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Interna6onal

Master In
Sustainable Transporta6ons and
Electrical Power Systems

Universidad
de Oviedo

Electrical urban mass transport:


metro-transit systems
Semester 1 - Power systems for sustainable transporta6on
Lecturer: Maria Carmen Falvo

Outline
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An introduc6on on electrical urban mass transport

Metro-transit systems: main features

Power systems for metro-transit:


}

Supplying architecture, trac6on line and electrical sub-sta6ons

Metro-trains

Energy saving issues in metro-transit transport

Design&sizing basics and some 6ps on simula6on soHware

Metro-transit system in Rome: an example of real


applica6on

Outline
}

An introduc<on on electrical urban mass transport

Metro-transit systems: main features

Power systems for metro-transit:


}

Supplying architecture, trac6on line and electrical sub-sta6ons

Metro-trains

Energy saving issues in metro-transit transport

Design&sizing basics and some 6ps on simula6on soHware

Metro-transit system in Rome: an example of real


applica6on

Urban mass transport systems


}

A must for the mobility systems: energy and environmental


sustainability.

Transport in Europe is responsible for:


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about 30% of total energy consump6ons


for 27% of total Green-House Gas (GHG) emissions.

Objec6ve of sustainability in terms of urban mobility:


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to promote the public mass transport, instead of private one;


to make it eec6ve and of high quality in terms of energy
eciency and environmental impact.
4

Urban mass transport systems:


electric solu<ons
}

Necessity of more energy-ecient and environmental


sustainable transport solu<ons: electrical transport revival
versus internal combus6on engine (ICE) vehicles.

Dierent types of Electric Vehicles (EVs) as solu6on, with


diverse quality of service, in terms of poten6al vehicles
frequency (eet size), commercial speed, level of regularity,
level of security and safety.

Electric urban mass transport systems:


common requirements for dierent solu<ons
}

High reliability to guarantee: regularity of service and lower


opera6onal costs.

Good power-to-weight ra<o to ensure: less wear, lower


energy costs, lower maintenance costs, smaller size of power
systems.

Safety to ensure protec6on of passengers from accidents.

Comfort for passengers.

Easiness in maintenance to guarantee services con6nuity in


case of fault.

Low costs in construc<on and opera<on.

Electric urban mass transport systems:


classica<on
}

A possible classica6on of public mobility systems based on


Electric Vehicles (EVs) can be referred to the type of
infrastructure:
}

EVs on road: electric cars, electric buses, electric trolley-buses.

EVs by rail: electric trams, electric light rail and electric metro-
transit.

Each transport system has its own par6cular eld of using, as a


func6on of the poten<al transporta<on demand and local
condi<ons.

Electric urban mass transport systems:


classica<on
Type of mass transport

Capacity
[n. of passengers/h per way]

Bus and trolley-bus

2.000 4.000

Tram

6.000 15.000

Light rail

6.000 15.000

Automa6c light rail

10.00025.000

Tradi<onal metro-transit

20.00045.000

Buses and trolley-buses line can have the same transport capacity,
measured as number of passengers/h per way. This value can be increased
choosing trams, light rails and metro-transit systems.
8

Electric urban mass transport systems:


territory, environmental and economic issues

The choice of the urban mass mobility system is strictly linked to


the service to oer and to energy eciency aspects, the
planning is also very inuenced by:
}

level of integra<on of the transport system with the other


citys infrastructures (territory compa<bility);

environmental aspects (air and noise pollu<on);

economic features.

Electric urban mass transport systems:


territory, environmental and economic issues
}

The compa<bility with the territory of a transport solu6on is


strongly related to the infrastructure and supplying system of the
vehicles.
}

Buses: on road path in common with private transport.

Trolley-buses: on road path and presence of power systems for


supplying.

Trams, light rail and tradi<onal metro-transit: presence of rails and


power systems for supplying.

Electric urban mass transport systems:


territory, environmental and economic issues
}

Another important feature in the planning of the public mass transport is the
environmental impact, which aects the quality of life of ci6zens, in terms of air
pollu<on and noise emission.

An EV is able to be a zero-emission vehicle in terms of local air pollu<on.

Noise pollu<on is not only responsible for the degrada6on of the urban life
quality, but it is also capable of producing physical, psychological and social
damage.
Vehicle Type
Noise Level [dB]
ICE Bus
70-80
Trolley-bus
60- 78
Tram
78-82
Light Rail
70-80
Metro-transit
75-80

Electric urban mass transport systems:


territory, environmental and economic issues
}

In an economic comparison, the main cost items that


have to be considered are:
}

xed costs related to construc6on of specic and dedicated


infrastructure;

xed costs related to the single vehicle and to the eet;

opera<ng costs related to the energy consump6ons;

opera<ng costs related to the line management (including the


drivers salary, insurance charges, vehicles parking);

opera<ng costs related to maintenance.


12

Electric urban mass transport systems:


territory, environmental and economic issues
}

An economic comparison is really hard to be simply


shown and summarized.

A good reference with a complete economical


assessment for dierent transport systems is:
}

P. M. Condon and K. Dow, A Cost Comparison of


Transporta<on Modes in Founda;onal Research Bulle;n On
Sustainability By Design, No. 7, November 2009.

13

Electric urban mass transport systems:


territory, environmental and economic issues
}

The capital cost of a metro-transit system is very high and public


nancing is usually required: capital investments are oHen nanced by
taxa6on and by passenger fares.

Most of the metro-transit systems are publicly owned, by local transit


authori6es, and operated by a private company through a public service
obliga<on.

The opera<on cost is strongly linked to the energy consump<on.

Nevertheless metro-transit seems to be a good alterna<ve to an


extensive road ICE transport system with many motorways: the metro-
transit systems allow higher capacity with minor use of the territory, less
environmental impact and a lower cost for a given transport capacity.
14

Electric urban mass transport systems:


metro-transit lines
}

In the last years, there was a revival of aken6on of the


industries and research centres in Europe about the metro-
transit transport systems.

Many studies and projects, dealing with proposals on:

upgrading ac6ons,

new technologies,

new management techniques.

Energy eciency in metro-transit systems became a global


concern and a key topic.
15

Outline

An introduc6on on electrical urban mass transport

Metro-transit systems: main features

Power systems for metro-transit:


}

Supplying architecture, trac6on line and electrical sub-sta6ons

Metro-trains

Energy saving issues in metro-transit transport

Design&sizing basics and some 6ps on simula6on soHware

Metro-transit system in Rome: an example of real


applica6on
16

Metro-transit systems:
deni<ons
}

A metro-transit system is a public transport in urban areas with


high capacity, high frequency, high speed and separated from
other trac.

It is unchallenged in its ability to transport large amounts of


people quickly over short distances with a limited use of land.

Metro-transit systems typically use electric trains on rail tracks.


Only few systems use other systems, like guided rubber tyres or
magne<c levita<on.
17

Metro-transit systems:
deni<ons
}

Metro-transit and Rapid-transit are the most common


names.

Metro-transit systems are typically located in


underground tunnels or elevated levels above street
(viaducts): the use of tunnels inspires names such as
subway, underground, while the use of viaducts inspires
names such as elevated , sky-train or over-ground.

18

Metro-transit systems:
history
}

The rst metro-transit system was the Metropolitan Railway


opened in 1863, as part of London Underground. Its oldest
sec6ons has been completed 150 years later (January 2013).

In 1868 New York opened the elevated West Side and Yonkers
Patent Railway.

The technology quickly spread to other ci6es in Europe and the


United States with some lines converted from steam to be
electric.

There were 19 systems by 1940 and 66 by 1984.

On April 2014, there are 168 metro-transit systems in 55


countries in the world.
19

Metro-transit systems:
some worldwide <ps
}

The world's largest metro-transit system:


}

by length of routes and number of sta<ons, is New York


City Subway;

by length of lines, are Seoul Metropolitan Subway, Beijing


Subway, Shanghai Metro and London Underground;

by daily and annual ridership, are Tokyo subway system,


Seoul Metropolitan Subway and Moscow Metro.

20

Metro-transit systems:
safety and security

Compared to other modes of transport, rapid transit has a


good safety record, with few accidents.

Rail transport is subject to severe safety regula6on, with


requirements for opera6on and maintenance procedures to
minimize risk.

Head-on collisions are rare due to use of double tracks, and


low opera6ng speeds reduce the occurrence and severity of
rear-end collisions and derailments.

Fire is one of the rst dangers (underground environment).


21

Metro-transit systems:
safety and security
}

Rapid transit facili6es are public spaces and may suer from
security problems: peky crimes, such as pickpocke6ng and baggage
theH, and more serious violent crimes.

Rapid transit systems have been subject to terrorism with many


casual6es, such as the 1995 Tokyo subway Sarin gas akack and the
2005 terrorist bombings on the London Underground.

Security measures include video surveillance, security guards, etc. In


some countries a metro-transit police may be established.

The security measures are normally integrated with measures to


protect revenue by checking that passengers are not travelling
without paying.
22

Metro-transit systems:
tracks and crew
}

Metro-transit trains are electric vehicles composed by mul6ple


units with lengths from three to over ten cars.

Metro-trains generally run on conven<onal steel railway tracks.

Some metro-lines use rubber <res for specic issues (i.e.


Montreal Metro and Mexico City Metro and some lines in the
Paris Mtro): Rubber 6res allow steeper gradients and a soHer
ride, but have higher maintenance costs and are less energy
ecient. They also miss trac6on when weather condi6ons are
wet or icy.

Crew sizes have decreased throughout history, with some


modern systems now running completely unstaed trains.
23

Outline
}

An introduc6on on electrical urban mass transport

Metro-transit systems: main features

Power systems for metro-transit:


}

Supplying architecture, trac<on line and electrical sub-sta<ons

Metro-trains

Energy saving issues in metro-transit transport

Design&sizing basics and some 6ps on simula6on soHware

Metro-transit system in Rome: an example of real


applica6on
24

Power systems for metro-transit:


supplying architecture
}

For metro-trains, conven6onally running on steel railway tracks,


supplying power system at 1.500, 750 or 600 V DC can be achieved
with:
}

Overhead line (trac<on line);

Third rail.

In both cases the track rail is used as return circuit for the trac6on
current.

In few cases (London Underground at 630 V, or Milan Metro-line 1


at 750 V) a dedicated fourth rail is employed as return circuit.

Some special system of supplying (lateral guide bars) are employed


for metro-transit with rubber <res (Paris, Mexico, Montreal).

25

Power systems for metro-transit:


supplying architecture
Voltage

Current

Supplying systems

Loca<on

Paris
Lateral guide bars
750

DC

Mexico City

Third and fourth rail


630

Montreal

Milan
London
26

Power systems for metro-transit:


supplying architecture
}

The third rail is a ground-level power


supply system instead of the overhead
line.

In opera6ng terms, the third rail


routes need special protec<on to be
completely safe, because of the
greater risk of it being touched at
ground level.

The same considera6ons are worth for


the fourth rail.
27

Power systems for metro-transit:


supplying architecture
}

The overhead line (trac<on line) is the most common system


for supplying metro-trains and is used to transmit electrical
energy to metro-trains at a distance from the main supply
points, that are the trac<on electrical sub-sta<ons (ESSs),
usually fed from a main electrical grid, operated by the local
u6lity.

Trac<on line is composed by one or more wires situated over


rail tracks, raised to a DC voltage by Electrical Sub-Sta<ons
(ESSs).

28

Power systems for metro-transit:


supplying architecture
}

To achieve good current collec6on from the


overhead line, it is necessary to keep the contact
wire geometry within dened limits.

This is usually achieved by suppor6ng the contact


wire by a second wire, known as the messenger
wire (US & Canada) or catenary (Europe).

The messenger wire is akached to the contact


wire at regular intervals by ver<cal wires, known
as droppers or drop wires.

The messenger wire is supported regularly at


structures by pulleys, links and clamps. The
whole system is then subjected to a mechanical
tension.

29

Power systems for metro-transit:


supplying architecture
}

}
}

For high values of current it is possible to have a double contact wire, a


double messenger or an addi<onal wire, known as feeder that is
generally located on the same pole and operated in parallel with the
others.
It is used just to increase the global sec6on of the forward circuit.
For high values of the trac6on current, the overhead line can be replaced
by a thick bar.
(1) Contact wire
(2) Messenger
(3) Addi6onal wire (feeder)
(4) Rail
(5) Lightning protec6on system (op6onal)
(6) Ground wire

(3)
(6)

(5)
(2)
(1)

(4)

30
30

Power systems for metro-transit:


supplying architecture
}

Electric trains use as device to collect


power from the overhead line a
system named pantograph.

The current collectors are electrically


conduc6ve and allow current to ow
through to the train and back to the
feeder sta<on through the steel
wheels on one or both running rails.

The device presses against the


underside of the lowest wire of the
overhead line.
31

Power systems for metro-transit:


supplying architecture
}

A trac<on electrical sub-sta<on (ESS) is a system that converts


electric power, provided by the public u6lity service, to the
appropriate voltage and current type (DC) to supply the trac6on
line, for the feeding of metro-trains.

It has to be equipped with all the items necessary to decrease


the voltage level (commonly 1.5 kV) and to rec6fy AC into DC.

The main components are the power transformer and the solid-
state rec<er system.

32

Power systems for metro-transit:


supplying architecture
SATp

Ig

Tg

Sm

Sp

Lf

Cf

JL

Sa

alla linea
di contatto

Rp
Cp

Sa

Sn

alle rotaie

+
-

SATP: disconnector in input on the primary HV or MV line ;

Ig: circuit breaker for the protec6on of the ESS from overcurrent: compressed air, oil or SF6.

Transforma6on/rec6er group, consis6ng of transformer Tg, disconnector Sm, rec6er R (capacitor Cp


and resistance Rp for the protec6on in case of inser6ons/disconnec6on of loads);

F: lter for harmonics due to rec6er (inductance Lf and capacitance Cf);

Sp and Sn: posi6ve and nega6ve disconnectors;

JL: line circuit breaker (DC special circuit breaker) with disconnectors Sp and Sa;

(+) posi6ve terminals connected to the contact line (-) nega6ve terminals connected to the rails.

Power systems for metro-transit:


supplying architecture

SATp

Ig

Tg

Sm

Sp

Lf

Cf

JL

Sa

alla linea
di contatto

Rp
Cp

Sa

Sn

alle rotaie

+
-

SATP: disconnector in input on the primary HV or MV line ;

Ig: circuit breaker for the protec<on of the ESS from overcurrent: compressed air, oil or SF6.

Power systems for metro-transit:


supplying architecture

SATp

Ig

Tg

Sm

Sp

Lf

Cf

JL

Sa

alla linea
di contatto

Rp
Cp

Sa

Sn

alle rotaie

+
-

Transforma<on/rec<er group, consis<ng of transformer Tg, disconnector Sm, rec<er R (capacitor


Cp and resistance Rp for the protec<on in case of inser<ons/disconnec<on of loads);

F: lter for harmonics due to rec<er (inductance Lf and capacitance Cf).

Power systems for metro-transit:


supplying architecture

SATp

Ig

Tg

Sm

Sp

Lf

Cf

JL

Sa

alla linea
di contatto

Rp
Cp

Sa

Sn

alle rotaie

+
-

JL: line circuit breaker (DC special circuit breaker) with disconnectors Sp and Sa;

(+) posi<ve terminals connected to the contact line (-) nega<ve terminals connected to the rails.

Power systems for metro-transit:


supplying architecture
SATp

Ig

Tg

Sm

Sp

Lf

+
Cp

Cf

JL

Sa

alla linea
di contatto

Rp
R

Sa

Sn

alle rotaie

+
-

For reliability reasons, more


than 1 group is present in
each ESS.
Special connec<on of the
p o w e r t r a n s f o r m e r
secondary windings and
power converters are used
for reducing harmonics.
37

Power systems for metro-transit:


supplying architecture
}

Upgrading ac6on on ESS: to make it


reversible, for giving them the
possibility to give back to the main
grid the power recovered during the
braking of the metro-trains.

Solu6ons with two converters: an


AC/DC (more powerful rec<er) and
a DC/AC (less power inverter).

Another possibility: storage systems


in ESS.
38

Power systems for metro-transit:


supplying architecture
}

Each EES is operated in parallel to the previous and the next one.

Each branch of trac6on line is supplied by the two ESSs at its terminals:
}

On each the double-end fed sec6on low voltage drops (and so low voltage
uctua6on on the main grid of the public u6lity) and low power losses
(higher eciency) are guaranteed.

In addi6on some points of parallel between the two routes are made
along the line.

39

Power systems for metro-transit:


supplying architecture
}

To guarantee the right management of the system also during a fault


occurrence in ESS or along the line, suitable switching and protec<on
devices have to be provided.

They are generally located in ESS and in the parallel points along the
line, and are equipped with maximum current, minimum voltage,
current gradient, direc6onal relays.

40

Outline
}

An introduc6on on electrical urban mass transport

Metro-transit systems: main features

Power systems for metro-transit:


}

Supplying architecture, trac6on line and electrical sub-sta6ons

Metro-trains

Energy saving issues in metro-transit transport

Design&sizing basics and some 6ps on simula6on soHware

Metro-transit system in Rome: an example of real


applica6on
41

Power systems for metro-transit:


train features
}

Trains for metro-lines can be equipped with:


}

DC electric drives: DC motors with chopper;

AC electric drives: AC motors with inverter.

Electric drives are able to perform a dynamic braking, that means the
conversion of kine6c energy into electricity, based on the capacity of
electric motors to also act as generators.

The use of this dynamic braking is widely spread in metro-lines, in couple


with fric<on braking.

The main advantages are to not generate wear and tear, dust, smell, heat
or sound.

Another poten6al advantage could be the energy saving in case of reuse


of regenerated power from the electric braking.
42

Power systems for metro-transit:


train features
}

In dynamic braking, the regenerated power may be:


}

dissipated in banks of variable resistors, controlled by a braking chopper


(dissipa<ve rheosta<c braking)

reused within the train and the transport network itself


(regenera<ve braking).
Eloss_ESS

EESS

EESS

ETR REC.ED

ETR REQ

ETR REC.BLE

43

Power systems for metro-transit:


train features
}

Dissipa<ve rheosta<c braking is a non-ecient way to


manage the energy produced by the motors during the
braking phase:
}

The recoverable energy is wasted in heat;

The heat produc6on is a problem in an underground environment,


like most of the metro transit systems: with the aim of
guaranteeing a good level of comfort, for metro-workers and
passengers, it involves an over-sizing of the tunnel and sta6on fan
plants with a consequent further growth in power consump6ons.

The presence of the rheostat on board implies an addi<onal weight


and costs, and is also a poten<al risk of re.
44

Power systems for metro-transit:


train features
}

For all these reasons and with current technology, the


regenera<ve braking seems to be a beker solu6on, also to
reduce energy consump6on in metro-transit.

Typically the recovered energy is primarily used to supply the


auxiliary and comfort func<ons of the vehicle itself. Then, the
energy surplus may be returned into the power supply line for
use of other vehicles within the same line.
Eloss_ESS

EESS

EESS

ETR REC.ED

ETR REQ

45
ETR REC.BLE

Power systems for metro-transit:


train features
}

However, DC trac<on grids could not be always


recep<ve: they are not always able to admit the recovered
braking energy.
}

The recovered energy can be sent back to the supply network


only when a simultaneous consump6on takes place, for instance
when another train is accelera6ng in the same electric sec6on.

To dissipate the regenerated energy that cannot be used


within the system, vehicles are anyway equipped with on-
board resistors. So the braking is called rheosta<c-
regenera<ve.
46

Power systems for metro-transit:


train features
}

This solu6on is implemented in most of the exis<ng metro-transit


systems all over the world.

The amount of recovered energy depends on service frequency,


train power proles, electric grid congura<on, track prole and
length of feed sec<ons and train auxiliary power.

Studies have pointed out that up to 40% of the consumed energy


could be fed back to catenary during the braking and however,
measurements show only 19% is eec<vely recovered.

The eec6ve line ability to receive the recovered energy cannot be


taken for granted.
47

Power systems for metro-transit:


train features
}

A substan6al share of the braking energy to be dissipated in heat


by means of on-board rheostats has as a rst consequence the
high reduc6on of the energy system eciency, with the above
said problem of heat produc6on in an underground
environment.

For these reasons, nowadays a lot of new studies and research


about eciency in metro-transit systems are focused on the
possibility to take a full advantage of the energy regenera<on
capability of the trains.

Many proposals regard the way to manage the trains energy


available by regenera<ve braking.
48

Outline
}
}
}

An introduc6on on electrical urban mass transport


Metro-transit systems: main features
Power systems for metro-transit:
}
}

Supplying architecture, trac6on line and electrical sub-sta6ons


Metro-trains

Energy saving issues in metro-transit transport


} Design&sizing basics and some 6ps on simula6on
soHware
} Metro-transit system in Rome: an example of real
applica6on
}

49

Energy saving issues


in metro-transit transport
}

A literature review on the topic of energy eciency in urban


metro transit systems points out the existence of dierent
approaches:
}

approaches based on the op<miza<on in the design and sizing of


the electric supplying system (sub-sta6on layout, trac6on line,
reversible substa6ons, storage systems, etc);

approaches based on the trac control both at the individual


train level (e.g. train performance control in terms of speed and
accelera6on proles) and at eet level (6metables, coordina6on
of individual cinema6c proles), and on-line centralized trac
regula6on.
50

Energy saving issues


in metro-transit transport
}

The proposals dealing with the braking energy recovering issue are
focus on dierent possibili6es:
}

to maximize the use by other trains running on the same line, op6mising
scheduled 6metables so as to synchronise accelera6on and decelera6on of
trains as far as possible (ATO systems) ;

to improve the recep<vity of the line, equipping ESS with DC/ AC inverters
(reversible ESS), so that the regenerated energy can be fed back to the
distribu6on network, which is naturally recep6ve: special contract with the
main grid u6lity;

to install storage devices in ESS or along the track that could absorb the
surplus regenerated energy or delivering it when required by trains
accelera6on: used for lines with relevant slopes (i.e. Naples, Bilbao, etc.);

to equip vehicles with energy storage systems that accumulate the excess
51
regenerated energy and release it for the next accelera6on phase.

Energy saving issues


in metro-transit transport
}

A. Gonzalez-Gil, R. Palacin, P. Baky, Sustainable urban rail systems: Strategies and technologies for op6mal
management of regenera6ve braking energy, Elsevier Journal on Energy Conversion and Management,
Vol. 75, 2013, pp. 374388.

C.M. P. Leunga, E: W.M. Lee, Es6ma6on of electrical power consump6on in subway sta6on design by
intelligent approach, Applied Energy. Vol. 101, January 2013, pp. 634643.

M. Domnguez, A. Fernndez-Cardador, A.P. Cucala, R.R. Pecharromn, "Energy savings in metropolitan


railway substa6ons through regenera6ve energy recovery and op6mal design of ATO speed proles", IEEE
Transac;ons on Automa;on Science and Engineering. July 2012, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 496-504.

W.S. Lin, J.W. Sheu, Op6miza6on of Train Regula6on and Energy Usage of Metro Lines Using an Adap6ve-
Op6mal-Control Algorithm, IEEE Transac;ons on Automa;on Science & Engineering 2011, vol. 8, issue 4
pp. 855-864.

M.C. Falvo, R. Lamedica, R. Bartoni, G. Maranzano, Energy management in metro-transit systems: An


Innova6ve Proposal Toward an integrated and sustainable urban mobility system including plug-in electric
vehicles, Electric Power Systems Research Journal. Volume 81, Issue 12, December 2011, pp. 2127-2138.

M. Miyatake, H. Ko, Op6miza6on of Train Speed Prole for Minimum Energy Consump6on, IEEJ
Transac;ons on Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 2010 vol. 5 issue 3, pp. 263-269.

F. Ruelland, K. Al-Haddad, "Reducing Subway's Energy", Proceedings Electrical Power Conference, 2007.
IEEE Canada 25-26 October 2007.
52

Energy saving issues


in metro-transit transport
}

To install energy storage devices on the train or at ESS can


make the system beker gathering energy saving and comfort
requirements.

In favour of these solu6ons, there is also the technological


evolu<on of the energy storage equipment that nowadays are
able to guarantee:
} higher values of specic energy,
}

higher values of specic power,

longer life cycle,

reduced environmental impact and cost and

beker dynamic performances.

53

Energy saving issues


in metro-transit transport
}

In addi6on, sta<onary storage in ESS could provide further


benets, such as:
}

to increase the system security, being an external source in


emergency that could supply trains, for reaching the nearest sta6on,
in case of failure of the main power supply;

to shave power peaks with consequent savings in investment costs


on the power system;

to get stable voltage prole on power line, with a consequence


decreasing in losses and an improvement in terms of power quality.

Only one drawback: feeding back the regenera6ve energy to


storage devices at ESS leads to addi<onal transmission losses.
54

Energy saving issues


in metro-transit transport
}

These losses are avoided placing the storage device on-board


vehicles, but the train mass is increased and addi6onal space is
needed in the vehicle.

The storage devices both in sta<onary and on board applica<on can


be:
}

ywheels, which have large dimensions and are usually rejected on-
board,

baperies which have a limited number of load cycles,

super-capacitors, preferred due to the dimensions of the storage and


easy to be adapted to dierent voltages, power and energy ranges
conguring the number of series or parallel banks. Moreover, their high-
power density makes them useful only in few cases.
55

Energy saving issues


in metro-transit transport
}

Concluding, the recovering of trains braking energy in storages


would allow a global energy saving, as beker as it is a good total
consump6ons percentage, with an addi<onal improvement in
case of op<miza<on of the same storage systems design.

Obviously this result depends on the main characteris6c of the


metro-line: power system layout, metro-line path, type of train,
trac scenario, etc...

In order to have an assessment of the real energy saving


guaranteed by the train braking recovering, it is necessary to
perform specic analysis with dedicated soqware on the single
cases.
56