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Closed-loop Control of DC Drives with

Chopper
By
Dr. Ungku Anisa Ungku Amirulddin
Department of Electrical Power Engineering
College of Engineering

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

Outline
Closed Loop Control of DC Drives with Choppers
Current Control for DC Drives with Choppers
Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM) Controller
Hysteresis-Current Controller
Comparison between PWM and Hysteresis Controller
Transfer Function of PWM-Controlled Chopper
Two-quadrant
Four-quadrant
Design of Controllers
References
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

Closed Loop Control of DC Drives


Closed loop control is when the duty cycle is varied
automatically by a controller to achieve a reference
speed or torque
This requires the use of sensors to feed back the
actual motor speed and torque to be compared with
the reference values
Reference
signal

Plant

Controller

Output
signal

Sensor
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

Closed Loop Control of DC Drives


Feedback loops may be provided to satisfy one or more of

the following:
Protection
Enhancement of speed response
Improve steady-state accuracy

Variables to be controlled in drives:


Torque achieved by controlling current
Speed
Position
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

Closed Loop Control of DC Drives


For DC Drive,
this can be:
Flexible outer loops can be added/removed depending on control Controlled
rectifier or
requirements.
DC-DC
Control variable of inner loop (eg: speed, torque) can be limited by
converter

Cascade control structure

limiting its reference value

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

Closed Loop Control for DC


Drives with Choppers
Outer speed loop very similar to that in the controlled

rectifier dc drive
Inner current control loop different
Current
Control Loop

Speed Control
Loop

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

Current Control for DC Drives


with Choppers

Current control loop is used to control torque via

armature current (ia)

Output of current controller determines duty cycle (i.e.

switching) of DC-DC converter

Current controller can be either:


Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM) Controller
contain PI controllers, i.e. linear
fixed switching frequency
Hysteresis (bang-bang) controller
on-off controllers, i.e. non-linear
varying switching frequency

Selection of controller affects current control loop

transient response
Hence, affects speed loop bandwidth.

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

Current Control for Chopper


Drives PWM Controller
In two quadrant chopper, upper and

lower switches are complementary


Only ONE control signal required
Current error is passed to PI controller
to produce control voltage vc
vc is then passed to a PWM circuit to
produce the switching signal q.
q = 1 T1 on, T2 off Va = Vdc
q = 0 T1 off, T2 on Va = 0

1
q
0

vtri
i a* +

ierr

PI

vc

T1 on, Va = Vdc

vc < Vtri

T2 on, Va = 0

+
T1

Vdc

D1

ia
Vdc

+
T2

Pulse Width
Modulator
(PWM)

vc > Vtri

D2

Va
-

ia
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

Current Control for Chopper


Drives PWM Controller
In the PWM circuit:
vc is compared with a triangular
waveform
if vc > Vtri on signal is produced
(q = 1)
if vc < Vtri off signal is produced
(q = 0)

1
q
0

vc > Vtri
Ttri

vc

vc > Vtri

vc < Vtri

(1)

q
0

Chopper switching frequency is fixed

by triangular waveform frequency


regardless of operating conditions
Bandwith of current loop controller
is limited by frequency of Vtri
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

vc < Vtri

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

ton

Vdc

va
0

q=1
T1 on, va = Vdc

q=0
T2 on, va = 0

Current Control for Chopper Drives


PWM Controller
Ttri

In the PWM circuit:


Average value of q over a cycle

determines duty cycle of


chopper:

Ttri

t Ttri

q dt
t

ton, T1
Ttri

vc

Average armature voltage:

1
Va va dt Vdc
T 0

ton

va

Vdc

Va
0

va switches between Vdc and 0

average armature voltage Va depends on duty cycle (i.e. how long T1 is on)
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

10

Current Control for Chopper Drives


PWM Controller
PWM controls chopper duty cycle once in every
cycle
Frequency of Va fixed by frequency of Vtri
Hence, chopper is a variable voltage source with
average current control
Instantaneous current control is not exercised
Current can exceed maximum armature current
between two consecutive switching
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

11

Current Control for Chopper Drives


Hysteresis Controller
1 ia ia* - ia
q
* + i
i

i
0
a
a
a

Instantaneous current control


Current controlled within a narrow

band of excursion from the desired


value ia*
Hysteresis window determines
allowable deviation of ia

+
T1

ia

Vdc

Hysteresis
Controller
i a*

ia

+
T2

ia*
ia
ia

ierr

Vdc

D1

D2

Va
-

ia
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

12

Current Control for Chopper


Drives Hysteresis Controller
Actual current ia compared with reference

ia ia* + ia

current ia* to obtain error signal ierr


If ia ia* + ia q = 0, T2 on and Va = 0
If ia ia* - ia q = 1, T1 on and Va = Vdc

1 ia ia* - ia
q
* + i
i

i
0
a
a
a

Value of ia can be externally

set or made to be a fraction of ia


Chopper switching frequency is
not fixed
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

ia*
ia
ia

ia

ia ia* - ia

q=1
T1 on, va = Vdc

q=0
T2 on, va = 0
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Current Control for Chopper Drives


Qualitative Comparison
Characteristics

Switching
frequency

Hysteresis Controller

PWM Controller

Varying

Fixed
(follows sawtooth waveform
frequency i.e. carrier frequency)

Switching losses

High

Low

(due to varying
switching frequency)

Speed of
response
Ripple current

Fastest

Fast

(due to instantanous
change in current)

Adjustable

Fixed

(depends on hysteresis
window ia )

Filter size
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

Depends on ia
EEEB443 - Control & Drives

Small

Preferred method !

14

Closed Loop Control for DC Drives


with Choppers
Controller design procedure:
Obtain the transfer function of all drive subsystems

1.
a)

b)
c)

DC Motor & Load


Current feedback loop sensor
Speed feedback loop sensor

Exactly the same as before


(i.e. transfer functions obtained
in closed loop control using
controlled rectifier)

Design torque (current) control loop first

2.

Two options to choose from:


A.
Hysteresis Controller to design just choose value of ia
B.
PWM Controller (contains PI controller)
i.
determine transfer function of PWM-controlled chopper
ii.
design PI controller using the same procedure as in closed
loop control using controlled rectifier

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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Closed Loop Control for DC Drives


with Choppers
Controller design procedure (continued):
Then design the speed control loop

3.
i.

ii.

Obtain 1st order model of the designed current controller


Design the speed PI controller using the same procedure as
in closed loop control using controlled rectifier

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

16

Transfer Function of PWM-Controlled


Chopper
PWM current controller is preferred over Hysteresis

Controller
Before we can design the PI controller, need to obtain linear
relationship between control input vc and average armature
voltage Va for PWM method
Need transfer function
for PWM-controlled
chopper
vtri
i a* +

PI

vc

Pulse Width
Modulator
(PWM)

Chopper

Va

DC
motor

ia

ia

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

17

Transfer Function of PWM-Controlled


Two-quadrant Chopper
Need to obtain linear relationship between control input vc

and average armature voltage Va for PWM method


Case 1:

1
q
0

vc Vtri
Vtri

vc > Vtri
vc < Vtri

vc

-Vtri

T1 off all the time


i.e. ton, T1 = 0

Ttri
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

q0
t Ttri

q dt
t

ton, T1
Ttri

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

-Vtri

vc
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Transfer Function of PWM-Controlled


Two-quadrant Chopper
Case 2:
vc 0
Vtri

vc

-Vtri

T1 on cycle
i.e.
ton, T1 = 0.5Ttri

1
q
0

Ttri

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

q dt
t

ton, T1
Ttri

vc < Vtri

1, for 1/2 a cycle


q
0, for 1/2 a cycle
t Ttri

vc > Vtri

0.5

0.5

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

-Vtri

vc
19

Transfer Function of PWM-Controlled


Two-quadrant Chopper
Case 3:
vc Vtri

1
q
0

Vtri

vc

-Vtri

T1 on all the time


i.e. ton, T1 = Ttri

Ttri

q dt
t

ton, T1
Ttri

0.5

1
-Vtri

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

vc < Vtri

q 1
t Ttri

vc > Vtri

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

Vtri

vc
20

Transfer Function of PWM-Controlled


Two-quadrant Chopper
Relationship between and vc :
1
0.5
vc
2Vtri

(2)

0.5

For the two-quadrant chopper:


Vdc
Va Vdc 0.5Vdc
vc
2Vtri

vc

+Vtri

-Vtri

(3)

Hence, considering only the term due to vc, the twoquadrant

chopper gain is:


Va Vdc
Kr
vc 2Vtri
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

(4)

21

Transfer Function of PWM-Controlled


Four-quadrant Chopper
Recap Chopper operation:
Positive current:
Va = Vdc when T1 and T2 on
Va = 0 when current
freewheels through T2 and D4

+
T1

D1

D3

+ Va -

T3

Vdc
T4

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

D4

D2

T2

22

Transfer Function of PWM-Controlled


Four-quadrant Chopper
Recap Chopper operation:
Positive current:
Va = Vdc when T1 and T2 on
Va = 0 when current
freewheels through T2 and D4
Negative current:
Va = -Vdc when T3 and T4 on +
Va = 0 when current
freewheels through T4 and D2
Vdc
Output voltage can swing

between:
Vdc and -Vdc
Vdc and 0
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

T1

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

D3

+ Va -

T4

D1

D4

D2

T3

T2

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Transfer Function of PWM-Controlled


Four-quadrant Chopper
Need to obtain linear relationship between control input vc

and average armature voltage Va for PWM method


Four quadrant chopper has two legs, so it requires two
switching signals (one for each leg)
Depending on relationship between the two switching signals,
4-quadrant chopper has two switching schemes:
Bipolar switching
+
D1
D3
T1
Unipolar switching
T3
+ Va Vdc
Switching scheme
determines output
T4
T2
D2
D4

voltage swing between


Vdc and -Vdc or Vdc and 0.
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

Leg A

Leg B

24

Transfer Function of PWM-Controlled


Four-quadrant Chopper (Bipolar Switching)
Bipolar Switching PWM
Leg A and Leg B obtain switching signals from the same control signal vc
Switching of Leg A and Leg B are always complementary
q

1 vc > Vtri
q
0 vc < Vtri

Leg A

q = 1,q =0

+
T1
vtri

D3

+ Va -

T3

T1 on, T2 on
Va= Vdc

T2

q = 0, q =1
T4 on, T3 on
Va= -Vdc

Vdc
T4

vc
q
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

D1

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

D4

D2

Leg B
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Transfer Function of PWM-Controlled


Four-quadrant Chopper (Bipolar Switching)
Bipolar Switching PWM

Va = Va+- Va-

Leg A

2vtri

vc

+
T1

D1

D3

+ Va -

T3

Vdc

vtri

Vdc

Va+

0
Vdc

T4

D2

D4

T2

Va-

0
Vdc

vc

Va

Va+

Va-

-Vdc

Leg B

Va jumps between +Vdc and Vdc Bipolar Switching PWM


Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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Transfer Function of PWM-Controlled


Four-quadrant Chopper (Bipolar Switching)
Bipolar Switching PWM
2vtri

1 vc > Vtri
q
0 vc < Vtri

Va AVdc
ton, T1
A
T

2vtri

vc

Va+

vc

Vdc

Vdc

Vdc

Vdc
Va0

Va = Va+- VaVdc

Va

q (1 q)

Va BVdc
ton, T3
B
T

Va BVdc 1 A Vdc

-Vdc

Va jumps between +Vdc and Vdc


Bipolar Switching PWM
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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Transfer Function PWM-Controlled


Four-quadrant Chopper (Bipolar Switching)
Each leg is a two-quadrant chopper.

Bipolar
Switching PWM

Output of Leg A (average):

Va AVdc

(5)

ton, T1
1

A
0.5
vc

2Vtri
Ttri
Output of Leg B (average):
where

(6)

V BVdc 1 A Vdc

2vtri

Vdc

(7)

Va+

B ton, T3 Ttri toff , T1 Ttri 1 A (8)

Va-

where

Subt. (6) into (9)


Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

(9)

V
Va dc vc
Vtri

Vdc
0
Vdc

Hence, average voltage across the motor:

Va Va Va 2 A 1Vdc

vc

0
Vdc

Va
-Vdc

28

Transfer Function PWM-Controlled


Four-quadrant Chopper (Unipolar Switching)
Unipolar Switching PWM
Leg B switching signals obtained from the inverse of control signal for

Leg A
1 vc > Vtri
qa
0 vc < Vtri

qa

Leg A

vtri
vc

T1

D1

D3

+ Va -

T3

Vdc
vtri

T4

-vc

1 -vc > Vtri


qb
0 -vc < Vtri
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

qb

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

D4

D2

T2

Leg B
29

Transfer Function PWM-Controlled


Four-quadrant Chopper (Unipolar Switching)
Unipolar Switching PWM
qa

vc
2Vtri

Leg A

-vc

vtri

vc

T1

D1

D3

+ Va -

T3

Vdc

Va+

Vdc
vtri

Vdc

T4
-vc

Va-

D2

D4

T2

Vdc
Va

qb

Va+

Va-

Leg B

Va = Va+- Va-

Va jumps between +Vdc and 0 Unipolar Switching PWM


Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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Transfer Function PWM-Controlled


Four-quadrant Chopper (Unipolar Switching)
Unipolar Switching PWM
vc

vc
2Vtri

-vc

1 vc > Vtri
qa
q
0 vc < Vtri a

V AVdc
ton, T1
A
T

2Vtri

-vc
Vdc
qb q
b
0

Vdc
0
Vdc

Va+

Vdc
Va0

Va = Va+- VaVdc

1 -vc > Vtri


-v < V
0 c tri

Va BVdc
ton, T3
B
T

Va
0

Va jumps between +Vdc and 0


Unipolar Switching PWM
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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Transfer Function PWM-Controlled


Four-quadrant Chopper (Unipolar Switching)
Each leg is a two-quadrant chopper.

Unipolar
Switching PWM

Output of Leg A (average):

Va AVdc

(10)
vc

ton, T1
1
0.5
A
vc
2Vtri
Ttri
Output of Leg B (average):
Va BVdc
where

2Vtri

-vc

(11)
(12)

Vdc

Va+

where ton, T3
1

vc 1 A (13)V
B
0.5

2Vtri
Ttri
Hence, average voltage across motor armature:
(14) V
V V V V 2 1V

Vdc

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

dc

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

dc

0
Vdc

Same as Bipolar Switching Scheme!

0
32

PWM-Controlled Four-quadrant Chopper


Comparison between Bipolar & Unipolar Switching
Bipolar Switching PWM
2vtri

Unipolar Switching PWM


vc

vc
2Vtri

Va+

Vdc

-vc

Va+

0
Vdc

Vdc
Va-

Va-

0
Vdc

Va
-Vdc

V
Va dc vc
Vtri

Output voltage swings from Vdc and Vdc


Output voltage frequency equal to
frequency of triangle voltage (ftri)
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

Vdc

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

0
Vdc

Va
0

Output voltage swings from Vdc and 0


Output voltage frequency equal to
2 times frequency of triangle voltage
(ftri)
33

PWM-Controlled Four-quadrant Chopper


Comparison between Bipolar & Unipolar Switching
Characteristics

Bipolar Switching

Unipolar Switching

Vdc and -Vdc

Vdc and 0

ftri = frequency of Vtri

2ftri

Output voltage swing


Output voltage
frequency

Current ripple = i

ripple

Vdc
f output voltage

For same ftri and Vdc, unipolar scheme gives:


better output voltage waveform (less ripple)
lower current ripple
better frequency response
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

34

Transfer Function PWM-Controlled


Chopper: Two and Four Quadrant
Gain of the PWM-controlled chopper:

Va Vdc
Two -quadrant: K r v 2V
c
tri

Fourquadrant:

Kr

Va Vdc

vc Vtri

(15)
(16)

where Vdc = dc link voltage


Vtri = maximum control voltage
(i.e. peak of the triangular waveform)

Chopper also has a delay:

Tr

1
2 fc

(17)

where fc = carrier (triangular) waveform frequency


Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

35

Transfer Function of Subsystems


PWM-controlled Chopper: G s
r

Kr
1 sTr

(18)

Note: Kr and Tr as given in equations (15) (17) above.


Other subsystem transfer functions are as observed in Closed-loop
Control of DC Drives with Controlled Rectifier.
DC Motor and Load:
m s m s Ia s

Va s Ia s Va s

m s
Kb

Ia s Bt 1 sTm

Ia s
1 sTm
K1
1 sT1 1 sT2
Va s

Current Feedback: H c
Speed feedback: G s

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

K
1 sT

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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Design of Controllers
Block Diagram of Motor Drive
Current
Control Loop

Speed Control
Loop

Assume that we are using PWM controlled chopper


Control loop design starts from inner (fastest) loop to
outer(slowest) loop

Only have to solve for one controller at a time


Not all drive applications require speed control (outer loop)
Performance of outer loop depends on inner loop

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

37

Design of Controllers
Current Controller
PWM-controlled
Chopper

PI type current controller:


Loop gain function:

G c s

DC Motor
& Load

K c 1 sTc
sTc

K1Kc Kr H c

1 sTc 1 sTm
G Hi s

T
c

s1 sT1 1 sT2 1 sTr

(19)
(20)

Design procedure - same as for current controller in closed-

loop control using controlled rectifiers

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

38

Design of Controllers
Current loop 1st order approximation
Approximated by adding Tr to T1 T3 T1 Tr

Ia s

*
Ia s
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

K c K r K 1Tm
1

1
1 sT3
Tc
K c K r K 1 H cTm
1
Tc

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

1 sT

Ki

1 sTi

(21)

39

Design of Controllers
Current loop 1st order approximation
where

T3
Ti
1 K fi
Ki

K fi

(22)

K fi

1
H c 1 K fi

(23)

K1K c K r H cTm
Tc

(24)

1st order approximation of current loop used in speed loop

design.
If more accurate speed controller design is required, values of
Ki and Ti should be obtained experimentally.
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

40

Design of Controllers
Speed Controller

PI type current controller:

DC Motor
& Load

K s 1 sTs
G s s
sTs

1st order
approximation
of current
loop

(25)

Assume there is unity speed feedback:


H
G s
1
1 sT
Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

(26)

41

Design of Controllers
Speed Controller

Loop gain function:


K B K s Ki

1 sTs
GHs

BtTs s1 sTi 1 sTm

(27)

Design procedure - same as for speed controller in

closed-loop control using controlled rectifiers


Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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References
Krishnan, R., Electric Motor Drives: Modeling, Analysis and

Control, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 2001.


Mohan, Underland, Robbins, Power Electronics: Converters,
Applications and Design, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, USA,
1995.
Nik Idris, N. R., Short Course Notes on Electrical Drives,
UNITEN/UTM, 2008.

Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

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