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International Master In

Sustainable Transportations and


Electrical Power Systems

Universidad
de Oviedo

Electrical urban mass transport:


metro-transit systems
Semester 1 - Power systems for sustainable transportation
Lecturer: Maria Carmen Falvo

Outline

An introduction on electrical urban mass transport

Metro-transit systems: main features

Power systems for metro-transit:

Supplying architecture, traction line and electrical sub-stations

Metro-trains

Energy saving issues in metro-transit transport

Design&sizing basics and some tips on simulation


software

Metro-transit system in Rome: an example of real application


2

Design&sizing basics and some tips on


simulation software for metro-transit transport

For the design and sizing of metro-transit systems, different


models are necessary:

to simulate the electro-mechanical behavior of metro-trains for


the evaluation of the metro-trains power consumption and for
defining the timetable of the line;

to simulate the electrical behavior of the supplying traction


system to carry out all the variables necessary to evaluate the
energy state of the traction system.

The objective of design and sizing is to define as minimum:

Number, location and size of the groups in ESS;

Configuration of the traction line and section of each conductor. 3

Design&sizing basics and some tips on


simulation software for metro-transit transport

With this task it is necessary:

to have some standards as references for the voltage level


and main components size (ESS, traction line);

to respect the typical limits reported in the technical


standards on the main electrical variables (voltage, current
and power) and special requirements by the owner of the
line;

to know the electrical load of the power systems (trains


consumption).
4

Design&sizing basics and some tips on


simulation software for metro-transit transport

Standards as references for the voltage level and main


components size:

Rated voltage: 0.75, 1.5 kV;

Rated power of transformers in ESS: 3,6 or 5,4 MW;

Section of the traction line:


100-150

mm2 for the contact wires;

120-150

mm2 for the carrying cables;

100-150

mm2 for the feeder.

Design&sizing basics and some tips on


simulation software for metro-transit transport

Limits reported in the technical standards on the main


electrical variables:

CENELEC EN 50163, 2004 Railway applications. Supply voltages


of traction systems on the maximum and minimum voltage at
pantograph:

500-900 V for 750 Vdc,


1.000-1.800 for 1.500 Vdc.

the current and power limits on the traction line and on the
machines in ESS, as a function of the size.

To these limits it is possible to add specific requirements in


operation by the owner of the metro-system that can deal
with the operation in fault conditions.
6

Design&sizing basics and some tips on


simulation software for metro-transit transport

The first step is to know the electric loads to supply.

The main electric load of a traction power systems are the metrotrains that are variable load in time and space.

In
function
of
the
phase
of
the
motion
(traction/braking/coasting/stop) the value of the power
required/produced at the pantograph changes.

In order to know this time and space variable load profile an electromechanical simulator is needed.

The electro-mechanical simulator starts from input data on train


(mass, tractive/braking effort in function of speed) and on line
(length, layout, slopes, curves).
7

Design&sizing basics and some tips on


simulation software for metro-transit transport

It includes a model, able to give in output position, speed and


acceleration of the train at each simulation time step.

The model is based on the balance of forces equation:


F = R + M (dv/dt) = (r1 + r2 + r3 + r4) M

r1 = resistance on a flat and straight path (rolling and aerodynamic)

r2 = resistance associated to the slopes

r3 = resistance associated to the curves

r4 = equivalent resistance to acceleration (inertia)

All the components are referred to the unit of mass [daN/kg].


8

Design&sizing basics and some tips on


simulation software for metro-transit transport
The component r1 is the resistance on a flat and straight path and
includes:

Rolling friction component that is small and depending on the contact


between the wheels and rail;

Aerodynamic component that is a function of the square of the train


speed and depends on the type of layout of the line and the shape of
the train.
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

r1 [daN/t]

20

40

60
80
100
Speed [km/h]

120

140

160

Design&sizing basics and some tips on


simulation software for metro-transit transport

r2 and r3 are the resistance components associated to the slope


and to the curves.

The component associated to the curve is linked to the curve radius (R)
with the formula: r2 = a / (R - b). a and b are two coefficients given in
function of the type of wheels and rail.

The component associated to the slope is directly link to the slope


value in %0 (i) with the formula: r3 = R3 / M = (P/M) i = g i, where i = tg

P sen

P cos

R (m)

>350

650

55

350-250

650

65

250-150

650

30
10

Design&sizing basics and some tips on


simulation software for metro-transit transport
The tractive effort depends on the type of drive on board. In any
case it is a function of the speed with a specific curve.

Generally for low speed the tractive effort is maximum, then it


becomes inversely proportional to speed (constant power).

The traction curve gives the relation between the tractive force and
the speed.

In case of braking the value of the electric effort depends on the


specific drives: it is a component of the total braking effort.
Braking Effort [kN]

F Trattive effort [kN]

Fm = f Pa

v0

MAX

350
325
300
275
250
225
200
175
150
125
100
75
50
25
0

Electrical Braking Effort


Pneumatic Braking Effort
Total Braking Effort

Speed [km/h]

10

20

30

40

Speed [km/h]

50

60

70

11

80

Design&sizing basics and some tips on


simulation software for metro-transit transport
The intersection of the total resistance curve and tractive effort one
gives the real speed of the train for each time step.

From the speed it is possible to know the acceleration and the


position of the train in the time.

a [m/s2] , v [m/s], s[m]

F, R [daN]

W = w(v)

F = f(v)
R = r(v)

a= a(t)

v = v(t)

sa
s = s(t)

ta
vregime

t [s]

v [km/h]

12

Design&sizing basics and some tips on


simulation software for metro-transit transport

The simulator takes in also the model for the evaluation of the
power required and regenerated by the train during its motoring
and braking phases, calculated at each simulation time step.

In fact the mechanical power required/given by the electrical motors


P is given as the product of the tractive effort F and the speed v:
Pm = F v

Knowing the efficiency of the electrical motor, it is possible to have


the electrical power required/generated by the train in its traction
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and braking phases.

Design&sizing basics and some tips on


simulation software for metro-transit transport

14

Design&sizing basics and some tips on


simulation software for metro-transit transport

The electro-mechanical simulator is generally able to give as


output also the timetable of the line for a given traffic
scenario, drawing the position-time curve for each train
present on the track in the simulated hour.

With this aim it is necessary to set in input:

the trains departure time on the two ways,


specific trains sequence,
trains stop time period in each station,
trains shift time on the two ways.

Progressiva (km) 90,00

Martina Franca
Locorotondo

80,00

70,00
Alberobello
60,00
Noci (52+860)
Laureto
Putignano
(48 397)
Grotte Castellana

50,00

40,00

30,00

20,00

15

10,00

0,00
25200

25560

25920

26280

26640

27

Design&sizing basics and some tips on simulation


software for metro-transit transport

An electric simulator receives


as input the data from the
electro-mechanic tool, with
the aim of carrying out all the
variables necessary to evaluate
the energy state of the
traction system.

In addition the data for electrical infrastructures definition are


required.
16

Design&sizing basics and some tips on


simulation software for metro-transit transport

Input by electro-mechanical simulator: power profile and


position of each train for each time step.

Input on the power systems configuration:

Rated voltage of the system (standard);

Number and position on the line of ESSs (design choice);

Number and size of the groups in ESS (design/standard choice);

Number and section of conductors of the traction line


(design/standard choice);

Equivalent resistance (per km) of the ESS groups (calculation);

Equivalent resistance (per km) of the traction line and rail


(calculation).

rline =

Seq

rrail

1
=
2p

17

VSSE
VSSE
VSSE
VSSE

R SSE4

R SSE3

R SSE2

R SSE1

P binPTr3

R binPL3

RbinD L1

RbinD L2

R binDL3

P binPTr1

P binDTr1

P binDTr2

P binDTr3

RbinP L2

P binPTr2

RbinP L1

Design&sizing basics and some tips on simulation


software for metro-transit transport

Since

Matching the consumption data


of each train, the traffic scenario
information and the electrical
topology of the supplying power
system, the tool performs a DC
power flow calculation for each
time step.

trains consumption is considered independent from voltage at


pantograph, the equations are non-linear. An iterative method is required
to solve the power flow problem: the Newton-Raphson algorithm is
19
chosen for this task.

Design&sizing basics and some tips on


simulation software for metro-transit transport

The output of the electric simulator are:

The voltage in the nodes;

The current on the branches.

In their function it is possible to verify the respect of the


limits in terms of:

Maximum and minimum voltage (standard);

Maximum current on the traction line (thermal limit);

Maximum power on the ESS groups (temporary overload);

and the possible specific requirements given by the owner of


the metro-transit system (usually regarding its operation in
fault conditions).
20

Design&sizing basics and some tips on


simulation software for metro-transit transport

The same models and software used for design and sizing can
be applied for energy analysis on a given system.

In this case the output is used not for checking the right size
and design of the power system, but for evaluating its energy
performance.

In addition to the conventional electrical magnitudes (voltage,


current and power), energy parameters are usually
introduced.

A real case is shown to better explain: line A of Rome metrotransit.


21

Outline

An introduction on electrical urban mass transport

Metro-transit systems: main features

Power systems for metro-transit:

Supplying architecture, traction line and electrical sub-stations

Metro-trains

Energy saving issues in metro-transit transport

Design&sizing basics and some tips on simulation software

Metro-transit system in Rome: an example of real


application
22

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application

The metro-transit system of Rome city includes just two lines.


Only in the last years, an expansion project of 1962 has being
in progress.

The past

The present

The future

23

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application

The network opened in 1955, making it


the oldest metro-transit system in Italy.

There are currently two metro-lines: Line


A (orange) and Line B (blue).

The current network is 41.5 km long, has


an X shape with the lines intersecting
at Termini Station, the main train station
in Rome.

Line B splits at the Bologna station in two


branches.
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Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application
n. of
stations

N. of pass. in
1 year
[million]

Travel time
[minutes]

Line

Terminals

Opened

Last ext.

Length
[km]

Line A

Battistini
Anagnina

1980

2000

18.4

27

164.2

41

Line B

Laurentina
Rebibbia / Conca
d'Oro

1955

2012

23.1

25

109.5

34/32

41.5 km

52

Total

Line A connects the north-west of the city with the south-east. It has 27
stations, with terminals at Battistini and Anagnina. Despite its name, Line A
was the second metro-line in Rome.
Line B connects the north-east of the city with the south-west. It has 25
stations with terminals at Rebibbia, Conca d'Oro and Laurentina. A new 3,9
km long branch (B1) with 4 new stations was opened connecting Piazza
26
Bologna with Conca d'Oro on 13 June 2012.

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application

Future expansion is scheduled for the metro-transit in Rome


including 2 new lines:

Line C, currently under construction;

Line D, whose start of the construction has been currently


indefinitely postponed.

27

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application

Line C will run from Grottarossa, north of


the Vatican city, to Pantano.
Line C will intersect with Line A at
Ottaviano and at San Giovanni, and with
Line B at Colosseo.
It will also intersect with the planned Line
D at Piazza Venezia, creating a second
metro hub in Rome.

The route is about 25.5 km long and has 30 stations. 17.6 km are
underground and the rest is in open air.

Maximum transport capacity: 24.000 passengers / h for 1 way


28

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application

Progress on Line C has been slow


and repeatedly delayed.

Rome is one of the oldest cities


in
the
world
and
the
construction of the metro system
has encountered considerable
obstacles owing to the frequent
archaeological discoveries.

29

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application

Train fleet for Line C will include 30 vehicles with train


cars for:

a total length of 107 m,


maximum capacity of 1.200 passengers per train,
maximum speed of 80 km/h,
commercial speed 35 km/h.

The trains will be totally automatic, and will use the


Ansaldo-Breda Driverless metro-trains also featured on
Copenhagen metro-transit.

Estimated cost of the work: about 3 billions of Euros.

30

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application

Line D would link the north


eastern areas of Rome with
EUR in the south west.

Line D would be 22 km long


and will feature 22 stations.

It would intersect Line A at


Spagna, Line B and Roma-Lido
railway at EUR Magliana, Line
B1 at Jonio, Line C at Venezia.
31

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application

Power systems for the actual metrotransit in Rome includes:

6 main supplying feeders by the


local electricity utility (ACEA) at 20
kV: 2 dedicated for Line A
(Valcannuta and Cinecitt), 3 for
Line B (S. Basilio, Laurentina) and B1
(Conca DOro) and 1 as backup
entrance (Villa Borghese) for the
others by Smistamento Termini bus.
16 ESSs (6 for Line A, 8 for Line B
and 2 for B1), with a line rated
voltage of 1.500 V DC.

LINEA
B1

32

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application

For Line A the power system is


composed by 6 ESSs.
Each ESS includes conversion groups,
whose voltage output is 1.5 kV DC for
the traction line supplying, and
equipped with AC/DC full diode bridge
converters with a nominal power
ratings of 3.6 MW.
By 2002 an expansion project of the
metro-line had scheduled the change of
the trains fleet, with a progressive
introduction of new vehicles with
superior energy consumption.

Traction Line
2*100 mm2 contact wires 2*120
mm2 carrying cables +2*150 mm2
feeder from ESS1 to ESS4 +1*120
mm2 feeders from ESS4 to ESS6
33

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application

The new vehicles are MA300 trains, made by CAF


Espania and including Bombardier Drives.
MA300 allows braking energy saving, but it has a
higher energy consumption, due to the superior
nominal power ratings of drives and to the presence
of onboard conditioning plants.

Braking Effort [kN]

350
325
300
275
250
225
200
175
150
125
100
75
50
25
0

Electrical Braking Effort


Pneumatic Braking Effort
Total Braking Effort

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Speed [km/h]

Trains Main Figures


Rated Power [MW]
Weight in no-load (no passenger) and full-load (max n. of passengers) condition [kg]

4,415
181.600/233.000

Auxiliary Service Power [MW]

0,4

Constant Deceleration [m/s2]

-1,1

Minimum Voltage for a Constant Power [kV]

1,05

Maximum Line Voltage for the recovery of the braking power [kV]

1,734

80

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application

A parallel upgrading action has been performed on the power


systems and Met.Ro. (Rome metro-transit company) involved the
Power System Research Group at Sapienza.

In this framework, some simulations have been carried out for the
assessment of the impact of the braking energy recovering on the
power consumptions.

The group proposed some energy performance indexes for getting an


assessment of energy saving that could be reached thanks to this
recovering.

35

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application
Energy performance indexes are based on
specific parameters:

EESSW REC the supplied energy by ESS in case of


recovering of the trains braking energy;

EESSW/O REC the supplied energy by ESS without


the recovering of the trains braking energy;

ETR REC.ED the effective recovered braking energy;

ETR REC.BLE the potential recoverable braking


energy;

ETR REQ the requested energy by the trains.

Eloss_ESS

EESS

EESS

ETR REC.ED

ETR REQ

ETR REC.BLE

36

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application

Energy saving percentage (ES%), defined as:

EESSW REC is the supplied energy by ESS in case of recovering of the trains
braking energy;

EESSW/O REC is the supplied energy by ESS without the recovering of the
trains braking energy.

ES% values give an assessment of the impact of the braking


energy recovering in terms of energy saving.
37

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application

Effective recovered braking energy percentage (ER%) in


respect of the recoverable braking energy, defined as:

ETR REC.ED is the effective recovered braking energy;

ETR REC.BLE is the potential recoverable braking energy.

ER% values give an assessment of the capacity of the line to


receive the braking energy by the train.
38

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application

Effective recovered braking energy percentage (ER%) in


respect of the total required energy by the trains, defined as:

ETR REC.ED is the effective recovered braking energy;

ETR REQ is the requested energy by the trains.

ER% values give an assessment of the contribute of the


recovered braking energy at the traction load.
39

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application

A specialized tool to evaluate the energy performance indexes


has been developed. The tool is able to calculate and draw the
parameters of interest for the energy saving assessments,
such as:

for each train, the recoverable and recovered braking power


and the pantograph voltage;

for the global system, the total required power by the


trains, the total supplied power by the ESSs, the total
potential recoverable and effective recovered braking
power.
40

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application

The simulations have been carried out for the system energy
performance evaluation, considering MA300 trains running.
A constant stop time period in station, equal to 20 s, has been chosen as
medium value.
Simulations are then performed referring to different values of trains
time interval. The results are here reported for 3 Traffic Scenarios (TSs).

Trains Time Interval


[s]
Traffic Scenario 1 (peak hour)

180

Traffic Scenario 2

300

Traffic Scenario 3 (off-peak hour)

600
41

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application

For each TS, global system energy values are calculated:

For each TS, single train energy values are calculated:

in a base case (no recovering on the line): total supplied energy by all the
ESS;
in case of recovery of the braking energy on the line: total potential
recoverable energy by all the trains, total effective recovered energy by
all the trains, total required energy by all the trains, total supplied energy
by all the ESS (HV side).
the potential recoverable energy,
the effective recovered energy,
the required energy.

These values are the basis for the calculation of the indexes
proposed for the energy performance analysis.
42

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application
Global System Energy Values for 1h of simulation
In case of recovery of the braking energy on the line, without
reversible ESS and storage system on board
Total Potential
Recoverable
Energy by all
the trains
[MWh]
Traffic Scenario 1
Traffic Scenario 2
Traffic Scenario 3

10,33
6,60
3,31

Total
Supplied
Total Effective
Total
Energy by all
Total Required
Recovered
Supplied
the ESS in
Energy by all
Energy by all
Energy by all
the base
the trains
the trains
the ESS (HV
case [MWh]
[MWh]
[MWh]
side) [MWh]
9,47
5,93
2,54

29,05
17,72
9,51

22,46
13,12
7,61

34,45
20,53
10,80

43

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application

Making a comparison between system energy values for


different TS, it is possible to point out that for an increasing of
the trains time interval:

the total required energy by the trains decreases;

the total energy supplied by the ESS decreases;

the total potential recoverable braking energy decreases;

the total effective recovered braking energy decreases.

44

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application
Energy Performance Indexes for the Whole System
ES%

ER'%

ER"%

Traffic Scenario 1

34,80%

91,67%

32,60%

Traffic Scenario 2

36,09%

89,85%

31,47%

Traffic Scenario 3

29,56%

76,75%

26,73%

An energy saving from 29 to 35 % is possible thanks to recovering of


the braking energy.

Not the whole recoverable energy is recovered, but a good


percentage (76-91 %).

The recovered energy is a consistent percentage of the total load


(27-32 %).
45

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application

For a total trains interval variation from 120 to 600:

ES% decreases from 38% to 30%;

ER% decreases from 98% to 77%;

ER% decreases from 35% to 27%.

In other words, when the trains number on the line is smaller,


the braking energy potential available is smaller, the capacity of
the line to receive this energy is reduced, and the energy saving
is reduced.

46

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application

This differential energy is usually


dissipated in heat by means of onboard rheostats.

18,00

Total potential recoverable braking energy

16,00
14,00

Total effective recovered braking energy

The difference between the potential


recoverable and the effective recovered
braking energy changes for each trains
time interval with a non-linear
function, and it is included in a range
from 0.2 to 1.2 MWh.

12,00

Difference between total potential


recoverable braking energy and total
effective recovered braking energy

10,00
8,00
6,00
4,00
2,00
0,00
120"

150"

180"
240"
300"
Trains frequency [s]

360"

600"

In alternative it could be recovered


using storage stationary systems.
47

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application

To know the daily value, it is possible to consider a real


diagram of trains frequency in 24 hours service that includes:

6 hours without service and 18 hours with service;

4 hours of service with a trains interval at 150;

4 hours of service with a trains interval at 360;

10 hours of service with a trains interval at 240.

The daily value of energy dissipated in heat becomes 14.5


MWh.

A stationary system of storage would manage large quantity


of energy that could be stored in batteries located along the
48
traction line in each ESS.

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application

[MW]

5,5

Another

comparison has been made between


potential
recoverable
and
effective
recovered braking power of a train in
specific TS (600 train interval).

Recovered Braking Power


Recoverable Braking Power

Pantograph Voltage

4,5
4
3,5
3
2,5
2
1,5

[s]

1
0

60

120

180

240

300

360

420

480

540

600

Their

difference is the power dissipated in


heat by means of on-board rheostat and it is
about 2 MW.

It is possible to find an effective recoverable braking energy of 251


kWh and a potential recovered braking energy of 205 kWh for the
single train that means 50 kWh could be recovered using storage
49
systems on board, in 1 hour of service.

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application

Referring to a TS with 150 trains interval :

an equal effective recoverable braking energy of 251 kWh is found

a potential recovered braking energy 249 kWh for a single train,

only 2 kWh could be recovered using storage systems in 1 hour of


service.

These results point out that, if the storage system is located onboard
the train, the value of energy that it has really to manage in 1 hour
is very variable in function of the traffic condition.
50

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application

In any case for a single train there are large powers (about 1
MW) and small energies (1-10 kWh), that means the most
appropriate system to install onboard for storage are ultracapacitors and not batteries.

Anyway the introduction of storage systems onboard train is a


solution that would require an upgrading of the vehicle drives
design and so it could not be operated by a metro-transit utility
in brief time.

51

Metro-transit system in Rome:


an example of real application

The example of application shows that:

the indexes give an assessment on the effective energy saving


achievable thanks to the regeneration of the train braking energy;

their evaluations provide a procedure to assess the impact of


different technical solutions for improving energy saving, such as
storage devices at the electrical sub-stations and on board the
vehicles;

the procedure based on the indexes proposed provides also a


method to compare different metro-transit lines.

52

Related Project

The indexes have been used also to compare the energy


performance of two real metro-lines in Italy (Rome) and in
Spain (Madrid) in collaboration with the Instituto de
Investigacion Tecnologica of the University of Comillas ICAI in
Madrid.

The results are presented in a paper on an International


Journal: M.C. Falvo, D. Sbordone, A. Fernndez-Cardador, A. P.
Cucala, R. R. Pecharromn, A.J. Lpez-Lpez, Energy savings in
metro-transit systems: A comparison between operational Italian
and Spanish lines, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical
Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit.
53

Related projects

Zem2All (Zero Emissions Mobility To All) project, promoted by the Enel Group
through Endesa and part of the Malaga Smart City project.

Electric vehicles on road can be charged for free at Malaga train station
through a charging station in the underground car park, harnessing energy
generated during the braking of trains.

The charging station can also draw energy from a PV system installed at the
station which are equipped with a storage system.

http://www.enel.com/en-GB/media/news/enels-electricmobility/p/090027d981fe4205

Related projects

Southeastern
Pennsylvania
Transportation Authority (SEPTA) is
now taking innovative steps on
Philadelphia Metro-transit systems,
combining regenerative braking with
electricity storage.

It installed a 1.5 MWh bank of lithium


ion batteries at the Letterly substation
in Philadelphia.

Other cities in US are starting to


follow the same project.

http://www.scientificamerican.com/art
icle/braking-trains-coupling-withenergy-storage-for-big-electricitysavings/

55

Related projects

Research Project, in collaboration and funded by Met.Ro. (Rome Metro-Transit


System Operator), "Study on the power plants for the supplying of the trains on the
metro-line A in Rome.

Research Project, funded by the University of Rome Sapienza, "Study for the energy
savings in an urban mass transport system in the presence of innovative devices for
energy storage."

Research Project, funded by University of Rome Sapienza, "A smart grid for a smart
transport. Design of an energy-efficient and environmentally sustainable integrated
mobility system. New models for energy and power systems analysis project.

Italian Research Project, funded by and in collaboration with ENEA (National


Agency for Energy and Environment), call "Instruments and technologies for energy
efficiency in the services sector", funded in Program Agreement MSE-ENEA on
Electric System Research (Ricerca di Sistema).
56

International Master In
Sustainable Transportations and
Electrical Power Systems

Universidad
de Oviedo

Electrical urban mass transport:


metro-transit systems
Semester 1 - Power systems for sustainable transportation
Lecturer: Maria Carmen Falvo

Sapienza Software - Electro-mechanical Simulator

58

Sapienza Software - Electro-mechanical Simulator:


input on the train and traffic scenario

59

Sapienza Software - Electro-mechanical Simulator:


input on the train and traffic scenario

60

Sapienza Software - Electro-mechanical Simulator:


input on track

61

Software Sapienza: input on track

62

Sapienza Software - Electro-mechanical Simulator:


output

63

Sapienza Software - Electro-mechanical Simulator:


output

km) 90,00

80,00

70,00

60,00

50,00

40,00

30,00

20,00

10,00

0,00
25200

64
25560

25920

26280

26640

27

Sapienza Software - Electrical Simulator

65

Sapienza Software - Electrical Simulator:


some output
Voltage at the pantograph for different values of the
tracion line section
3200
3000
2800
V [V]

Seq = 550 mm^2


Seq = 600 mm^2

2600

Seq = 650 mm^2


Seq = 750 mm^2

2400
2200
2000

Time [min]

66

Sapienza Software - Electrical Simulator:


some output
Power Required at ESSs
18000
16000
14000
12000
P [kW]

SSE5

10000

SSE6

8000

SSE7
SSE8

6000
4000
2000
0

Time [min]

67

Sapienza Software - Electrical Simulator:


some output
Current on the branches supplied by ESS6
3500
3000
2500
I [A]

2000

Binario 2 Nord

1500

Binario 1 Nord

1000

Binario 2 Sud

500

Binario 1 Sud

0
-500
-1000

Time [min]
68

Sapienza Software - Electrical Simulator:


some output

30
[MW]
POTENZA RECUPERABILE

POTENZA RECUPERATA

25

20

15

10

0
0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105120135150165180195210225240255270285300315330345360375390405420435450465480495510525540555570585600615630645660675690705720

69

[s]

Sapienza Software - Electrical Simulator:


some output
CONFRONTO TRA POTENZA RECUPERATA E POTENZA ASSORBITA DAI TRENI
60
[MW]
POTENZA ASSORBITA DAI TRENI

POTENZA RECUPERATA

50

40

30

20

10

0
0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105120135150165180195210225240255270285300315330345360375390405420435450465480495510525540555570585600615630645660675690705720

70

[s]

Sapienza Software - Electrical Simulator:


some output
5

Recovered Braking Power


Recoverable Braking Power

[kW]

4,5

Pantograph Voltage

4
3,5
3
2,5
2
1,5
[s]

1
0

60

120

180

240

300

360

420

480

540

600

71