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Transporta<on
and

Electrical
Power

Systems

Universidad

de
Oviedo

Semester 3 Power Systems for Electrical Transporta<on

Lecturer: Pablo Arboleya Arboleya

Graph Theory and Electrical Networks

the nature of the interconnec<ons between the nodes.

From this point of view, each network will be modelled by a

graph represen<ng its topology

Matrix representa<on of a graph

Describing a trac<on network using graphs

Node enumera<on criteria and adjacency matrix congura<on

Edge enumera<on criteria and node incidence matrix congura<on

elements called ver<ces or nodes and E is the set of elements

called edges.

Edges will be represented as e1,e2...ek

Each edge el, is iden<ed with a pair of nodes (i,j).

iden<ed with ordered pairs of nodes. Otherwise G is an

undirected or a non-oriented graph.

A graph G, is a simple graph if it has no self-loops or mul<-

edges (there is no edges star<ng and ending at the same

node).

Here in aUer, simple digraphs will be used.

A simple digraph G=(V,E), is represented in this gure.

In a digraph, the rst node of an edge will be called tail and

the second one head.

The direc<on of the edges will help us to dene a posi<ve

reference for the currents.

4

Where:

e4

V={1,2,3,4}

E={e1,
e2,
e3,
e4}

And:

e1
=
(1,2)

e2
=
(1,3)

e3
=
(3,2)

e4
=
(4,3)

e3

2

3

e2

e1

1

4

A subgraph H = (Vh,Eh) of a graph G = (Vg,Eg), is a graph

Where:

4

Vg={1,2,3,4}

Eg={e1,
e2,
e3,
e4}

e4

And:

Vh={2,3,4}

Eh={e3,
e4}

e3

e4

2

3

e2

e3

3

2

Subgraph
H=(Vh,Eh)

e1

1

Graph
G=(Vg,Eg)

5

that connects them.

The degree of a vertex (d(i)), is the number of edges

incident in it.

A leaf or pendant vertex is a vertex with degree one.

When working with digraphs, we can dis<nguish to

kinds of degree:

4

e4

e3

e2

In-degree (number of incoming edges)

number of edges is near |V|2

Otherwise, we can consider that the graph is Sparse

e1

1

a sink vertex is a vertex with out-degree zero.

The order of a graph (|V|), is dened by the number

of ver<ces.

e4

e3

3

A bipar6te graph G = (V, E) is a graph

into two subsets V1 and V2, such that

every edge of E has a vertex in V1 and

other in V2.

If it exists an edge (i,j) for every vertex i

of V1 and every vertex j of V2, the graph

is called complete bipar6te graph.

This kind of graphs can be also simple

digraphs and will be very useful for

describing the connec<ons between the

trains and other DC nodes.

v1

v2

Simple
Complete

Bipartite
Graph

e4

Graph G

modelling, we will use the union of

subgraphs to form the complete graph

of the system.

Therefore, being:

e3

2

3

e2

1

subgraphs of G = (V, E)

If G 1 G 2 =G, then G 1 and G 2 are

complementary subgraphs of G.

e1

e4

Graph
G1

3

e3

3

2

e2

e1

Graph
G2

1

For
a
graph
G
with
n
nodes
(graph
order)
the
matrix
with
dimension
(n,
n)

that
relates
the
connec<ons
between
nodes
is
formed
as
follows:

number of edges between i and j i j

i, j =

i= j

number of self - loops in i

However,
for
our
purposes,
all
graphs
will
be
simple
digraphs
so:

1 ( adjancency between i and j ) (i > j )

i, j =

0 othercases

Normally,
adjacency
matrices
are
dened
as
symmetric.
However,
in
this
case

they
are
dened
as
upper
triangular,
thus
the
redundant
informa<on
storage
is

avoided
allowing
greater
eciency
in
the
use
of
sparse
matrices.

4

e4

e3

2

3

e2

e1

1

=

0

1 1 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

0 0 0

In the same way, the graph G with n nodes and k edges is

as:

1

the tail of the edge i is the node j

0 othercases

e4

e3

2

=

0

1 1 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

0 0 0

1 1 0 0

1 0 1 0

=

0 1 1 0

0 0 1 1

e2

e1

1

10

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