanism to increase the amount of torque. [6]
Referring to Figure 7.2, clearly the axle torque = Fter , where r is the radius of the
tyre, and Fte is the tractive effort delivered by the power train. If G is the gear ratio of
the system connecting the motor to the axle, and Tm is the motor torque, then we can
say that:
Tvech = Tm G
Tm =

Fte r

(3.5)
36

Again, angular velocity of the motor,


v

m = G vech = G r (rad/sec)

(3.6)

Where, v = velocity of the vehicle in m/s

Torque required for this angular acceleration is,


a

Tm = JG r

(3.7)

Where, J is the moment of inertia of the motor. The force at the wheels needed to
provide the angular acceleration (Fa) is found by combining this equation with Eq.
(3.7);
G2

Fa = J r 2 a

(3.8)

We must note that in these simple equations we have assumed that the gear system is
100% efficient, it causes no losses. Since the system will usually be very simple, the
efficiency is often very high. However, it will never be 100%, and so we should
rewrite the equation by incorporating the gear system efficiency g. The force
required will be slightly larger, so equation (7.8) can be rewritten to:
G2

Fa = J r 2 a g

(3.9)
2

Typical values for the constants here are 40 for G/r and 0.025 kg.m for the moment
of inertia. These are for a 30 kW motor, driving a car which reaches 60 kph at a
motor speed of 7000 rpm. Such a car would probably weigh about 800 kg. The right
hand side in equation (7.8) will have a value of about 40 kg in this case. In other
words the angular acceleration force given by equation (7.8) will typically be much
smaller than the linear acceleration force given by equation (7.4). In this specic (but
reasonably typical) case, it will be smaller by the ratio:
40
= .05 = 5%
800

It will quite often turn out that the moment of inertia of the motor J will not be
known. In such cases a reasonable approximation is to simply increase the mass by
5% in equation (7.4), and to ignore the Fa term.

37

3.2.5

TOTAL TRACTIVE EFFORT

The total tractive effort is the sum of all these forces:


Fte= Frr+ Fad+ Fhc+ Fla+ Fa

(3.10)

Where,
Frris the rolling resistance force, given by equation (3.1);
Fadis the aerodynamic drag, given by equation (3.2);
Fhcis the hill climbing force, given by equation (3.3);
Flais the force required to give linear acceleration given by equation (3.4);
Fa is the force required to give angular acceleration to the rotating motor,
given by equation (3.9).
We should note that Fla and Fa will be negative if the vehicle is slowing down, and
that Fhc will be negative if it is going downhill.
3.3 MODELLING VEHICLE ACCELERATION
3.3.1

ACCELERATION PERFORMANCE PARAMETER

The acceleration of a vehicle is a key performance indicator, though there is no


standard measure used. Typically the time to accelerate from standstill to 60 mph, or
30 or 50 kph will be given. The nearest to such a standard for electric vehicles are the
030 kph and 050 kph times, though these times are not given for all vehicles. Such
acceleration figures are found from simulation or testing of real vehicles. For IC
engine vehicles this is done at maximum power, or wide open throttle (WOT).
Similarly, for electric vehicles performance simulations are carried out at maximum
torque.
As discussed in Chapter 2 that the maximum torque of an electric motor is a fairly
simple function of angular speed. In most cases, at low speeds, the maximum torque
is a constant, until the motor speed reaches a critical value c after which the torque
falls. This critical value of speed is mostly known as the base speed of the motor i.e.
the speed up to which the motor is capable of maintaining the maximum or constant
torque that it produces. In the case of a brushed shunt or permanent magnet DC
motor the torque falls linearly with increasing speed. In the case of most other types

38

of motor, the torque falls in such a way that the power remains constant. The angular
velocity of the motor depends on the gear ratio G and the radius of the drive wheel r
as in equation (3.5) derived above. So we can say that:
For, m< base ; Tm = Tmax = 97.5 N.m

And for m> base ; Tm = T0 - Km = T0 KGvech

(3.11)

= T0 KG

(3.12)

Where,
vech = angular velocity of the velocity (i.e. angular velocity of the axle) (rad/sec)
m = angular velocity of the motor (rad/sec)

= velocity of the vehicle. (m/s)

Eq. (3.11) represents motor torque in terms of angular velocity of the vehicle where
as Eq. (3.12) represents it in terms of linear velocity of the vehicle.
3.3.2

MOTOR TORQUE MODELLING

The generalized torque equation of the motor can be written as-

Motor angular speed,

Tm = KTIa =

K T V
RT

m = 2vech = 2

so, in terms of vehicle speed,

Tm = KTIa =

K T V
RT

KT KB 2
v

RT

2K T K B 2
RT r

Putting all the values of the constants and other parameters,

= 65015.384
At base speed, m = base;

= = 97.5 = 65015.384

551.33
15.984

= 35.84 rad/sec

= 0.15 = 0.15 x 35.84 = 5.376 m/s

(3.13)
(3.14)

(3.15)

(3.16)

(3.17)
(3.18)

39

3.3.3

TRACTION LOAD MODELLING

Total tractive force required for the vehicle movement when it is moving in a road in
a smooth flat plane,
Fte= Frr+ Fad+ Fla+ Fa
as per Eq. (3.10). Hill climbing force can be considered zero because of assuming
zero inclination.
dv

Fte = 1.05m dt + mg + Cd 0.5Av 2

(3.19)

Here the moment of inertia of the motor is not known, so we will adopt the expedient
suggested at the end of Section 7.2.5, and increase m by 5% in the linear acceleration
term only.
Torque required for the traction,
Tte = Fte x r

(3.20)

The motor is coupled with the axle through a gear. If G is the gear ratio, then the total
load torque for traction referred to motor shaft can be written asTm = Motor Torque =

T te

F te r
G

= [ + + 0.5 2 ]

where, = =

= [

+ + 0.0625 2 2 ]

(3.21)
(3.22)

= vehicle velocity

Let us put all the values in Eq. (3.22) to obtain a equation that will describe the
dynamics of traction load;
The electric vehicle has a mass of 380 kg, with a typical passenger of mass 180
kg (for 3 passengers with average mass of 60kg) so total mass m = (180+200)
= 380 kg.
To incorporate the angular acceleration of different rotating parts of the vehicle
along with motor, m is increased by 5% in the linear acceleration term only.
A value of 400 kg will thus be used from m in the final term of equation
(3.19).
40

The drag coefficient Cd is estimated as 0.3, a reasonable value for a small


electric vehicle whose shape of the body is aerodynamically designed and
optimized.
The frontal area of vehicle and rider = 1.2 m .
2

The tires and wheel bearings give a coefficient of rolling resistance,


rr= 0.005 which is a typical value for specially designed tires for electric
vehicle.
The motor is connected to the rear wheel using a 2:1 ratio belt system, and the
wheel diameter is 60 cm. Thus G = 2 and r = 0.3 m.
A typical figure of the motor coupled with the axle of the vehicle through a step up
gear mechanism is shown in Figure. (3.3).

Figure 3.3: The simplified diagram of the designed system of connecting the motor
with the driving axle of the vehicle with a geared mechanism.

41

Putting all the values in Eq. (3.22) the final equation can be obtained as = 9

+ 2.95 + 0.00075 2

(3.23)

Again, Eq. (3.23) can be written in terms of vehicle velocity as

= 60 + 2.95 + 0.03321 2

(3.24)

3.4 MODELLING PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS


When m < base; the motor will produce maximum amount of torque and this
torque will be utilize to accelerate the vehicle. From Eq. (3.24);

= = 97.5 = 60 + 2.95 + 0.03321 2


1.576 =

+ 0.0005535 2

= 1.576 0.0005535 2

(3.25)

When m base; i.e. v 5.376, motor torque is given by Eq. (3.16). Based
on that, Eq. (3.24) can be written as-

Tm = 65015.384m
= 65015.384

0.3

= 650102.56v =60 + 2.95 + 0.03321 2

This can be arranged into-

= 10.271 1.628 0.000527 2

(3.26)

The total vehicle traction acceleration and final speed can be modeled using Eq.
(3.25) and Eq. (3.26). There are many practical and simple ways of solving these
differential equations using a simple initial condition that v = 0 when t = 0.
However, the most versatile next step is to derive a simple numerical solution, which
can then easily be used in MATLAB.
The derivative of v is simply the difference between consecutive values of v divided
by the time step. Applying this to equation (3.25) gives us:
+1
=
= 1.576 0.0005535 2

+1 = + t (1.576 0.0005535 2 )

(3.27)
42

Similarly, Eq. (3.26) can be arranged as +1 = + t (10.271 1.628 0.0005535 2 )

(3.28)

Eq. (3.27) holds valid for velocities up to the critical velocity of 5.376 ms1, after
which we have to use equation (3.28), approximated in exactly the same way as we
have done for equation (3.27).
The MATLAB script le (discussed in Appendix-A) shows how to solve these
equations using this program. Figure 3.4 is a plot of the solution using a time step t
of 0.1s.

The simulated results are discussed in the following-

Figure 3.4: The initial acceleration and final velocity of the vehicle.
From the figure it is clearly evident that the vehicle takes just over 5 seconds to reach
its maximum speed of 22.5kmph. At this point the motor will rotate at a speed of
41.667 rad/sec which is very close to its rated speed (38.46 rad/sec).

43

Figure 3.5: The torque-velocity curve of the motor and vehicle respectively.
The maximum amount of torque obtained from the motor is around 95 N.m. This
torque is responsible to accelerate the vehicle. This maximum torque of 95 N.m is
maintained up to the base speed of the motor which corresponds to the vehicle speed
of (5.376 x 3.6) = 19.3536kmph. After that, the torque begins to fall and eventually
settles down to the balancing speed of the motor. At final or balancing speed, the
torque falls very sharply as the acceleration phase is over and it requires only to
overcome the rolling resistance and aerodynamic resistance of the vehicle when
speed becomes constant (as Fla becomes zero at constant speed due to zero
acceleration).
The total torque profile of the vehicle from zero to final speed can be visualized as
shown in Figure 3.6-

Figure 3.6: The torque profile of the load as seen from the motor shaft.

44

The constant torque region provides the maximum torque which in turn provides a
linear constant acceleration up to base speed that is 19.35kmph speed of the vehicle.
After that, the torque falls naturally as it enters to the natural characteristic region of
its operation. Finally the motor torque matches with the load torque which falls
significantly and continues to operate at this value.

The axle torque i.e. the vehicle torque with respect to vehicle speed and time are
shown in Figure (3.7) and Figure (3.8) respectively. It may be noted here that, the
axle torque will be around 2 times greater than motor torque due to the presence of a
step up gear. At the same time, considering an efficiency of 98% for the gear
arrangement, the actual torque will be .98 times of it.

Figure 3.7: Axle Torque of the vehicle with respect to its speed. It is exactly in the
same nature of the motor-vehicle speed curve of Fig. (3.5).

45

Figure 3.8: Axle torque profile though out the entire time of run of the vehicle
Axle Torque of the vehicle with respect time to show the maximum starting torque
along with final steady state torque value of the vehicle. As the acceleration phase is
over around 7.5 seconds, the torque falls significantly and settles to a new lower
value where it remains constant for the rest of the period of it operation.
The final parameter of the motor to be discussed and analyzed is motor current. As
the current is proportional to motor torque, it will vary itself according to the
variation of torque during different periods of its operation.
The current-vehicle speed and current-time curves are shown in Figure (3.9) and
Figure (3.10) respectively.

46

Figure 3.9: Armature Current vs Vehicle Speed


Armature current of the motor varies with speed. Initially current is constant up to the
base speed and then starts to reduce as speed tends to become constant. Here the
average current value during starting is shown. In practice the starting current will be
very high which will be limited by using a current controller (will be discussed in the
next chapter). With the presence of controller, the current wave shape will not be like
this. But this result helps to final value of the current during Steady State operation

Figure 3.9: Armature current of the motor with respect to time. The current taken by
the motor is very small during steady-state operation.
47

3.5 MODELLING PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS USING WINDING


CHANGE OVER TECHNIQUE

The analysis presented so far is presented for a conventional compound motor


employed to drive a vehicle. The analysis and simulation show that, the maximum
achievable speed of the vehicle is 22.5kmph. Now, the feature of winding change
over should be employed and the vehicle parameters like speed, torque and motor
parameters like motor current and torque should be simulated and observed. It was
claimed at the very beginning of the thesis that, using this technique, the final speed
of the vehicle will be much higher than the speed obtained by running the vehicle
using conventional motors (like series or separately excited DC Motors).
When the vehicle settles down to its final speed of 22.5kmph, the controller of the
motor will disconnect the series field of the compound motor from the circuit. As
result there will be a sudden rise in the armature current (which will eventually
limited by the current controller) as well as motor torque to accelerate the vehicle to a
higher value of speed. This phenomenon can be observed by using the same model
that has been developed in immediate earlier to simulate conventional compound
motor.
When the series field winding is disconnected the motor will be converted to a
simple DC shunt motor whose torque-speed characteristic is pretty straight forward
and very simple to analyze. Due to winding change over the motor is left with only
one i.e. the shunt winding and the total flux of the machine will now be produced
with the help of shunt winding only. So, the torque equation can be written as-

Tm = KTshIa =

K T sh V
RT

= 195.0139.2333v

K T K B sh 2
RT

= 195.0131.385

(3.29)

Now, in the similar way of Eq.(3.25), we can develop another equation using Eq.
(3.29). It must be noted that, this Eq. (3.29) will be coming into the consideration
when the vehicle speed is equal to its final speed that is 22.5kmph i.e. 6.25m/s.
When, 41.667 rad/sec (i.e. vehicle speed, v6.25m/s);

195.0139.2333v = 60 + 2.95 + 0.03321 2


48

which can now be rearranged to write

= 3.0486 0.1465 0.000527 2

(3.30)

For numerical simulation the Eq. (3.30) can be re-written as-

+1 = + t (3.0486 0.1465 0.0005535 2 )

(3.31)

Motor torque is simulated using the following equation


+1

( + 1) = 2.95 + 60

+ 0.03321 2

(3.31)

Axle or the vehicle torque for traction can be calculated as ( + 1) = 5.9 + 120

+1

+ 0.06642 2

(3.32)

Armature current will be calculated based on two different conditions.


when, < 6.25 m/s; the armature current Ia is calculated as ( + 1) =

0.24+0.1138 (+1)0.4875
0.057

when, 6.25 m/s; the armature current Ia is calculated as ( + 1) =

(+1)
0.4875

(3.33)

(3.34)

So, the modified MATLAB script file (shown in Appendix-B) according to the
modification done in the system due to winding changeover would yield the
following set of output curves for speed, torque and current. This set of results will
be used to compare the performance between the vehicle fitted with winding change
over facility and the vehicles operated with series and compound motor only without
winding change over facility. The different output and input parameters of the motor
as well as the vehicle obtained by simulation in MATLAB are shown as follows one
by one along with description and significance of the figures for interpretation.

49

Figure 3.10: Simulated Speed and acceleration characteristic of the vehicle with the
feature of winding change over facility.
A comparative diagram showing the speed without and with the winding change over
facility would be more helpful to justify the improvement in the performances of
vehicle. A diagram of such kind is shown in Figure 3.11 in the following-

Figure 3.11: Comparative analysis showing the differences in terms of final speed
between the two types of motor.
50

Fig. (3.11) clearly indicates that, the motor with winding change over facility would
provide the highest final speed. The difference in their final is around 47.5kmph.
This is certainly being a great advantage for the latter one compare to the former one.

Figure 3.11: Torque speed characteristic of the motor with winding change over
facility. The sharp rise in torque is due to sudden change in current consumed by the
armature due to disconnecting the series field.
The total torque profile of the motor is shown in Figure 3.12.

Figure 3.12: Torque profile of the motor during entire period of its operation.

51

Figure 3.13: Torque speed characteristic of the vehicle when operated by a


compound motor with winding change over facility.

Figure 3.14: Torque profile of the vehicle from starting to winding change over to
steady state condition, when operated by a compound motor with winding change
over facility.

52

Figure 3.15: Speed-current characteristic of the motor. After winding change over,
the value of the current remains very during the entire period of its acceleration.

Figure 3.16: Current profile of the motor during its entire period of operation.
A very high current is being consumed by the current at the moment of winding
change over. This is due to the sudden reduction in the flux of the motor as the series
winding is disconnected from the armature at this instant. To sustain the same
amount of torque, the current of the motor rises to a very high value due to
compensate the reduction of flux. As the motor speed approaches towards its final
speed, the current starts to decrease and eventually settles down to a steady value. It
53

must be noted with great importance that, such amount of high current must not be
allowed to flow in the circuit as it may damage the winding as well as the motor. In
practice this current will be limited by using a hysteresis current controller which will
restrict the current within twice the maximum of its rated value (i.e. 40x2=80A). In
other words, the controller will allow a current to flow through the armature which
may be at best twice than its rated value. Such a limitation will obviously affect the
performance of the motor. Due to such restriction in current the torque produced by
the motor will be less and as result the acceleration of the vehicle beyond the instant
of winding change over will be reduced. But this will not affect the final speed of the
motor. Due to limited amount of torque available, the vehicle will take a relatively
long time to reach its final speed.

3.6 SUMMERY

This chapter deals with the modeling and simulation of electric vehicle. It is obvious
that, a vehicles mathematical model is crucially important in the design of electric
vehicles as it allows the designer very quickly to try out different design options,
virtually at no cost at all. Even a quite simple mathematical model used in this
chapter is sufficient to predict the performance parameters of a real vehicle.

54

CHAPTER 4
DESIGN OF CONVERTER AND CONTROLLER FOR
ELECTRIC VEHICLE
4.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents the design of the controller of the motor. Choppers, also
commonly known as dc-to-dc converters which are used to get a variable dc voltage
from a dc source of fixed voltage. Because of the use DC voltage widely in electric
transportation and traction system, chopper controlled DC drives find a ready
application in that field.
DC-DC Converters are widely used for traction motor controls in electric
automobiles, trolley cars, marine hoists, forklift trucks and mine haulers. They
provide smooth acceleration control, high efficiency and fast dynamic response. DCDC converters can be effectively used in regenerative braking of DC motors to return
energy back into the supply and this feature results in energy savings for the
transportation systems with frequent stops.
Self commutated devices, such as MOSFETS. power transistors, IGBT (insulated
gate bipolar transistor), GTO ( gate turn-off thyristor) and IGCT (insulated gate
commutated thyristor). are preferred over thyristors for building choppers because
they can be commutated by a low power control signal and do not need commutation
circuit. Further, they can be operated at a higher frequency for the same rating. The
operation at a high frequency improves motor performance by reducing current ripple
and eliminating discontinuous conduction.

4.2 CONVERTER DESIGN

For any traction application a two quadrant converter with a pair of reversing switch
is necessary. Otherwise it is not possible for the motor to operate at all four quadrants
as it is mandatory for any motor to be capable of operating in all the four quadrants
employed for traction application.
55

In this design a Two Quadrant Class C DC-DC converter along with a pair of
reversing switch are used. The converter has a novel integrated feature of both PWM
and Hysteresis controller, where the PWM controller is used for variable voltage
operation of the motor (to run the vehicle at different speed) and hysteresis controller
is used for the purpose of current control. The designed system is shown in brief in
the following block diagram-

Figure 4.1: Block Diagram Representation of the Motor Controller


4.3 OPERATION OF THE CLASS C DC-DC CONVERTER

A typical class C converter is made of one pair of diode and one pair of switch.
Generally, it is made from one buck and one boost converter. For normal motoring
mode the circuit operates as buck controller. During braking of the motor which is
also known as regenerative braking, the converter operates as a boost converter to
feed back the stored kinetic energy of the motor to the source and thus reducing its
speed. A typical circuit is shown in Fig. 4.2.

56

Figure 4.2: Class C DC-DC converter


The circuit shown in Figure 4.2 is a combination of one Buck and one Boost
converter. It is clear that, both transistors must not be turned on simultaneously as
that would short circuit the source V. They are turned on alternately and a short
interval (typically about 100s) is allowed to elapse between the removals of one
signal and the application of the other.
For first quadrant operation, Tr1 and D1 perform the functions of Forward motoring
and provide variable speed operation of the motor up to the base speed. Gate drive
signal with variable duty cycle enables the converter to provide with a variable
voltage appearing across its terminals. This mode of operation is called Class A
operation where the converter is operating as buck converter. Both armature current
and field current are positive. The motor develops torque to meet the load demand.
For second quadrant operation, Tr2 and D2 perform the functions of Regenerative
braking and the converter must operate as Boost converter to feed the stored kinetic
energy of the motor back to the supply system or the battery. This mode of operation
is also known as Class B operation of chopper. The motor acts as a generator and
develops an induced voltage equal to the back EMF of the motor, EB. The armature
current is negative but the field current is positive. The kinetic energy of the motor is
returned to the supply. The motor speed would decrease with time. To maintain the
armature current at the same level the effective load resistance of the motor acting as
generator during this period, must be adjusted by varying the duty cycle of the DCDC converter.

57

4.4 SIMULATION OF THE CONVERTER

The converter circuit is simulated in LTSpice in motoring mode. The output wave
shape of the converter are shown in the following-

Figure 4.3: Simulation of Class C DC-DC converter in forward motoring mode in


LTSpice.

58

Figure 4.4: Output current, voltage and PWM signal of the converter

Figure 4.5: Motor current without hysteresis current controller.


The starting Current of the motor is around 345A which dangerously high enough to
damage the motor.

59

Figure 4.6: Limitation on starting current by the control action of hysteresis


controller
Hysteresis current controller limits the starting motor current within its maximum
limit. If the motor current exceeds twice the value of the rated current the controller
turns off the power supply and when the current falls to value sufficiently low
enough the controller again turns on the power supply.

Figure 4.7: Output voltage of the converter at a Duty cycle of 90%.

60

The variable output voltage can be obtained by varying the duty cycle of the
converter. Variation of duty cycle is possible by varying the reference voltage of the
PWM comparator. Gate driving pulses with variable duty cycle are generated to
operate the motor in different speed. This signal along with the output of the
hysteresis controller are fed to an AND gate where the output of hysteresis controller
dominates over the PWM signal. If the Current of the motor at any point due to
application of the voltage exceeds the certain limit the output of the hysteresis
controller goes zero setting an output zero for and gate too and eventually turns of the
power supply to the motor.

4.4 REGENERATIVE BRAKING

Regenerative braking will be obtained as the converter operates in the 2nd quadrant.
Gate signal with appropriate duty cycle must be generated to provide the switching.
The circuit must contain a duty cycle varying feature where the duty cycle of the
gating pulses will be varied by sensing the terminal voltage of the motor during
regenerative braking. The duty cycle must be varied to keep the output voltage of the
converter fixed as the voltage of the motor will be gradually decreasing during the
period of regeneration and as a result the speed of the motor will be decreasing. If the
voltage at the output of the converter is not kept fixed and higher than the source
voltage, it will not be possible to feed the energy back to the source as current will
stop continuing to flow.
Simulation of regenerative braking is done assuming the stored kinetic energy will
eventually be given up and the motor will to come to a stop with no voltage across its
terminal. So, source voltage must be gradually decreasing during braking and to keep
the output voltage constant, the reference voltage of the comparator should be
increased accordingly to increase the duty cycle of gate driving signal. The simulated
circuit is shown in Figure 4.8.

61

Figure 4.8: Simulated Boost Converter during Regenerative braking

62

Figure 4.9: Output Voltage and Current of the Boost converter during Braking

Figure 4.10: Generation of Reference signal to vary the duty cycle of the converter

63

Figure 4.11: Boost Converter Input Power due to the kinetic energy stored in the
vehicle

Figure 4.12: Boost Converter Output Power. The amount of energy which is equal to
the area under the curve, is feed back to the source

64

4.5 SUMMARY

This chapter has suggested such a design of the converter that is capable of varying
its output voltage and at the same time limits the excess current. The two quadrant
operation of the motor enables the motor to operate at both Forward motoring and
Forward regenerative braking. For reverse motoring reverse contacts are employed to
operate the motor in opposite direction.

65

CHAPTER 5
SIMULATION OF THE OVERALL SYSTEM
5.1

INTRODUCTION

The overall system is electromechanical which is simulated using SIMULINK.


Simulated figures in this chapter are divided into two parts. Here at first the
simulation of the total system would be presented for a compound motor with
winding change over technique. The simulated figures will contain the Speed of the
vehicle, Torque of the system, Current and output power. Next the same simulation
will be done for the overall vehicle and traction system when operated by a series
motor of same power. This portion is simulated to deduce a comparison between the
proposed method and the conventional method. According to simulated result it can
very be easily found out that, the proposed method offers a better performance
because the vehicle will be operating at a higher speed compare to the case when it is
operated by series motor. To simulate the entire system three subsystems have to be
integrated with the overall system. The entire system comprises of

5.2

Electronic DC-DC converter


Compound Motor
Mechanical System (Traction Load)

SIMULATION RESULTS

All three sub systems are integrated and co-ordinated together to perform the
simulation work. The entire simulation is done for a 60 seconds run of the vehicle.
The simulated block in SIMULINK is shown in Figure.5.1.

66

Figure 5.1: Simulation of the entire electromechanical system using SIMULINK

67

The system response is obtained as-

Figure 5.2: Speed of the vehicle with winding change over technique.

Figure 5.3: Motor Current vs Time


The motor current is being regulated by the Hysteresis controller, always remains in
the permissible limit of operation. Hysteresis controller will be in effect whenever the
current tries to exceed the limits.
68

Figure 5.4: Motor Torque Vs Time

Figure 5.5: Motor Power Vs Time

69

Now for the purpose of comparison the simulated results for a series motor driven
electric vehicle with same characteristics as before will be presented in the following.

Figure 5.6: Speed of the vehicle operated with Series Motor.

Figure 5.7: Current vs Time for the series motor

70

Figure 5.8: Power Vs Time for the Series Motor

5.3

SUMMERY

Simulation of the overall system clearly signifies the fact that, the proposed method
of winding change over feature can improve the performance of an electric vehicle
when operated with a DC motor. The conventional traction loads are operated with
DC series motor. Final Speed obtained for the vehicle with the proposed system is
around 72kmph whereas, with conventional DC series motor, the obtained maximum
speed is 54kmph. But one thing that also should be focused here that, as the proposed
method is operating at a speed 18kmph higher than the conventional method energy
consumed by the motor will be more as the resistance force due to aerodynamic drag
offered by vehicle increases with the square of the velocity and hence power required
increases with the cube of the velocity.

71

CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION
7.1

SUMMARY

A Novel Switching technique along with a new concept is proposed for the purpose
of traction. The ideal characteristics

of an electric motor

drive for

traction

application in an electric and hybrid electric vehicle are high torque at low speed
region for fast acceleration, hill climbing and obstacle negotiation, and low
torque at high speed for normal driving. A single DC motor cannot fulfill all these
ideal requirements. But according to the proposed method of using a compound
motor with winding change over, the characteristics will be very close to the ideal
one. To minimize the power rating of the motor drive, therefore, the energy
storage requirement, at a given vehicle performance, the electric motor drive is
required to have a long constant power range to meet the torque and speed
demand.

Once again this proposed method enables the motor to maximize its

capability by prolonging its constant power. The effect of the motor characteristics
on the vehicle performance is analyzed, and the characteristics of three major
electric motors- induction motor, permanent magnet brushless DC motor and
switched reluctance motor are studied for literature review, where it has been
concluded that, though DC machines are now almost become obsolete, still it has the
maximum torque density and the most suitable characteristics for traction
application. This technique can further enhance that capability of the DC motor for
traction application as the result suggests an improvement in its performance
compare to the traditional one. Results show a better acceleration performance and
significant improvement in final speed of the vehicle. This technique minimizes the
power rating of the motor as it is operating at a longer constant power range due to
change over in its configurations. The high torque operation of the compound and
series configuration is utilized as well as the field long constant power range
operation of shunt configuration by field weakening is also being made use of. The
simulation results show that, the extended speed operation of the motor can reach up

72

to 3.5 times of the base speed which can never be obtained without the feature of
winding change over. At the same time it is also evident that, this method will
consume more power to run the vehicle and it is obvious that, the power consumption
will be more for higher speed of operation.

7.2 FUTURE WORKS

As stated earlier, the proposed method demands a relatively larger amount of power,
the most important task still left is to calculate the energy consumption of the vehicle
for per Kilometer of operation. This would provide the final concluding remark of
this study.
From this the Mileage of the vehicle for a given battery capacity can be very easily
determined which has not been done yet. At the same time for nominal operation of
the vehicle, the battery size and its capacity has to be determined.
Comparative study with other types motor can be done and then the motor with
optimum performance for traction application can be chosen.
Microcontroller can be used as the prime controller of the entire system which should
perform all the necessary control action and this would make the system more
optimum, flexible and adaptable to any operating condition.
Advanced algorithms like Fuzzy logic or Neuro-Fuzzy controller may be introduced
for system operation. These adaptive advanced algorithms may also be used to
replace the brushed DC motor by a Brushless DC motor which would be more
advanced and efficient compare to the conventional one.

7.3 CONCLUDING REMARKS

Long constant power range of vehicle traction motor can effectively reduce
the required motor power rating for the given vehicle acceleration performance
and

at

the

same time,

the gradeability

of the vehicle

can he

enhanced

significantly, thereby, reduce the required power capacity of the on-board


energy storage, such as the batteries. It can also simplify the transmission system

73

by allowing use of a single-gear transmission. Consequently, the whole drive


train can he designed with compactness, high efficiency and good reliability.
Of the three major candidates of traction motors, permanent magnet brushless
DC motor has the highest torque density. However, the constant power range is
very limited due to the difficulty of the field weakening. The constant speed
range of variable speed induction motor drives is also limited to maximum of 4
times of its base speed, even using special winding changeover technique. On the
other hand, switched reluctance motor drives inherently have favorable speedtorque characteristic for traction application. This design and simulation shows
that the extended speed constant power range can reach about 3 (3.5 times the
based speed), much higher than other kinds of electric motors, with high
operating efficiency.

74

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77

Appendix-A
MATLAB SCRIPT FILE FOR SIMULATING VEHICLE PERFORMANCE
PARAMETERS WITHOUT WINDING CHANGE OVER TECHNIQUE
t=linspace(0,100,1001);
vel=zeros(1,1001);
d=zeros(1,1001);
T=zeros(1,1001);
Tv=zeros(1,1001);
I=zeros(1,1001);
dT=0.1;
for n=1:1000
if vel(n)<5.376
vel(n+1)=vel(n)+dT*(1.51-(0.000527*(vel(n)^2)));
elseif vel(n)>=5.376
vel(n+1)=vel(n)+dT*(10.271-(1.628*vel(n))(0.000527*(vel(n)^2)));
end
d(n+1)=d(n)+0.1*vel(n);
T(n+1)=2.95+(60*((vel(n+1)-vel(n))/dT))+(0.03321*(vel(n)^2));
Tv(n+1)=2*T(n+1);
end
for n=1:1000
I(n+1)=((sqrt(0.24+(0.1138*T(n+1))))-.4875)/0.057;
end
vel=vel.*3.6;
figure(1)
plot(t(1:1001),vel);
axis([0 50 0 30]);
xlabel('Time/seconds');
ylabel('velocity/kph');
title('full power Acceleration');
hold
figure(2)
plot (vel,T);
hold
figure(3)
plot(t(1:1001),T);
figure(4)
plot(vel,I);
figure(5)
plot(t(1:1001),I);
figure(6)
plot (vel,Tv);
hold
figure(7)
plot(t(1:1001),Tv);

*************************************

78

Appendix-B
MATLAB SCRIPT FILE FOR SIMULATING VEHICLE PERFORMANCE
PARAMETERS WITH WINDING CHANGE OVER TECHNIQUE
t=linspace(0,100,1001);
vel=zeros(1,1001);
d=zeros(1,1001);
T=zeros(1,1001);
Tv=zeros(1,1001);
I=zeros(1,1001);
dT=0.1;
for n=1:1000
if vel(n)<5.376
vel(n+1)=vel(n)+dT*(1.51-(0.000527*(vel(n)^2)));
elseif vel(n)>=5.376 && vel(n)<6.25
vel(n+1)=vel(n)+dT*(10.271-(1.628*vel(n))(0.000527*(vel(n)^2)));
elseif vel(n)>=6.25
vel(n+1)=vel(n)+dT*(3.0486-(0.1465*vel(n))(0.000527*(vel(n)^2)));
end
d(n+1)=d(n)+0.1*vel(n);
T(n+1)=2.95+(60*((vel(n+1)-vel(n))/dT))+(0.03321*(vel(n)^2));
Tv(n+1)=2*T(n+1);
end
for n=1:1000
if vel(n)<6.25
I(n+1)=((sqrt(0.24+(0.1138*T(n+1))))-.4875)/0.057;
elseif vel(n)>=6.25
I(n+1)=T(n+1)/.4875;
end
end
vel=vel.*3.6;
figure(1)
plot(t(1:1001),vel);
axis([0 50 0 30]);
xlabel('Time/seconds');
ylabel('velocity/kph');
title('full power Acceleration');
hold
figure(2)
plot (vel,T);
hold
figure(3)
plot(t(1:1001),T);
figure(4)
plot(vel,I);
figure(5)
plot(t(1:1001),I);
figure(6)
plot (vel,Tv);
hold
figure(7)
plot(t(1:1001),Tv);

79